Abstract

Phase sensing implementations of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) have demonstrated the ability to measure nanometer-scale temporal and spatial profiles of samples. However, the phase information suffers from a 2π ambiguity that limits observations of larger sample displacements to lengths less than half the source center wavelength. We introduce a synthetic wavelength phase unwrapping technique in SDOCT that uses spectral windowing and corrects the 2π ambiguity, providing accurate measurements of sample motion with information gained from standard SDOCT processing. We demonstrate this technique by using a common path implementation of SDOCT and correctly measure phase profiles from a phantom phase object and human epithelial cheek cells which produce multiple wrapping artifacts. Using a synthetic wavelength for phase unwrapping could prove useful in Doppler or other phase based implementations of OCT.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. O. W. Richards, "Phase Difference Microscopy," Nature 154, 672 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Gundlach, "Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology," Opt. Eng. 32, 3223-3228, (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Creath, "Phase-shifting speckle interferometry," Appl. Opt. 24, 3053-3058, (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293, (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. J. Mann, L. Yu, C. Lo, and M. K. Kim, "High-resolution quantitative phase-contrast microscopy by digital holography," Opt. Express 13, 8693-8698, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J.C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2503-2505, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Quantitative phase imaging of live cells using fast Fourier phase microscopy," Appl. Opt. 46, 1836-1842, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M.S. Feld, "Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 1165-1167, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894, (2003).
  11. J.F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
  13. M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. Cense, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2131-2133, (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).
  17. A. K. Ellerbee, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Investigating nanoscale cellular dynamics with cross-sectional spectral domain phase microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 8115 - 8124, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. C. Ghilglia and M. D. Pritt, Two Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software. (Wiley, 1998)
  19. C.K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Leitgeb, and A.F. Fercher, "Differential phase measurements in low-coherence interferometry without 2π ambiguity," Opt. Lett. 26, 1864-1866, (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. R. Tilford, "Analytical procedure for determining lengths from fractional fringes," Appl. Opt. 16, 1857-1860 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Cheng and J. C. Wyant, "Two-wavelength phase shifting interferometry," Appl. Opt. 23,4539-4543 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2π ambiguity by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143, (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Kuhn, T. Colomb, F. Montfort, F. Charrière, Y. Emery, E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, "Real-time dual-wavelength digital holographic microscopy with a single hologram acquisition," Opt. Express 15, 7231-7242, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Tamano, M. Otaka, Y. Hayasaki, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8844-8847 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Warnasooriya and M.K. Kim, "LED-based multi-wavelength phase imaging interference microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 9239-9247, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Yang, A. Wax, R.R. Dasari, and M.S. Feld, "2π ambiguity-free optical distance measurement with subnanometer precision with a novel phase-crossing low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 27, 77-79, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. L. Marks, S.C. Schlachter, A.M. Zysk, and S.A. Boppart, "Group refractive index reconstruction with broadband interferometric confocal microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1156-1164 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. Tripathi, N Nassif, J. S. Nelson, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral shaping for non-Gaussian source spectra in optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 406-408, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D.L. Marks, P.S. Carney, and S.A. Boppart, "Adaptive spectral apodization for sidelobe reduction in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1281-1287 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. Khmaladze, A. Restrepo-Martínez, M.K. Kim, R. Castañeda, and A. Blandón, "Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Reflection Digital Holography Applied to the Study of the Porous Coal Samples," Appl. Opt. 47, 3203-3210 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. K. Ellerbee and J.A. Izatt, "Phase retrieval in low-coherence interferometric microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 388-390, (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J.A. Izatt and M.A. Choma, "Theory of Optical Coherence Tomography," in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler and J.G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008).
  33. D.R. Lide, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001-2002).
  34. T. Doi, K. Toyoda, and Y. Tanimura, "Effects of phase changes on reflection and their wavelength dependence in optical profilometry," Appl. Opt. 36, 7157-7161, (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (6)

2006 (1)

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

2004 (2)

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J.C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2503-2505, (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.L. Marks, P.S. Carney, and S.A. Boppart, "Adaptive spectral apodization for sidelobe reduction in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1281-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

H. Gundlach, "Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology," Opt. Eng. 32, 3223-3228, (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

1977 (1)

1944 (1)

O. W. Richards, "Phase Difference Microscopy," Nature 154, 672 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Akkin, T.

Applegate, B. E.

Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).

Badizadegan, K.

Best, C. A.

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bevilacqua, F.

Blandón, A.

Boppart, S.A.

D. L. Marks, S.C. Schlachter, A.M. Zysk, and S.A. Boppart, "Group refractive index reconstruction with broadband interferometric confocal microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 1156-1164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.L. Marks, P.S. Carney, and S.A. Boppart, "Adaptive spectral apodization for sidelobe reduction in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1281-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

Carney, P.S.

D.L. Marks, P.S. Carney, and S.A. Boppart, "Adaptive spectral apodization for sidelobe reduction in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1281-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Castañeda, R.

