Abstract

We demonstrate a micrometer-scale electro-optic modulator operating at 2.5 Gbps and 10 dB extinction ratio that is fabricated entirely from deposited silicon. The polycrystalline silicon material exhibits properties that simultaneously enable high quality factor optical resonators and sub-nanosecond electrical carrier injection. We use an embedded p+n-n+ diode to achieve optical modulation using the free carrier plasma dispersion effect. Active optical devices in a deposited microelectronic material can break the dependence on the traditional single layer silicon-on-insulator platform and help lead to monolithic large-scale integration of photonic networks on a microprocessor chip.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (10)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fédéli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, and S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Express 16, 334-339 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G. R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing," Opt. Express 16, 11027-11031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-B. You, M. Park, J.-W. Park, and G. Kim, "12.5 Gbps optical modulation of silicon racetrack resonator based on carrier-depletion in asymmetric p-n diode," Opt. Express 16, 18340-18344 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators," Nat. Photonics. 2, 433-437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fang, J. F. Song, S. H. Tao, M. B. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, "Low loss (~6.45dB/cm) sub-micron polycrystalline silicon waveguide integrated with efficient SiON waveguide coupler," Opt. Express 16, 6425-6432 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, "High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, "Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-µm radius," Opt. Express 16, 4309-4315 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

2006 (1)

A. W. Topol, J. D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, "Three-dimensional integrated circuits," IBM J. Res. and Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, R. C. Williamson, and T. M. Lyszczarz, "Submicrosecond submilliwatt silicon-on-insulator thermooptic switch," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2514-2516 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

G. K. Celler and S. Cristoloveanu, "Frontiers of silicon-on-insulator," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4955-4978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Karnik and M. K. Hatalis, "Lateral polysilicon p+-p-n+ and p+-n-n+ diodes," Solid-State Electron. 47, 653-659 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Banerjee, S. J. Souri, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, "3-D ICs: a novel chip design for improving deep-submicrometer interconnect performance and systems-on-chip integration," Proc. IEEE 89, 602-633 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, "Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips," Proc. IEEE 88, 728-749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

C. R. M. Grovenor, "Grain boundaries in semiconductors," J. Phys. C 18, 4079-4119 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

M. Dutoit and F. Sollberger, "Lateral Polysilicon p-n Diodes," J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1648-1651 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A. M.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D. H.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Amatya, R.

R. Amatya, C. W. Holzwarth, H. I. Smith, and R. J. Ram, "Precision Tunable Silicon Compatible Microring Filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1739-1741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, K.

K. Banerjee, S. J. Souri, P. Kapur, and K. C. Saraswat, "3-D ICs: a novel chip design for improving deep-submicrometer interconnect performance and systems-on-chip integration," Proc. IEEE 89, 602-633 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators," Nat. Photonics. 2, 433-437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, "Electrooptical effects in silicon," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 123-129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators," Nat. Photonics. 2, 433-437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bernstein, K.

A. W. Topol, J. D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, "Three-dimensional integrated circuits," IBM J. Res. and Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, "Photonic Networks-on-Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors," IEEE Trans. Comput. 57, 1246-1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Celler, G. K.

G. K. Celler and S. Cristoloveanu, "Frontiers of silicon-on-insulator," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4955-4978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, "Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS," Proc. SPIE 6898, 689804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, "Waveguide-integrated, ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators," Nat. Photonics. 2, 433-437 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

Ciftcioglu, B.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cristoloveanu, S.

G. K. Celler and S. Cristoloveanu, "Frontiers of silicon-on-insulator," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 4955-4978 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, "High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duan, X.

L. Liao, D. R. Lim, A. M. Agarwal, X. Duan, K. K. Lee, and L. C. Kimerling, "Optical transmission losses in polycrystalline silicon strip waveguides," J. Electron. Mater. 29, 1380-1386 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dutoit, M.

M. Dutoit and F. Sollberger, "Lateral Polysilicon p-n Diodes," J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1648-1651 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

Fattal, D.

Fédéli, J. M.

Ferrera, J.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J. S.

J. S. Foresi, P. R. Villeneuve, J. Ferrera, E. R. Thoen, G. Steinmeyer, S. Fan, J. D. Joannopoulos, L. C. Kimerling, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, "Photonic-bandgap microcavities in optical waveguides," Nature 390, 143-145 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frank, D. J.

A. W. Topol, J. D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, "Three-dimensional integrated circuits," IBM J. Res. and Dev. 50, 491-506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polysilicon electro-optic modulator device structure. (a) Top view schematic showing the doping regions of the device that form a p+-n--n+ diode around a ring resonator. (b) Tilted view colorized scanning electron microscope (SEM) image. The polysilicon resonator and 450 nm-wide bus waveguide are buried under 1 μm silicon dioxide. (c) Cross-section schematic of the device (not to scale).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

DC optical and electrical measurements. (a) Wavelength scan showing through port transmission for quasi-TM polarization with quality factor Q = λ0 /∆λFWHM = 3,400 and 16 dB extinction ratio. (b) Electrical IV curve demonstrating DC diode characteristics.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Electro-optic response of the polysilicon modulator. (a) Optical transmission and (b) frame-averaged optical eye diagram for NRZ 2.5 Gbps 27-1 PRBS signal. (c) Simulation of electro-optic response using bulk distributed material parameters τfc = 80 ps, μn = 100 cm2/Vs, and μp = 50 cm2/Vs.

Equations (1)

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R on = 1 q μ n w ( L slab h slab + L wg h wg )

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