Abstract

We examined the optical properties such as propagation modes, focal length, side lobes, etc. of metallic subwavelength annular apertures (SAA) and used finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation to compare our experimental findings. Using two different metals, silver and tungsten, we examined the different optical transmission properties of the two metallic SAA structures. The far-field propagation of the silver SAA structure was found to be a type of quasi-Bessel beam when compared with a quasi-Bessel beam generated by a perfect axicon. The propagation characteristics of these two beams were found to match qualitatively. The far-field transmitted light generated by the silver SAA structure was found to possess a 390nm sub-micron focal spot with a 24μm depth of focus, which was much smaller than the focal spot generated by a perfect axicon. We also found that a silver SAA structure can generate a sub-micron quasi-Bessel beam that has a much lower far-field side-lobe when compared to that of non-diffraction beams generated by a tungsten SAA structure.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  6. L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Brzobohaty, T. Cizmar, and P. Zemanek, "High quality quasi-Bessel beam generated by round-tip axicon," Opt. Express 16, 12688-12700 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (3)

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Directional light beaming control by a subwavelength asymmetric surface structure," Opt. Express 15, 2585-2591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74, 235405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 3503-3511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Salvi, M. Roussey, F. I. Baida, M. P. Bernal, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, H. Maillotte, D. Van Labeke, A. Perentes, I. Utke, C. Sandu, P. Hoffmann, and B. Dwir, "Annular aperture arrays: study in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum," Opt. Lett. 30, 1611-1613 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500-4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahluwalia, B. P. S.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baida, F. I.

Belkhir, A.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernal, M. P.

Blumberg, G.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74, 235405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brzobohaty, O.

Chang, C. K.

Chang, Y. C.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 3503-3511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T. D.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Directional light beaming control by a subwavelength asymmetric surface structure," Opt. Express 15, 2585-2591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. C.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cizmar, T.

Degiron, A.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durnin, J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwir, B.

Ebbesen, T. W.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500-4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eberly, J. H.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friberg, A. T.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500-4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haftel, M. I.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74, 235405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, P.

Huang, K. T.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julie, G.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. C.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, C. H.

Lalanne, P.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamrous, O.

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. K.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Directional light beaming control by a subwavelength asymmetric surface structure," Opt. Express 15, 2585-2591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 3503-3511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500-4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liaw, J. W.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. Z.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Directional light beaming control by a subwavelength asymmetric surface structure," Opt. Express 15, 2585-2591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 3503-3511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. W.

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

Liu, Z. W.

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maillotte, H.

Martin-Moreno, L.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500-4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathet, V.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McArdle, N.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miceli, J. J.

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mortier, M.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mussot, A.

Niu, H. B.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perentes, A.

Pikus, Y.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roussey, M.

Salvi, J.

Sandu, C.

Schlockermann, C.

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74, 235405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scott, G.

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sylvestre, T.

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turunen, J.

Utke, I.

Van Labeke, D.

Vasara, A.

Wang, H.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. L.

Yeh, C. S.

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, T. D. Cheng, C. K. Chang, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Directional light beaming control by a subwavelength asymmetric surface structure," Opt. Express 15, 2585-2591 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Z. Lin, C. K. Chang, Y. C. Chen, D. L. Yang, M. W. Lin, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. H. Kuan, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Beaming light from a subwavelength metal slit surrounded by dielectric surface gratings," Opt. Express 14, 3503-3511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, J. T.

Yu, L. B.

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. C.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zemanek, P.

Zhang, L. S.

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

J. M. Steele, Z. W. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664-5670 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500-4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Z. Lin, C. H. Chen, C. K. Chang, T. D. Cheng, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Subwavelength nondiffraction beam generated by a plasmonic lens," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 233106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Cheong, B. P. S. Ahluwalia, X. C. Yuan, L. S. Zhang, H. Wang, H. B. Niu, and X. Peng, "Fabrication of efficient microaxicon by direct electron-beam lithography for long nondiffracting distance of Bessel beams for optical manipulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 024104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Role of cylindrical surface plasmons in enhanced transmission," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 193104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 25, 2271-2276 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

Z. W. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, "Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays," Nature 391, 667-669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Scott and N. McArdle, "Efficient generation of nearly diffraction-free beams using an axicon," Opt. Eng. 31, 2640-2643 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

F. I. Baida, A. Belkhir, D. Van Labeke, and O. Lamrous, "Subwavelength metallic coaxial waveguides in the optical range: Role of the plasmonic modes," Phys. Rev. B 74, 205419 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Yu, D. Z. Lin, Y. C. Chen, Y. C. Chang, K. T. Huang, J. W. Liaw, J. T. Yeh, J. M. Liu, C. S. Yeh, and C. K. Lee, "Physical origin of directional beaming emitted from a subwavelength slit," Phys. Rev. B 71, 041405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Haftel, C. Schlockermann, and G. Blumberg, "Enhanced transmission with coaxial nanoapertures: Role of cylindrical surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 74, 235405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, "Near-field analysis of surface waves launched at nanoslit apertures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Durnin, J. J. Miceli, and J. H. Eberly, "Diffraction-Free Beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1499-1501 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture," Science 297, 820-822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik and G. Ghosh, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, San Diego, 1985), Chap. 3.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of our experimental set-up and (b) SEM image of the SAA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polarization state analysis in (a) silver SAA and (b) tungsten SAA channel under linearly polarized 442nm wavelength illumination (Note: the first column shows the near-field images, the second to fifth columns show the images after passing through the analyzer in the direction of the colored arrow, and the last column shows the total vector plots).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical images of transmitted light at different z cross-sections: (a) silver SAA and (b) tungsten SAA.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

FDTD simulation results of silver SAA: (a) intensity distribution of x-z cross-section and (b) intensity distribution of x-y cross-section at z=12μm (Note: inset shows the corresponding experimental results).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

FDTD simulation results of tungsten SAA: (a) intensity distribution of x-z cross-section and (b) intensity distribution of x-y cross-section at z=12μm (Note: inset shows the corresponding experimental results).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Normalized intensity distribution in the metallic SAA.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalized intensity distribution versus the x-position of silver SAA at z=20μm (FDTD simulation, solid red line), z=25μm (FDTD simulation, dashed blue line), z=20μm (experimental, dotted green line), and the fitted Bessel function (dash dotted black line) (Note: inset shows the normalized intensity vs. the z-position).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Schematic diagram of the ideal quasi-Bessel beam generated by an ideal axicon.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Intensity distribution versus the z-position of the silver SAA structure (solid red line) and perfect axicon (green dash dotted line).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Intensity distribution versus the x-position of the silver SAA structure (solid red line), tungsten SAA structure (dashed blue line) at z=12μm, and perfect axicon (dash dotted green line) at z =65μm.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α 0 = arcsin ( n n 0 cos τ 2 ) + τ π 2 .
I ( r , z ) = 4 Pk sin α 0 w 0 z z max exp ( 2 z 2 z max 2 ) J 0 2 ( kr sin α 0 ) ,

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