Abstract

We describe a new ultrahigh speed Spectral OCT instrument making use of a CMOS camera and demonstrate high quality in vivo imaging of the anterior segment of the human eye. The high flexibility of the designed imaging system allows a wide range of imaging protocols. Two- and three-dimensional high quality OCT images of the cornea, the anterior chamber and the crystalline lens are presented. A high acquisition rate, up to 135,000 A-scans/second enables three-dimensional reconstruction of the anterior segment during lenticular accommodation, blinking and pupillary reaction to light stimulus. We demonstrate OCT tomographic real time imaging of the lens dynamics during accommodation and high quality OCT cross-sectional images of the entire anterior segment of the eye from the cornea up to posterior part of the crystalline lens.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

W. Nolan, "Anterior segment imaging: ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 19, 115-121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, "Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 537-542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149-15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

C. Kerbage, H. Lim, W. Sun, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, "Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 15, 7117-7125 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. K. Wang, "In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Konstantopoulos, P. Hossain, and D. F. Anderson, "Recent advances in ophthalmic anterior segment imaging: a new era for ophthalmic diagnosis?," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 551-557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. J. Dupps, "Anterior segment imaging: New milestones, new challenges," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 32, 1779-1783 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, "Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging," J. Vision 6, 1057-1067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 1861-1865 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, "Theoretical comparison of the sensitivity of molecular contrast optical coherence tomography techniques," Opt. Express 13, 8146-8163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baikoff, E. Lutun, and C. Ferraz, "Static and dynamic analysis of the anterior segment with optical coherence tomography," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1843-1850 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by Spectra Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Appl. 32, 581-589 (2002).

2001

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

1998

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence Radar" and "Spectral Radar" - New Tools for Dermatological Imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, A.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiba, M.

Anderson, D. F.

A. Konstantopoulos, P. Hossain, and D. F. Anderson, "Recent advances in ophthalmic anterior segment imaging: a new era for ophthalmic diagnosis?," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 551-557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, G.

Applegate, B. E.

Asrani, S.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, "Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 537-542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baikoff, G.

G. Baikoff, E. Lutun, and C. Ferraz, "Static and dynamic analysis of the anterior segment with optical coherence tomography," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1843-1850 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
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M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Boppart, S. A.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
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Bouma, B. E.

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chan, K. P.

Chan, W. M.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
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Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chen, Z. P.

Choma, M. A.

Chong, C.

Christopoulos, V.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chui, S. I.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dada, T.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

Dhaliwal, D. K.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
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Drexler, W.

Dubbelman, M.

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, "Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging," J. Vision 6, 1057-1067 (2006).
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Duker, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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Dupps, W. J.

W. J. Dupps, "Anterior segment imaging: New milestones, new challenges," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 32, 1779-1783 (2006).
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Elzaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferraz, C.

G. Baikoff, E. Lutun, and C. Ferraz, "Static and dynamic analysis of the anterior segment with optical coherence tomography," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1843-1850 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fojt, W.

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149-15169 (2008).
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V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabriele, M. L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gadia, R.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149-15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, W.

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
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Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, V.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence Radar" and "Spectral Radar" - New Tools for Dermatological Imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
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Hee, M. R.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hossain, P.

A. Konstantopoulos, P. Hossain, and D. F. Anderson, "Recent advances in ophthalmic anterior segment imaging: a new era for ophthalmic diagnosis?," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 551-557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishikawa, H.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, M.

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, "Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 537-542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
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J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Kagemann, L.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, B. J.

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaluzny, J. J.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
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J. J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by Spectra Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Appl. 32, 581-589 (2002).

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

Kawana, K.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerbage, C.

Kiuchi, T.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, C. Y.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Konstantopoulos, A.

A. Konstantopoulos, P. Hossain, and D. F. Anderson, "Recent advances in ophthalmic anterior segment imaging: a new era for ophthalmic diagnosis?," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 551-557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by Spectra Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Appl. 32, 581-589 (2002).

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krawczynski, M. R.

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulkami, M. D.

Leitgeb, R.

Leung, C. K.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lim, H.

Lin, C. P.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence Radar" and "Spectral Radar" - New Tools for Dermatological Imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lutun, E.

G. Baikoff, E. Lutun, and C. Ferraz, "Static and dynamic analysis of the anterior segment with optical coherence tomography," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1843-1850 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madjarova, V. D.

