Abstract

We demonstrate low loss silicon waveguides fabricated without any silicon etching. We define the waveguides by selective oxidation which produces ultra-smooth sidewalls with width variations of 0.3 nm. The waveguides have a propagation loss of 0.3 dB/cm at 1.55 μm. The waveguide geometry enables low bending loss of approximately 0.007 dB/bend for a 90° bend with a 50 μm bending radius.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Lardenois, D. Pascal, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, S. Laval, R. Orobtchouk, M. Heitzmann, N. Bouzaida, and L. Mollard, "Low-loss submicrometer silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides and corner mirrors," Opt. Lett. 28, 1150-1152 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, "Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16735-16745 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48, 958-963 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L.C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, "Fabrication of ultralow-loss Si/SiO2 waveguides by roughness reduction," Opt. Lett. 26, 1888-1890 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment," Opt. Express,  13, 1515-1530 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16659-16669 (2008).
    [PubMed]
  19. V. R. Almeida, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, "Nanotaper for compact mode conversion," Opt. Lett. 28, 1302-1304 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

J. T. Robinson, K. Preston, O. Painter, and M. Lipson, "First-principle derivation of gain in high-index-contrast waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16659-16669 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, "Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16735-16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, and O. Painter, "Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment," Opt. Express,  13, 1515-1530 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Arndt, F.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borselli, M.

Bouzaida, N.

Bruce, D.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burbach, G.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. V.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Cerrina, F.

Chen, E.

Cohen, O.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elsey, M.

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hak, D.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heitzmann, M.

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, T. J.

Jones, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimerling, L.C.

Knights, A. P.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koch, T. L.

R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48, 958-963 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kropp, J.-R.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lardenois, S.

Laval, S.

Lee, K. K.

Li, J.

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luyssaert, B.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D. S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mashanovich, G.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mathlouthi, W.

McFaul, S.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S.

Mollard, L.

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orobtchouk, R.

Pafchek, R.

Pafchek, R. M.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, "Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16735-16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascal, D.

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Reed, G. T.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, J. T.

Rong, H.

W. Mathlouthi, H. Rong, and M. Paniccia, "Characterization of efficient wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in sub-micron silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 16735-16745 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowe, L.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowe, L. K.

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtchen, J.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schüppert, B.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Splett, A.

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sukumaran, G.

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tarr, N. G.

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tummidi, R.

Uchiyama, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Vlasov, Y.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, "Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends," Opt. Express 12, 1622-1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webster, M. A.

R. Pafchek, R. Tummidi, J. Li, M. A. Webster, E. Chen, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss silicon-on-insulator shallow-ridge TE and TM waveguides formed using thermal oxidation," Appl. Opt. 48, 958-963 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, P. Dumon, V. Wiaux, S. Beckx, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, J. V. Campenhout, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, "Nanophotonic Waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator Fabricated with CMOS Technology," J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 401-412 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Webster, R. M. Pafchek, G. Sukumaran, and T. L. Koch, "Low-loss quasi-planar ridge waveguides formed on thin silicon-on-insulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 231108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

L. K. Rowe, M. Elsey, N. G. Tarr, A. P. Knights, and E. Post, "CMOS-compatible optical rib waveguides defined by local oxidation of silicon," Electron. Lett. 43, 392-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Schmidtchen, A. Splett, B. Schüppert, K. Petermann, and G. Burbach, "Low Loss Singlemode Optical Waveguides with Large Cross-Section in Silicon-on-Insulator," Electron. Lett. 27, 1486-1488 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, "Microphotonics Devices Based on Silicon Microfabrication Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232-240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, and F. Arndt, K. Petermann, "0.1 dB/cm Waveguide Losses in Single-Mode SOI Rib Waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647-648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, "Low-Loss SOI Photonic Wires and Ring Resonators Fabricated with Deep UV Lithography," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328-1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, S. Uchiyama, and S. Itabashi, "Low-Loss Si Wire Waveguides and their Application to Thermooptic Switches," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6658-6662 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photonics 1, 65-71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "An all-silicon Raman laser," Nature 433, 292-294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, G. Mashanovich, P. E. Jessop, L. Rowe, S. McFaul, D. Bruce, and N. G. Tarr, "Sub-micron optical waveguides for silicon photonics formed via the Local Oxidation of Silicon (LOCOS), Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980R (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fabrication process for the etchless waveguides. a) 800 nm of thermal oxide are grown on an SOI wafer with a 3 μm buried oxide. b) Waveguides are patterned with e-beam lithography and the oxide is etched. c) Waveguide core is defined using thermal oxidation. d) PECVD oxide is deposited as an overcladding.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

TE mode profile for 1 μm wide etchless waveguide with cladding profile.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross-section SEM image of an etchless waveguide.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) AFM scan of an etchless waveguide core. Original pattern width was 1.5 μm. (b) AFM scan of strip waveguide with typical losses of 3 dB/cm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurement results for etchless waveguides. We measured losses of 0.3 dB/cm for a 1 μm waveguide and 0.5 dB/cm for a 1.5 μm waveguide for the TE mode. Each marker denotes a measurement for a different waveguide on the same chip. The solid lines are the linear fit to the experimental data. The output is normalized relative to -16.1 dBm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured bend loss as a function of bend radius for 1 μm wide etchless waveguides. Bending losses are negligible for bends as small as 50 μm. The output is normalized relative to -13.6 dBm.

Equations (1)

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Γ = n A c ε o A E 2 dxdy Re { E × H * } · e ̂ z dxdy

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