Abstract

The phase shift on the reflection from a semitransparent electrode of a top-emitting organic light-emitting device is utilized in this paper to realize a deep blue emission with high efficiency. The phase shift could be adjusted by changing the thickness of Alq3 when it was deposited onto the semitransparent electrode of the device. Through simulation it is found that the blue shift of the resonant wavelength occurs in a certain range, which is concerned with Alq3 thickness and the cavity length between two reflective electrodes. According to the simulation, a blue top-emitting organic light-emitting device with a designed structure was demonstrated experimentally by using such a phase-shift adjustment layer. Finally, the device showed excellent performance both in efficiency (3.4 cd/A at 8 V) and Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage coordinates (0.13, 0.15). The brightness of the device reached 20 000 cd/m2.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, "An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2469-2471 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, and J. I. Han, "Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/253508/1.
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Han, C. Huang, and Z.-H. Lu, "Color tunable metal-cavity organic light-emitting diodes with fullerene layer," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093102 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/97/093102/1.
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, and J. I. Han, "Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/253508/1.
[CrossRef]

2005

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Han, C. Huang, and Z.-H. Lu, "Color tunable metal-cavity organic light-emitting diodes with fullerene layer," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093102 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/97/093102/1.
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, "An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2469-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2000

A. L. Burin and M. A. Ratner, "Exciton migration and cathode quenching in organic light emitting diodes," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4704-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, "Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 325-344 (1994), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349414550361.
[CrossRef]

Becker, H.

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burin, A. L.

A. L. Burin and M. A. Ratner, "Exciton migration and cathode quenching in organic light emitting diodes," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4704-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. E.

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, "An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2469-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-H.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. F.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, "Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 325-344 (1994), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349414550361.
[CrossRef]

Djurišiæ, A. B.

Friend, R. H.

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. I.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, and J. I. Han, "Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/253508/1.
[CrossRef]

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

S. Han, C. Huang, and Z.-H. Lu, "Color tunable metal-cavity organic light-emitting diodes with fullerene layer," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093102 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/97/093102/1.
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-F.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, A. T.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.

S. Han, C. Huang, and Z.-H. Lu, "Color tunable metal-cavity organic light-emitting diodes with fullerene layer," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093102 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/97/093102/1.
[CrossRef]

Huffaker, D. L.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, "Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 325-344 (1994), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349414550361.
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-W.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, and J. I. Han, "Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/253508/1.
[CrossRef]

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-C.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lei, C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, "Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 325-344 (1994), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349414550361.
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, "Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 325-344 (1994), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349414550361.
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-L.

Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, "An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2469-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Z.-H.

S. Han, C. Huang, and Z.-H. Lu, "Color tunable metal-cavity organic light-emitting diodes with fullerene layer," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093102 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/97/093102/1.
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y. L.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mitsas, C. L.

Moon, D. G.

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pode, R. B.

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, and J. I. Han, "Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/253508/1.
[CrossRef]

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
[CrossRef]

Rakiæ, A. D.

Ratner, M. A.

A. L. Burin and M. A. Ratner, "Exciton migration and cathode quenching in organic light emitting diodes," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4704-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siapkas, D. I.

Sun, J. X.

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tessler, N.

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M.

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, "An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2469-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. F.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-J.

Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. M.

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. L.

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-C. Wu, "An effective cathode structure for inverted top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2469-2471 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Lee, R. B. Pode, and J. I. Han, "Red electrophosphorescent top emission organic light-emitting device with Ca/Ag semitransparent cathode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 253508 (2006), http://link.aip.org/link/?APPLAB/89/253508/1.
[CrossRef]

H. J. Peng, J. X. Sun, X. L. Zhu, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, "High-efficiency microcavity top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes using silver anode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 073517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Appl. Phys.