Makita, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Mandal, S.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, "Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging," J. Vision 6, 1057-1067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Mori, H.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morosawa, A.

Mujat, M.

Nelson, J. S.

Nguyen, F. T.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolan, W.

W. Nolan, "Anterior segment imaging: ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 19, 115-121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshika, T.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pierce, M. C.

Pitris, C.

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Radzewicz, C.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rosales, P.

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, "Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging," J. Vision 6, 1057-1067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roth, J. E.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M. V.

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, "Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 537-542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sihota, R.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Srinivasan, V.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Sticker, M.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

Swanson, E. A.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowska, A.

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

Tsang, M. K.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tse, R. K.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usui, M.

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Heijde, R.

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, "Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging," J. Vision 6, 1057-1067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

vanGemert, M. J. C.

Wang, R. K. K.

R. K. K. Wang, "In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. J.

Wasilewski, W.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wawrocka, A.

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Welch, A. J.

Westphal, V.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wojtkowski, A.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wojtkowski, M.

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by Spectra Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Appl. 32, 581-589 (2002).

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wollstein, G.

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J.

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Yang, C. H.

Yasuno, Y.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 1861-1865 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yatagai, T.

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, S. Makita, T. Endo, G. Aoki, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Simultaneous B-M-mode scanning method for real-time full-range Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 1861-1865 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Zysk, A. M.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, A. Kowalczyk, W. Wasilewski, and C. Radzewicz, "Ophthalmic imaging by spectral optical coherence tomography," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 138, 412-419 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. K. K. Wang, "In vivo full range complex Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 054103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, D. Huang, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Micrometer-scale resolution imaging of the anterior eye in vivo with optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 112, 1584-1589 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, "Real-time optical coherence tomography of the anterior segment at 1310 nm," Arch. Ophthalmol. 119, 1179-1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

V. Christopoulos, L. Kagemann, G. Wollstein, H. Ishikawa, M. L. Gabriele, M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Duker, D. K. Dhaliwal, and J. S. Schuman, "In vivo corneal high-speed, ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 125, 1027-1035 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Asrani, and J. A. Izatt, "Imaging the ocular anterior segment with real-time, full-range Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography," Arch. Ophthalmol. 126, 537-542 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

A. Konstantopoulos, P. Hossain, and D. F. Anderson, "Recent advances in ophthalmic anterior segment imaging: a new era for ophthalmic diagnosis?," Br. J. Ophthalmol. 91, 551-557 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornea

B. J. Kałużny, A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, A. Wawrocka, M. R. Krawczynski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Granular corneal dystrophy in 830-nm Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography," Cornea 27, 830-832 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and P. Targowski, "Spectral Optical Coherence Tomography: A Novel Technique for Cornea Imaging," Cornea 25, 960-965 (2006).
[PubMed]

M. Miura, H. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Usui, K. Kawana, T. Oshika, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of granular corneal dystrophy," Cornea 26, 373-374 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol.

W. Nolan, "Anterior segment imaging: ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 19, 115-121 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

A. M. Zysk, F. T. Nguyen, A. L. Oldenburg, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, "Optical coherence tomography: a review of clinical development from bench to bedside," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 47-74 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hausler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence Radar" and "Spectral Radar" - New Tools for Dermatological Imaging," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg.

T. Dada, R. Sihota, R. Gadia, A. Aggarwal, S. Mandal, and V. Gupta, "Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasound biomicroscopy for assessment of the anterior segment," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33, 837-840 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Baikoff, E. Lutun, and C. Ferraz, "Static and dynamic analysis of the anterior segment with optical coherence tomography," J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30, 1843-1850 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract. Refract. Surg.

W. J. Dupps, "Anterior segment imaging: New milestones, new challenges," J. Cataract. Refract. Surg. 32, 1779-1783 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Glaucoma

M. Miura, K. Kawana, T. Iwasaki, T. Kiuchi, T. Oshika, H. Mori, M. Yamanari, S. Makita, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Three-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy," J. Glaucoma 17, 193-196 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vision

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and R. van der Heijde, "Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging," J. Vision 6, 1057-1067 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt.

B. J. Kaluzny, J. J. Kaluzny, A. Szkulmowska, I. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography: a new imaging technique in contact lens practice," Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 26, 127-132 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

C. K. Leung, W. M. Chan, C. Y. Ko, S. I. Chui, J. Woo, M. K. Tsang, and R. K. Tse, "Visualization of anterior chamber angle dynamics using optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 980-984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Appl.

