Abstract

This paper proposes a novel Opto-VLSI-based tunable true-time delay generation unit for adaptively steering the nulls of microwave phased array antennas. Arbitrary single or multiple true-time delays can simultaneously be synthesized for each antenna element by slicing an RF-modulated broadband optical source and routing specific sliced wavebands through an Opto-VLSI processor to a high-dispersion fiber. Experimental results are presented, which demonstrate the principle of the true-time delay unit through the generation of 5 arbitrary true-time delays of up to 2.5 ns each.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optical generated true-time delay in phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, and J. Yao, "A True Time Delay Beamforming System Incorporating a Wavelength Tunable Optical Phase-Lock Loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Mital, C. M. Warnky, and B. L. Anderson, "Design and Demonstration of an Optical True-Time-Delay Device Based on an Octic-Style White Cell," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 982-990 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. L. Anderson, D. J. Rabb, C. M. Warnky, and F. Abou-Galala, "Binary Optical True-Time Delay Based on the White Cell: Design and Demonstration," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1886-1895 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. L. Anderson and C. D. Liddle, "Optical true time delay for phased-array antennas: demonstration of a quadratic White cell," Appl. Opt. 41, 4912-4921 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Shin, B. Lee, and B. Kim, "Optical True Time-Delay Feeder for X-Band Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2x2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. T. K. Tong and M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength Optically Controlled Phased-Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, "Implementation of Photonic True Time Delay using High-Order-Mode Dispersion Compensating Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, and P. M. Payson, "Broadband Nulling for Conformal Phased Array Antennas Using Photonic Processing," IEEE Int. Top. Meeting Microwave Photon. MWP 2000, 17-19 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. Payson, and H. W. Klumpe, "A Photonic Implementation of a Wide-Band Nulling System for phased Arays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Xiao, B. Juswardy, K. Alameh, and Y. T. Lee, "Novel broadband reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer employing custom fiber arrays and Opto-VLSI processors," Opt. Express 16, 11703-11708 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Capmany, B. Ortega, and D. Pastor, "A tutorial on Microwave photonic filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. D. Taylor, L. R. Chen, and X. J. Gu, "Simple reconfigurable photonic microwave filter using an arrayed waveguide grating and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 510-512 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Pastor, B. Ortega, J. Capmany, S. Sales, A. Martinez, and P. Munoz, "Optical microwave filter based on spectral slicing by use of arrayed waveguide gratings," Opt. Lett. 28, 1802-1804 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, and J. Yao, "A True Time Delay Beamforming System Incorporating a Wavelength Tunable Optical Phase-Lock Loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Taylor, L. R. Chen, and X. J. Gu, "Simple reconfigurable photonic microwave filter using an arrayed waveguide grating and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 510-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, and S. Sales, "Discrete-time optical processing of microwave signals," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 702-723 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, "Implementation of Photonic True Time Delay using High-Order-Mode Dispersion Compensating Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Shin, B. Lee, and B. Kim, "Optical True Time-Delay Feeder for X-Band Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2x2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Anderson and C. D. Liddle, "Optical true time delay for phased-array antennas: demonstration of a quadratic White cell," Appl. Opt. 41, 4912-4921 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. Payson, and H. W. Klumpe, "A Photonic Implementation of a Wide-Band Nulling System for phased Arays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. T. K. Tong and M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength Optically Controlled Phased-Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optical generated true-time delay in phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abou-Galala, F.

Alameh, K.

Anderson, B. L.

Baets, R.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brost, G.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

Chen, L. R.

J. D. Taylor, L. R. Chen, and X. J. Gu, "Simple reconfigurable photonic microwave filter using an arrayed waveguide grating and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 510-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. Y.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and R. T. Chen, "A fully packaged true time delay module for a K-band phased array antenna system demonstration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1175-1177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danziger, Y.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, "Implementation of Photonic True Time Delay using High-Order-Mode Dispersion Compensating Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dhoedt, B.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flamand, G.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frigyes, I.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optical generated true-time delay in phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X. J.

J. D. Taylor, L. R. Chen, and X. J. Gu, "Simple reconfigurable photonic microwave filter using an arrayed waveguide grating and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 510-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howley, B.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Italia, V.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. A.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juswardy, B.

Kalmar, A.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

J. Shin, B. Lee, and B. Kim, "Optical True Time-Delay Feeder for X-Band Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2x2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klumpe, H. W.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. Payson, and H. W. Klumpe, "A Photonic Implementation of a Wide-Band Nulling System for phased Arays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

J. Shin, B. Lee, and B. Kim, "Optical True Time-Delay Feeder for X-Band Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2x2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

Leeb, W.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, C. D.

Manolis, I. G.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Mital, R.

Moerman, I.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, P.

Ortega, B.

Pastor, D.

Payson, P.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. Payson, and H. W. Klumpe, "A Photonic Implementation of a Wide-Band Nulling System for phased Arays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Payson, P. M.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pisco, M.

V. Italia, M. Pisco, S. Campopiano, A. Cusano, and A. Cutolo, "Chirped Fiber Bragg Gratings for Electrically Tunable Time Delay Lines," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 408-416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rabb, D. J.

