Abstract

A prism-based brightness enhancement film (BEF), has been investigated through computer-aided optical analysis and experiments in this study. The prism film was fabricated on a 100μm thick PET film substrate using roll-to-roll (R2R) process with UV curable resins of different refractive indices. The results from both optical analysis and experiments showed that resins with higher refractive indices have better on-axis luminous gain. The prism structures fabricated on the substrate achieved a replication rate of 97.54% in this study. Compared with the 3M BEF, the prism films developed in this study are improved in on-axis luminous gains when the refractive index of the resin is higher than 1.53.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Lin, T.K. Shia, and C.J. Chiu, “Fabrication and characterization of IC-processed brightness enhancement films,” in proceedings of Transducers ’97,  Volume 2 of 9th Int. Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 1427–1430.
  2. W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Lee, S. C. Meissner, and R. J. Sudol, “Optical film to enhance cosmetic appearance and brightness in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 15, 8609–8618 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” Am. Vacuum Soc. 16, 3926–3928 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
    [Crossref]
  8. M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34321–339 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  9. R.C Liang, “Microcup® displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 621–628 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.
  11. S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. C. Huang, J. R. Ciou, P. H. Huang, K. H. Hsieh, and S. Y. Yang, ”Fast fabrication of integrated surface-relief and particle-diffusing plastic diffuser by use of a hybrid extrusion roller embossing process,” Opt. Express 16, 440–447 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. J. Kerfeld, “Process for making information carrying discs,” US Patent 4,374,077 (1983).
  14. S. L. Lu and T. R. Williams, “Microstructure-bearing composite plastic articles and method of making,” US Patent 5,175,030 (1992).

2008 (2)

C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. C. Huang, J. R. Ciou, P. H. Huang, K. H. Hsieh, and S. Y. Yang, ”Fast fabrication of integrated surface-relief and particle-diffusing plastic diffuser by use of a hybrid extrusion roller embossing process,” Opt. Express 16, 440–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, S. C. Meissner, and R. J. Sudol, “Optical film to enhance cosmetic appearance and brightness in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 15, 8609–8618 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
[Crossref]

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

2003 (1)

R.C Liang, “Microcup® displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 621–628 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” Am. Vacuum Soc. 16, 3926–3928 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34321–339 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

S. L. Lu and T. R. Williams, “Microstructure-bearing composite plastic articles and method of making,” US Patent 5,175,030 (1992).

1983 (1)

D. J. Kerfeld, “Process for making information carrying discs,” US Patent 4,374,077 (1983).

Ahn, S.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bae, H.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chang, F. Y.

C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. F.

C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.J.

L. Lin, T.K. Shia, and C.J. Chiu, “Fabrication and characterization of IC-processed brightness enhancement films,” in proceedings of Transducers ’97,  Volume 2 of 9th Int. Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 1427–1430.

Choi, M.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chou, C. P.

C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chou, S. Y.

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” Am. Vacuum Soc. 16, 3926–3928 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. Y.

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

Ciou, J. R.

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34321–339 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gilbertson, A.

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” Am. Vacuum Soc. 16, 3926–3928 (1998).
[Crossref]

Guiuizian, P.

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haring, T.

T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
[Crossref]

Hsieh, K. H.

Hsu, L. C.

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

Huang, P. H.

Huang, T. C.

Jeong, J. H.

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kang, S.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kao, P. C.

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

Kerfeld, D. J.

D. J. Kerfeld, “Process for making information carrying discs,” US Patent 4,374,077 (1983).

Kim, H.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ko, J. H.

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kololuoma, T.

T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
[Crossref]

Kopola, H.

T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, S. C. Meissner, and R. J. Sudol, “Optical film to enhance cosmetic appearance and brightness in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 15, 8609–8618 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, W. G.

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liang, R.C

R.C Liang, “Microcup® displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 621–628 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liao, W. C.

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

Lim, J.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, T.K. Shia, and C.J. Chiu, “Fabrication and characterization of IC-processed brightness enhancement films,” in proceedings of Transducers ’97,  Volume 2 of 9th Int. Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 1427–1430.

Lu, S. L.

