Abstract

High-order harmonic generation in the presence of a strong terahertz field is investigated, and phase stabilization of the few-cycle laser pulses is extended to the extremely ultraviolet region. It is found that the strong terahertz field significantly breaks the symmetry between the consecutive half-cycle and greatly extends the harmonic cutoff, producing both odd and even harmonics which are covered with an extremely broad bandwidth and well locked in phase. These results can support the generation of few-cycle attosecond pulse trains with stabilized carrier-envelope phase from pulse to pulse, and also enables the generation of phase-stabilized pulse train with tunable wavelength.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  22. W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. O. E. Alon1, V. Averbukh1, and N. Moiseyev, "Selection Rules for the High Harmonic Generation Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3743 - 3746 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-time consideration in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, "Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation," J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, "Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator," Phys. Rev. E 77, 046405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, "Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation," J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, "Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields," Opt. Express 15, 4577-4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T, Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, "Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, "Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes," Opt. Lett. 30, 2805-2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X  Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 1312-1314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-time consideration in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Loffler, T. Bauer, K. Siebert, H. Roskos, A. Fitzgerald, S. Czasch, "Terahertz dark-field imaging of biomedical tissue," Opt. Express 9, 616-621 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

O. E. Alon1, V. Averbukh1, and N. Moiseyev, "Selection Rules for the High Harmonic Generation Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3743 - 3746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. D. Ferr, J. A. Fleck, JR., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrˇodinger equation by a spectral method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Abbot, D.

Agostini, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alon, O. E.

O. E. Alon1, V. Averbukh1, and N. Moiseyev, "Selection Rules for the High Harmonic Generation Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3743 - 3746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Apolonski, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aug, F.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltu?ska, A.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Baltuska, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

Bauer, T.

Breger, P.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, W.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carnahan, M. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christen, H. M.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cole, B. E.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czasch, S.

Dai, J.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Silvestri, S.

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drescher, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Ferencz, K.

Ferguson, B.

Ferr, M. D.

M. D. Ferr, J. A. Fleck, JR., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrˇodinger equation by a spectral method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A.

Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Ferr, J. A. Fleck, JR., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrˇodinger equation by a spectral method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gaal, P.

Gaarde, M. B.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, "Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation," J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-time consideration in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glownia, J. H.

Gohle, Ch.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goulielmakis, E.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gray, D.

Gustafsson, E.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H¨ansch, T. W.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansch, T. W.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinzmann, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, M.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, W.

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnsson, P.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaindl, R. A.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kienberger, R.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

King, B. T.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kleineberg, U.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L¨offler, T.

L’Huillier, A.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lan, P.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Q.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lowndes, D. H.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mauritsson, J.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Muller, H. G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T, Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, "Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nisoli, M.

Orenstein, J.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paranthaman, M.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paul, P. M.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

Rodriguez, G.

Roskos, H.

Sartania, S.

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, "Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation," J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-time consideration in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuessler, H. A.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scrinzi, A.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

H. Wu, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, "Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator," Phys. Rev. E 77, 046405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M. S.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, T.

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T, Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, "Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siebert, K.

Spielmann, Ch.

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipocs, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, C. R.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Ferr, J. A. Fleck, JR., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrˇodinger equation by a spectral method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

Szipocs, R.

Tate, J. L.

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, "Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation," J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Tempea, G

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toma, E. S.

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wang, X.

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, J. B.

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woerner, M.

Wu, H.

H. Wu, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, "Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator," Phys. Rev. E 77, 046405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, H.