Raz, O.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, "Implementation of Photonic True Time Delay using High-Order-Mode Dispersion Compensating Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Redmond, M. M.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rideout, H. R.

H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, and J. Yao, "A True Time Delay Beamforming System Incorporating a Wavelength Tunable Optical Phase-Lock Loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rotman, R.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, "Implementation of Photonic True Time Delay using High-Order-Mode Dispersion Compensating Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sales, S.

Seeds, A. J.

I. Frigyes and A. J. Seeds, "Optical generated true-time delay in phased array antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2378-2386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seregelyi, J. S.

H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, and J. Yao, "A True Time Delay Beamforming System Incorporating a Wavelength Tunable Optical Phase-Lock Loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

J. Shin, B. Lee, and B. Kim, "Optical True Time-Delay Feeder for X-Band Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2x2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines." IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1364-1366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. D.

J. D. Taylor, L. R. Chen, and X. J. Gu, "Simple reconfigurable photonic microwave filter using an arrayed waveguide grating and fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 510-512 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, D. T. K.

D. T. K. Tong and M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength Optically Controlled Phased-Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toughlian, E. N.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. Payson, and H. W. Klumpe, "A Photonic Implementation of a Wide-Band Nulling System for phased Arays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tur, M.

O. Raz, R. Rotman, Y. Danziger, and M. Tur, "Implementation of Photonic True Time Delay using High-Order-Mode Dispersion Compensating Fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1367-1369 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

G. Flamand, K. De Mesel, I. Moerman, B. Dhoedt, W. Hunziker, A. Kalmar, R. Baets, P. Van Daele, and W. Leeb, "InP-Based PIC for an Optical Phased-Array Antenna at 1.06μm," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 876-878 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Warnky, C. M.

Wilkinson, T. D.

I. G. Manolis, T. D. Wilkinson, M. M. Redmond, and W. A. Crossland, "Reconfigurable multilevel phase holograms for Optical switches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 801-803 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

D. T. K. Tong and M. C. Wu, "Multiwavelength Optically Controlled Phased-Array Antennas," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 108-115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.

Yao, J.

H. R. Rideout, J. S. Seregelyi, and J. Yao, "A True Time Delay Beamforming System Incorporating a Wavelength Tunable Optical Phase-Lock Loop," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1761-1770 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q.

Y. Jiang, B. Howley, Z. Shi, Q. Zhou, R. T. Chen, M. Y. Chen, G. Brost, and C. Lee, "Dispersion-Enhanced Photonic Crystal Fiber Array for a True Time Delay Structured X-Band Phased Array Antenna," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 187-189 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zmuda, H.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, P. Payson, and H. W. Klumpe, "A Photonic Implementation of a Wide-Band Nulling System for phased Arays," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 725-727 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Fiber Integr. Opt.

H. Zmuda, E. N. Toughlian, M. A. Jones, and P. M. Payson, "Photonic Architecture for Broadband Adaptive Nulling with Linear and Conformal Phased Array Antennas," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 137-154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Opto-VLSI Processor layout and cell structure. (b) Principle of beam steering through variable-pitch blazed grating generation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Typical phased-array antenna architecture. (b) Phased array antenna architecture for broadband null steering.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Opto-VLSI-based phased array antenna architecture for broadband null steering.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental setup used to demonstrate tunable time delay generation

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The principle of optical waveband selection.

Fig 6:
Fig 6:

(a) Opto-VLSI hologram, (b) Optical spectrum of 5 RF-modulated wavebands, (c) Measured RF responses due to the photodetection of the RF-modulated wavebands displayed in (b).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table. 1. Measured free spectral ranges, waveband separations, and their corresponding time delays calculated by Eq. 7 and Eq. 8.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α m = arcsin ( d )
A F N ( θ ) = n = 1 N 1 ( x x n ) = m = 0 N 1 W m x m
A F 4 ( θ ) = m = 0 3 W m e jmkd sin ( θ ) = ( e jkd sin ( θ ) e jkd sin ( θ 1 ) ) ( e jkd sin ( θ ) e jkd sin ( θ 2 ) ) ( e jkd sin ( θ ) e jkd sin ( θ 3 ) )
A F 4 ( θ ) = x 3 x 2 ( e τ 21 + e τ 22 + e τ 23 ) + x ( e τ 11 + e τ 12 + e τ 13 ) e τ 01
τ 21 = d c sin ( θ 1 ) , τ 22 = d c sin ( θ 2 ) , τ 23 = d c sin ( θ 3 )
τ 11 = d c [ sin ( θ 1 ) + sin ( θ 2 ) ] , τ 12 = d c [ sin ( θ 1 ) + sin ( θ 3 ) ] , τ 13 = d c [ sin ( θ 2 ) + sin ( θ 3 ) ]
τ 01 = d c [ sin ( θ 1 ) + sin ( θ 2 ) + sin ( θ 3 ) ]
H ( f ) = r = 0 M a r exp [ j 2 πrfτ ]
f FSR = 1 τ
τ = α · Δλ
T RF = P RF out P RF in = ( π P opt T opt Z 0 2 V π R ) 2

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