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, A. T. Hu, and C. H. Chen, "Fabrication of blue top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Curr. Appl. Phys. 4, 663-666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. F. Chen, W. F. Xie, Y. L. Meng, P. Chen, Y. Zhao, and S. Y. Liu, "Effect of 2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline outcoupling layer on electroluminescent performances in top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 054506 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Han, C. Huang, and Z.-H. Lu, "Color tunable metal-cavity organic light-emitting diodes with fullerene layer," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 093102 (2005), http://link.aip.org/link/?JAPIAU/97/093102/1.
[CrossRef]

H. Becker, S. E. Burns, N. Tessler, and R. H. Friend, "Role of optical properties of metallic mirrors in microcavity structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2825-2829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

Q1. C.-C. Wu, C.-W. Chen, C.-L. Lin, and C.-J. Yang, "Advanced organic light-emitting devices for enhancing display performances," J. Disp. Technol. 1, 248-265 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

D. G. Deppe, C. Lei, C. C. Lin, and D. L. Huffaker, "Spontaneous emission from planar microstructures," J. Mod. Opt. 41, 325-344 (1994), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09500349414550361.
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

A. L. Burin and M. A. Ratner, "Exciton migration and cathode quenching in organic light emitting diodes," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 4704-4710 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

D. G. Moon, R. B. Pode, C. J. Lee, and J. I. Han, "Efficient red electrophosphorescent top-emitting organic light-emitting devices," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 121, 232-237(2005).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

S.-F. Hsu, C.-C. Lee, S.-W. Hwang, H.-H. Chen, C. H. Chen, and A. T. Hu, "Color-saturated and highly efficient top-emitting organic light-emitting," Thin Solid Films 478, 271-274 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagrams of top-emitting devices and equivalent layers of multi-structure cathodes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation of phase changes on the reflections of the top cathodes with various thicknesses of PSALs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulative emission spectra of top-emitting devices with cavity lengths of 90 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental emission spectra of a bottom-emitting device (open square) and a blue top-emitting device capped by various PSALs (solid line, 0 nm; dashed line, 50 nm; dotted line, 60 nm; dashed-dotted line, 70 nm). Inset: Comparison of numerical simulation spectra (open) and experimental (closed) emission spectra of devices without (square) and with (triangle) 60 nm thick Alq3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the PL spectra of Alq3 and the emission spectra of an experimental device without and with a 60 nm thick Alq3 PSAL. Inset: Absorbance curve of 60 nm thick Alq3.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the experimental reflectance and transmittance (inset) of multi-structure cathodes (Al/Ag) capped by PSALs of various thicknesses.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental current efficiency (left) and brightness (right) characteristics of the bottom-emitting device (BE) and top-emitting device with PSALs of various thicknesses. Inset: Corresponding voltage and current characteristics of devices.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Spectral dependence on viewing angles of device with 60 nm thick PSAL.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Simulative Resonant Wavelengths and Maximum Shifts Associated with Different Thicknesses of PSALs and Cavity Lengthsa

Tables Icon

Table 2. Simulative Brightness of a Top-emitting Device with Cavity Length of 90 nm

Equations (6)

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i 4 π d i n i ( λ ) λ φ top ( 0 , λ ) φ bot ( 0 , λ ) = 2 m π ,
r = η 0 Y η 0 + Y = r e i φ .
φ ( d r , n r ) { φ s = tan 1 { 2 n i ( λ ) cos θ i [ n m ( λ ) y k m ( λ ) x ] [ n m ( λ ) x + k m ( λ ) y ] 2 n i 2 ( λ ) cos θ i 2 + [ n m ( λ ) y k m ( λ ) x ] 2 } φ p = tan 1 { 2 n i ( λ ) cos θ i [ n m ( λ ) y + k m ( λ ) x ] n i 2 ( λ ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) + [ n m 2 ( λ ) k m 2 ( λ ) ] cos θ i 2 } } ,
I ( λ ) = T top [ 1 + R bot + 2 R bot cos ( 4 π z λ φ bot ) ] 1 + R bot R top 2 R bot R top cos ( 4 π L λ φ bot φ top ( n r , d r ) ) I 0 ( λ ) .
Δ λ = 1 ΔΦ { i 4 π d i [ n i ( 0 , λ + Δ λ ) n i ( 0 , λ ) ] λ ( Δ φ bot + Δ φ top ) } ,
ΔΦ = 2 m π + φ bot ( 0 , λ + Δ λ ) + φ top ( 0 , λ + Δ λ ) .

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