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Wu, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, "Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator," Phys. Rev. E 77, 046405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X

Zhang, X.-C.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. D. Ferr, J. A. Fleck, JR., and A. Steiger, "Solution of the Schrˇodinger equation by a spectral method," J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412-433 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

W. Hong, P. Lu,W. Cao, P. Lan, and X. Wang, "Control of quantum paths of high-order harmonics and attosecond pulse generation in the presence of a static electric field," J. Phys. B 40, 2321-2331 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, J. L. Tate, and K. J. Schafer, "Macroscopic aspects of attosecond pulse generation," J. Phys. B 41, 132001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (4)

A. Baltuska, Th. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis,Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields," Nature (London) 421, 611-615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature (London) 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Gohle,Th. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, T. W. Hansch, "A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet," Nature (London) 436, 234-237 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Cole, J. B. Williams, B. T. King, M. S. Sherwin, C. R. Stanley, "Coherent manipulation of semiconductor quantum bits with terahertz radiation," Nature (London) 410, 60 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Q. Liao, P. Lu, P. Lan, W. Cao, and Y. Li, "Phase dependence of high-order above-threshold ionization in asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A,  77, 013408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Wu, Z. Sheng, and J. Zhang, "Single-cycle powerful megawatt to gigawatt terahertz pulse radiated from a wavelength-scale plasma oscillator," Phys. Rev. E 77, 046405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

A. Apolonski, A. Poppe, G . Tempea, Ch. Spielmann, Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hansch, and F. Krausz, "Controlling the Phase Evolution of Few-Cycle Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 740-743 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. E. Alon1, V. Averbukh1, and N. Moiseyev, "Selection Rules for the High Harmonic Generation Spectra," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3743 - 3746 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde and K. J. Schafer, "Space-time consideration in the phase locking of high harmonics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 213901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Kaindl, M. A. Carnahan, J. Orenstein, D. S. Chemla, H. M. Christen, H. Zhai, M. Paranthaman and D. H. Lowndes, "Far-infrared optical conductivity gap in superconducting MgB2 films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023001 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, "Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, "Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 031001 (2006).
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P. B. Corkum, "Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nabekawa, T. Shimizu, T, Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, "Interferometric autocorrelation of an attosecond pulse train in the single cycle regime," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 153904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, "Carrier-Envelope Phase Control of Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers and Direct Optical Frequency Synthesis," Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Paul, E. S. Toma, P. Breger, G. Mullot, F. Aug, Ph. Balcou, H. G. Muller, and P. Agostini, "Observation of a Train of Attosecond Pulses from High Harmonic Generation," Science 292, 1689-1692 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

P. Lan, P. Lu, W. Cao, Y. Li, and X. Wang, "Carrier-envelope phase-stabilized attosecond pulses from asymmetric molecules," Phys. Rev. A 76, 021801(R) (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sherwin, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, and P. H. Bucksbaum, DOE-NSF-NIH Workshop on Opportunities in THz Science.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) electron trajectories of HHG in one-color driving field. Blue dots and blue crosses present the ionization and the recombination times, respectively. (b) electron trajectories of HHG in the presence of a strong THz field with the 15% peak intensity of the driving pulse. Blue dots and blue crosses present the ionization and the recombination times for the electron’s first return, and red dots and red circles present the ionization and the recombination times for the electron’s second return, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The harmonic spectrum in the presence of a strong THz field with 15% peak intensity of the driving pulse (red line) and in the driving pulse alone(blue line). The intensity of the driving pulse is 3 × 1014 W/cm 2. (b) Detail structure (blue line) of the spectrum and the harmonic phases as a function of harmonic orders.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Normalized phase-locking degree of the harmonics in the presence of a strong THz field (open squares) and in one-color driving pulse (closed circles). The parameters are the same as in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a)The temporal shape and (b) the electric waveform of the attosecond pulse train in one-color driving pulse via synthesizing the harmonics near the cutoff. The parameters are the same as in Fig. 2(a).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)The temporal shapes of the attosecond pulse train in the presence of a strong THz field via synthesizing the harmonics from 75th–85th (red line), 120th–130th (grey line) and 69th–105th (blue line), respectively. (b)–(d) are the corresponding electric waveforms. The parameters are the same as in Fig. 2(a).

Equations (1)

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η = τ N dtI ( t ) T 0 / 2 dtI ( t ) ,

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