J. J. Kałużny, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Imaging of the anterior segment of the eye by Spectra Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Appl. 32, 581-589 (2002).

Opt. Commun.

M. Szkulmowski, A. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, I. Gorczynska, P. Targowski, W. Wasilewski, A. Kowalczyk, and C. Radzewicz, "Quality improvement for high resolution in vivo images by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with supercontinuum source," Opt. Commun. 246, 569-578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Targowski, W. Gorczynska, M. Szkulmowski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Improved complex spectral domain OCT for in vivo eye imaging," Opt. Commun. 249, 357-362 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, N. Iftimia, and B. E. Bouma, "High-speed optical frequency-domain imaging," Opt. Express 11, 2953-2963 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. H. Yang, and J. A. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution high-speed Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Applegate, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, "Theoretical comparison of the sensitivity of molecular contrast optical coherence tomography techniques," Opt. Express 13, 8146-8163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, V. D. Madjarova, S. Makita, M. Akiba, A. Morosawa, C. Chong, T. Sakai, K. P. Chan, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, "Three-dimensional and high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo investigation of human anterior eye segments," Opt. Express 13, 10652-10664 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 3225-3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kerbage, H. Lim, W. Sun, M. Mujat, and J. F. de Boer, "Large depth-high resolution full 3D imaging of the anterior segments of the eye using high speed optical frequency domain imaging," Opt. Express 15, 7117-7125 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed spectral / Fourier domain OCT ophthalmic imaging at 70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149-15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography - limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 1745-1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kartner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 111-113 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, M. Wojtkowski, A. Kowalczyk, C. K. Hitzenberger, M. Sticker, and A. F. Fercher, "Spectral measurement of absorption by spectroscopic frequency-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 25, 820-822 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, D. Dave, and J. S. Nelson, "Optical Doppler tomographic imaging of fluid flow velocity in highly scattering media," Opt. Lett. 22, 64-66 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. De Boer, T. E. Milner, M. J. C. van Gemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Two-dimensional birefringence imaging in biological tissue by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 934-936 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Chen, T. E. Milner, S. Srinivas, X. J. Wang, A. Malekafzali, M. J. C. vanGemert, and J. S. Nelson, "Noninvasive imaging of in vivo blood flow velocity using optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1119-1121 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Izatt, M. D. Kulkami, S. Yazdanfar, J. K. Barton, and A. J. Welch, "In vivo bidirectional color Doppler flow imaging of picoliter blood volumes using optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 1439-1441 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci.

B. J. Kaluzny, W. Fojt, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, M. Wojtkowski, and A. Kowalczyk, "Spectral optical coherence tomography in video-rate and 3D imaging of contact lens wear," Optom. Vis. Sci. 84, 1104-1109 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Optical coherence tomography," Science 254, 1178-1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, I. Grulkowski, D. Szlag, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun, Poland, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Quantitative flow velocity estimation in complex ambiguity free joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography".

American National Standards Institute, Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI, 1993).

Supplementary Material (9)

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sensitivity as a function of the reflectivity of the reference mirror for SOCT systems with CCD (a) and CMOS camera (b) measured for exposure time T exp = 40μs and optical power on the sample P = 1 mW. Theoretical curve (solid line) is fitted to the experimental points using three independent parameters: ρ, A th, A ex. Each parameter was used to calculate corresponding noise contribution. Dashed lines represent hypothetical situations of sensitivity affected by only one noise component.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental SOCT set-up: SLD – superluminescent diode, OI – optical isolator, FC–80:20 fiber coupler, PC – polarization controller, NDF – neutral density filter, DC – dispersion compensator, L1-L8 – lenses, M – silver mirror, PZT – piezotranslator, SC – galvanometric scanners, DM – dichroic mirror, T – target, HDG – holographic volume diffraction grating, CMOS – linescan camera, COMP – computer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrum of the light source used in the SOCT system. Areas of interest of the camera capturing 4096, 2048 and 1024 pixels are indicated by red, blue and green rectangles, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

2-D OCT imaging of the cornea and anterior chamber: (a) single line exposure time: 8.5 μs, repetition rate: ~117,000 A-scans/s, 10,000×1024 pixels, 15 mm, (b) single line exposure time: 53 μs, repetition rate: ~19,000 A-scans/s, 10,000×4096 pixels, 15 mm. Structural elements including the cornea (C), limbus (LB), iris (I) and the crystalline lens (CL) are visible. Position of zero optical path difference (OPD = 0) is indicated. Horizontal arrows show the position of the focal plane of the imaging lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