S. L. Lu and T. R. Williams, “Microstructure-bearing composite plastic articles and method of making,” US Patent 5,175,030 (1992).

Meissner, S. C.

Myung, H.

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nahm, K. B.

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shia, T.K.

L. Lin, T.K. Shia, and C.J. Chiu, “Fabrication and characterization of IC-processed brightness enhancement films,” in proceedings of Transducers ’97,  Volume 2 of 9th Int. Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 1427–1430.

Strip, D. R.

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sudol, R. J.

J. Lee, S. C. Meissner, and R. J. Sudol, “Optical film to enhance cosmetic appearance and brightness in liquid crystal displays,” Opt. Express 15, 8609–8618 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, H.

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” Am. Vacuum Soc. 16, 3926–3928 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ting, C. J.

C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tuomikoski, M.

T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
[Crossref]

Williams, T. R.

S. L. Lu and T. R. Williams, “Microstructure-bearing composite plastic articles and method of making,” US Patent 5,175,030 (1992).

Wilson, R. H.

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. Y.

Zhan, C. Y.

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

Am. Vacuum Soc. (1)

H. Tan, A. Gilbertson, and S. Y. Chou, “Roller nanoimprint lithography,” Am. Vacuum Soc. 16, 3926–3928 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Info. Display (1)

W. G. Lee, J. H. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, K. B. Nahm, J. H. Ko, and J. H. Kim, “Light output characteristics of rounded prism films in the backlight unit for crystal display,” J. Info. Display 7, 1–4 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

C. J. Ting, F. Y. Chang, C. F. Chen, and C. P. Chou, “Fabrication of an antireflective polymer optical film with subwavelength structures using a roll-to-roll micro-replication process,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 960–1317 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

R.C Liang, “Microcup® displays: Electronic paper by roll-to-roll manufacturing processes,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 11, 621–628 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Ahn, M. Choi, H. Bae, J. Lim, H. Myung, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Design and fabrication of micro optical film by ultraviolet roll imprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5478–5484 (2007).
[Crossref]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. T. Gale, “Replication techniques for diffractive optical elements,” Microelectron. Eng. 34321–339 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (1)

T. Kololuoma, M. Tuomikoski, T. Haring, and H. Kopola, “Roll-to-roll manufacturing technologies for flexible MEMS applications,” in Proc. IEEE Optical MEMS and Their Applications Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 87–88.
[Crossref]

Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (1)

P. C. Kao, S. Y. Chu, C. Y. Zhan, L. C. Hsu, and W. C. Liao, “Fabrication of the patterned flexible OLEDs using a combined roller imprinting and photolithography method,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology (IEEE, 2005), pp. 693–695.

SID 06 Digest (1)

R. H. Wilson, P. Guiuizian, J. Lee, R. J. Sudol, and D. R. Strip, “Predicting performance of a microlens LCD brightness film,” SID 06 Digest, 1332–1335 (2006).
[Crossref]

US Patent (2)

D. J. Kerfeld, “Process for making information carrying discs,” US Patent 4,374,077 (1983).

S. L. Lu and T. R. Williams, “Microstructure-bearing composite plastic articles and method of making,” US Patent 5,175,030 (1992).

Other (1)

L. Lin, T.K. Shia, and C.J. Chiu, “Fabrication and characterization of IC-processed brightness enhancement films,” in proceedings of Transducers ’97,  Volume 2 of 9th Int. Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, pp. 1427–1430.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Dimensions of the prism sheet developed in this study, in μm.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The angular distribution of the luminous intensity along the perpendicular direction for BLU with single prism film of different refractive indices and for without prism film.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Picture and specifications of the R2R equipment developed in this study.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Measurement for dimensions of micro prism structures of the roller mold.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Measurement of the prism structure formed at imprinting pressure 2~6 kgf/cm2.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. OM images of the prism structures on PET substrate (a) 200×. (b) 500×.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. SEM images of the prism structures on PET substrate (a) 120×. (b) 350×.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Optical effect for different combination of prism films with resin refractive index of 1.55.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. On-axis luminous intensity of single and dual prism films according to optical simulations.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparisons regarding the gain from the nine-point luminance means for simulated and actually measured results.

Metrics