Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate use of plasmonic resonant phenomena combined with strong field localization to enhance efficiency of confining optical fields in a Si waveguide. Our approach utilizes a plasmonic resonant nano-focusing-antenna (RNFA), that simultaneously supports several focusing mechanisms in a single nanostructure, integrated with a lossless Si waveguide utilized with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology, to achieve a sub-diffraction limited focusing with a nanoscale (deeply subwavelength) spot size. The metallic RNFA effectively converts an incoming propagating waveguide mode to a localized resonant plasmon mode in an ultrasmall volume in all 3 dimensions. The near-field optical measurements of the fabricated RNFA using heterodyne near-field scanning optical microscope (H-NSOM) validate the theoretical predictions showing strong optical field localization.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (3)

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (6)

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 315, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (8)

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30,893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alu, R A.

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Challener, W. A.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cinchetti, M.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conley, N. R.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

Drezet, A.

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fendler, J. H.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fromm, D. P.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gloskovskii, A.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

Hooper, R.

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutter, E.

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, G.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreiter, M.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

Kuipers, L.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhammer, C.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. P.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

Lienau, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, G. L.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDaniel, T. W.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mejia, Y. X.

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihalcea, C. D.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mountfield, K. R.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Muhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neacsu, C. C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nepjiko, S. A.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesci, A.

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 315, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pang, L.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelhos, K.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preist, T. W.

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rochholz, H.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rokitski, R.

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sambles, J. R.

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schonhense, G.

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuck, P. J.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwind, M.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sendur, I. K.

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Slutsky, B.

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, J. M.

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

Stepanov, A. L.

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tetz, K. A.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, M. W.

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoric, I.

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

E. Hutter and J. H. Fendler, "Exploitation of localized surface plasmon resonance," Adv. Mater. 16,1685-1706 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Pang, G. Hwang, B. Slutsky, and Y. Fainman "Spectral sensitivity of two-dimensional nanohole array surface plasmon polariton resonance sensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,123112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. A. Challener, T. W. McDaniel, C. D. Mihalcea, K. R. Mountfield, K. Pelhos, and I. K. Sendur, "Light delivery techniques for heat-assisted magnetic recording," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42,981-988 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (7)

E. Verhagen, L. Kuipers, and A. Polman, "Enhanced nonlinear optical effects with a tapered plasmonic waveguide," Nano Lett. 7,334-337 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Ropers, C. C. Neacsu, T. Elsaesser, M. Albrecht, M. B. Raschke, and C. Lienau, "Grating-coupling of surface plasmons onto metallic tips: a nanoconfined light source," Nano Lett. 7,2784-2788 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5,1726-1729 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5,1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Langhammer, M. Schwind, B. Kasemo, and I. Zoric, "Localized surface plasmon resonances in aluminum nanodisks," Nano Lett. 8,1461-1471 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasenstive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5,119-124 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sundaramurthy, P. J. Schuck, N. R. Conley, D. P. Fromm, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, "Toward nanometer-scale optical photolithography: utilizing the near-field of bowtie optical nanoantennas," Nano Lett. 6,355-360 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424,824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. K. Gramotnev, D. F. P. Pile, M. W. Vogel, and X. Zhang, "Local electric field enhancement during nanofocusing of plasmons by a tapered gap," Phys. Rev. B 75,035431 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

R. Hooper, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Making tunnel barriers (including metals) transparent," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97,053902 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, "Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93,137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100,023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Rokitski, K. A. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, "Propagation of femtosecond surface plasmon polariton pulses on the surface of a nanostructured metallic film: space-time complex amplitude characterization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,177401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R A. Alu and N. Engheta, "Input impedance, nanocircuit loading, and radiation tuning of optical nanoantennas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cinchetti, A. Gloskovskii, S. A. Nepjiko, G. Schonhense, H. Rochholz, and M. Kreiter, "Photoemission electron microscopy as a tool for the investigation of optical near fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,047601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Nesci, and Y. Fainman, "Complex amplitude of an ultrashort pulse with femtosecond resolution in a waveguide using a coherent NSOM at 1550 nm," Proc. SPIE 5181,62-69 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (4)

P. Muhlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 315, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects," Science 315, 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens," Science 308, 534-547 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer, Berlin, 1998).

A. Gelman, J. B. Carlin, H. S. Stern, and D. B. Rubin, Bayesian Data Analysis (Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The proposed novel RNFA nanostructure allows simultaneously achieving three optical field localization mechanisms realized with plasmonic phenomena using the corresponding realization geometries: resonant LSPs in nano-disks, thin metallic wedge localization of SPP fields, and TEM field localization in nano-antennas.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The proposed realization of the experimental setup consisting of monolithic ally integrated single gold RNFA, placed at the center of a 1 μm-wide Γ-shaped Si waveguide fabricated using SOI technology.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM micrographs of the fabricated monolithically integrated experimental system, including a Si waveguide integrated with a plasmonic RNFA. The FIB technique was used to fabricate the small off-centre cylindrical cut-out and the small gap of RNFA from a nano-disk.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparative numerical analysis of LSP resonance on RNFA and nano-disk: (a) The blue and the red curves show the spectra of the average intensities at the gap of the RNFA nanostructure and the field localization regions of the nano-disk, respectively. (b) Map of the LSP electric field intensity distribution on the top surface of the waveguide and nano-disk interface at the resonant frequency of 195 THz (wavelength of 1538.5 nm). c. Map of the electric field intensity distribution around the RNFA-Si interface (left) and the transverse plane cross-section at the center of the gap of the RNFA structure (right) at the resonant frequency of 194.5 THz (wavelength of 1542 nm).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental results on characterization of the optical field localization in resonant RNFA geometry. (a) SEM micrograph of the RNFA geometry. (b) Low resolution H-NSOM field intensity at the frequency of 194.2THz (wavelength of 1544.9 nm). The bright spot in the middle of the waveguide (see dotted line) corresponds to the highly confined LSP modes in RNFA. (c) Raw H-NSOM image of high resolution intensity mapping measured at 194.2 THz. (d) Processed image of the field intensity in the same area after deconvolution signal processing to extract the effect of the NSOM probe on the measured data. Insets of (c) and (d) show the cross-section data along the x (top) and y (bottom) axis. The RNFA shaped sketch in (c) and (d) indicates the position of the RNFA geometry. .

Fig. A1.
Fig. A1.

Description of the digital post-processing deconvolution process to estimate the size of the localized field spot size from the measured data.

Fig. A2.
Fig. A2.

Intensity distributions of the measured experimental data along the x direction determined from Fig. 5(c) for RNFA. A trapezoidal fit (red) is performed to a Gaussian fit (blue) of the measured data (black dotted).

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