High resolution and high density imaging of the anterior segment. (a) SOCT cross-sectional image of the anterior segment of myopic eye with a contact lens, single line exposure time 70 μs, repetition rate: ~14,000 A-scans/s, 15,000×4096 pixels, 16 mm. The red rectangles indicate location of the magnified regions shown in panels b and c. (b) Magnification of the limbal region with the contact lens (indicated by the arrow). (c) Magnification of the apex region of the cornea. CNL – contact lens, EP – epithelium, BM – Bowman’s membrane, S – stroma, EN – endothelium.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Media 1) Movie demonstrating rendered view through the cornea and anterior chamber (1000×50×1024 pixels, 15 mm × 15 mm, single line exposure time 13.6 μs, total measurement time 0.68s).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

OCT imaging of the anterior segment of two subjects: (a) subject 1, single line exposure time 43 μs, repetition rate: ~23,000 A-scans/s 10,000×4096 pixels, 15 mm, (b) subject 2, single line exposure time 43 μs, 10,000×4096 pixels, 15 mm. Tomograms of the iridocorneal angle: (c) the same subject as in Fig. 7(a), single line exposure time 50 μs, repetition rate: 20,000 A-scans/s, 10,000×4096 pixels, 5 mm, (d) the same subject as in Fig. 7(b), single line exposure time 50 μs, repetition rate: 20,000 A-scans/s 10,000×4096 pixels, 7 mm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Media 2) Movie presenting 3-D imaging of the iridocorneal angle. Volumetric data was obtained with 50 μs single line exposure time, repetition rate: ~20,000 A-scans/s. Data set consisting of 1000×50×4096 pixels was acquired in 4 mm × 3 mm area of the anterior chamber angle.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Cross-sectional images of the crystalline lens obtained with different single line exposure times: 15 μs (panel a), 33 μs (panel b), 43 μs (panel c). The two dimensional data consists of 10,000×4096 pixels in all three cases.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Cross-sectional image of the crystalline lens: single line exposure time 70 μs, transverse scanning density 15,000 A-scans per 9 mm; 4096 pixels in each A-scan. The red rectangle in panel (a) indicates the location of the magnified region shown in panel b. The capsule CP, nucleus N and cortex CR are visible.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

3-D visualization of crystalline lens. (a) (Media 3) movie showing rendering of crystalline lens; single line exposure time 70 μs, repetition rate: ~14,000 A-scans/sec, 1000×80×4096 pixels, 9 mm × 9 mm. (b) (Media 4) movie showing a flight-through the crystalline lens: single line exposure time 43 μs, repetition rate: ~22,000 A-scans/s, 1000×50×4096 pixels, 9 mm × 9 mm.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(Media 5) Movie showing OCT cross-sectional images of crystalline lens during the lenticular accommodation: single line exposure time 43 μs, repetition rate: ~22,000 A-scans/s 1000×4096 pixels (80 frames), 8 mm.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

OCT imaging of eye dynamics, movies showing: (a) (Media 6) eye blinking: 300×100×1024 pixels (12 volumes), 15 mm × 15 mm, (b) (Media 7) reaction to light stimulus: 300×100×1024 pixels (12 volumes), 15 mm × 15 mm, (c) (Media 8) eye blinking presented in en-face projection, (d) (Media 9) reaction on light stimulus visualized in en-face projection; single line exposure time 7.4 μs, repetition rate: ~ 135,000 A-scans/sec.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Full-range complex ambiguity free image of the whole anterior segment of eye: single line exposure time 70 μs, 15,000×4096 pixels, 16 mm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. SOCT system parameters for different number of active pixels of the CMOS camera

Equations (6)

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Signal = ρ 2 P 0 2 N γ r 2 γ s 2 R r R s
σ sh 2 = P 0 N e T exp γ r γ s ρ ( R r + R s )
σ th 2 = 4 k B T Δ f R = A th T exp , Δ f = 1 2 T exp , A th = 2 k B T R
σ ex 2 = A ex P 0 2 γ r 2 γ r 2 R r 2
SNR = 10 · log [ ρ 2 P 0 2 N ( σ sh 2 + σ th 2 + σ ex 2 ) γ r 2 γ s 2 R r R s ] .
= 20 · log ( S σ ) + 20 · OD .

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