Cense, B.

Charrière, F.

Cheng, Y.

Choi, W.

Choma, M. A.

Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).

Colomb, T.

Creath, K.

Creazzo, T. L.

Cuche, E.

Dakoff, A.

Dasari, R. R.

Dasari, R.R.

de Boer, J. F.

de Boer, J.F.

Deflores, L. P.

Depeursinge, C.

Doi, T.

Ellerbee, A. K.

A. K. Ellerbee, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Investigating nanoscale cellular dynamics with cross-sectional spectral domain phase microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 8115 - 8124, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).

A. K. Ellerbee and J.A. Izatt, "Phase retrieval in low-coherence interferometric microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 388-390, (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

Feld, M. S.

Feld, M.S.

Fercher, A. F.

Fercher, A.F.

Gass, J.

Gundlach, H.

H. Gundlach, "Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology," Opt. Eng. 32, 3223-3228, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaki, Y.

S. Tamano, M. Otaka, Y. Hayasaki, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8844-8847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hitzenberger, C.K.

Ikeda, T.

Iwai, H.

Izatt, J. A.

A. K. Ellerbee, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Investigating nanoscale cellular dynamics with cross-sectional spectral domain phase microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 8115 - 8124, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).

Izatt, J.A.

Joo, C.

Khmaladze, A.

Kim, M. K.

Kim, M.K.

Kuhn, J.

Leitgeb, R.

Lo, C.

Lue, N.

Mann, C. J.

Marks, D. L.

Marks, D.L.

D.L. Marks, P.S. Carney, and S.A. Boppart, "Adaptive spectral apodization for sidelobe reduction in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1281-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marquet, P.

McDowell, E. J.

Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).

Montfort, F.

Nassif, N

Nelson, J. S.

Otaka, M.

S. Tamano, M. Otaka, Y. Hayasaki, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8844-8847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Popescu, G.

Restrepo-Martínez, A.

Richards, O. W.

O. W. Richards, "Phase Difference Microscopy," Nature 154, 672 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M. V.

Schlachter, S.C.

Sticker, M.

Tamano, S.

S. Tamano, M. Otaka, Y. Hayasaki, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8844-8847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, Y.

Tearney, G. J.

Tilford, C. R.

Toyoda, K.

Tripathi, R.

Vaughan, J.C.

Warnasooriya, N.

Wax, A.

Wyant, J. C.

Yang, C.

Yazdanfar, S.

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Zysk, A.M.

Appl. Opt. (6)

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Erythrocyte structure and dynamics quantified by Hilbert phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 060503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, S. Yazdanfar, and J. A. Izatt, "Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasm streaming using spectral domain phase microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 11,024014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Q1. E. J. McDowell, A. K. Ellerbee, M. A. Choma, B. E. Applegate, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral domain phase microscopy for local measurements of cytoskeletal rheology in single cells," J. Biomed. Opt.04400, (2007).

D.L. Marks, P.S. Carney, and S.A. Boppart, "Adaptive spectral apodization for sidelobe reduction in optical coherence tomography images," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1281-1287 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Tamano, M. Otaka, Y. Hayasaki, "Two-wavelength phase-shifting low-coherence digital holography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 8844-8847 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

O. W. Richards, "Phase Difference Microscopy," Nature 154, 672 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Gundlach, "Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology," Opt. Eng. 32, 3223-3228, (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (11)

A. K. Ellerbee and J.A. Izatt, "Phase retrieval in low-coherence interferometric microscopy," Opt. Lett. 32, 388-390, (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Gass, A. Dakoff, and M. K. Kim, "Phase imaging without 2π ambiguity by multiwavelength digital holography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1141-1143, (2003)
[CrossRef]

J.F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069, (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J.C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics," Opt. Lett. 29, 2503-2505, (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M.S. Feld, "Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems," Opt. Lett. 30, 1165-1167, (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Joo, T. Akkin, B. Cense, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 30, 2131-2133, (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, R. Leitgeb, and A.F. Fercher, "Differential phase measurements in low-coherence interferometry without 2π ambiguity," Opt. Lett. 26, 1864-1866, (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Yang, A. Wax, R.R. Dasari, and M.S. Feld, "2π ambiguity-free optical distance measurement with subnanometer precision with a novel phase-crossing low-coherence interferometer," Opt. Lett. 27, 77-79, (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Tripathi, N Nassif, J. S. Nelson, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, "Spectral shaping for non-Gaussian source spectra in optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 27, 406-408, (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Cuche, F. Bevilacqua, and C. Depeursinge, "Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging," Opt. Lett. 24, 291-293, (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

J.A. Izatt and M.A. Choma, "Theory of Optical Coherence Tomography," in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler and J.G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008).

D.R. Lide, ed. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, (CRC Press, 2001-2002).

D. C. Ghilglia and M. D. Pritt, Two Dimensional Phase Unwrapping: Theory, Algorithms, and Software. (Wiley, 1998)

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics