Abstract

The electrically pumped ultraviolet (UV) random lasing and carrier transport of ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures on Si substrates have been systematically investigated. With the increase of positive bias voltage on the gates of the MIS devices, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics manifest a normal curved I-V region where the current increases with the bias, followed by a negative differential resistance (NDR) region. Moreover, the UV electroluminescence from the devices in the normal region is transformed from spontaneous emission into increasingly intensive random lasing; while, that in the NDR region is transformed from random lasing into very weak spontaneous emission. The reason for the effect of NDR on the random lasing from the devices has been tentatively explored.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, and D. R. Yang, “Fairly pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111112 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. W. Hickmott, “Potential distribution and negative resistance in thin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2679–2689 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Dearnaley, A. M. Stoneham, and D. V. Morgans, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1129–1191 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. P. Oxley, “Electroforming, switching and memory effects in oxide thin films,” Electrocomponent Sci. Technol. 3, 217–224 (1977).
  18. A. K. Ray and C. A. Hogarth, “A critical review of the observed electrical properties of MIM devices showing VCNR,” Int. J. Electron. 57, 1–78 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  19. T. W. Hickmott, “Voltage-dependent dielectric breakdown and voltage-controlled negative resistance in anodized Al-Al2O3-Au diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2805–2812 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. E. Thurstans and D. P. Oxley, “The electroformed metal-insulator-metal structure: a comprehensive model,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 802–809 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2007 (1)

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (8)

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, and D. R. Yang, “Fairly pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111112 (2006).
[Crossref]

N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. E. Thurstans and D. P. Oxley, “The electroformed metal-insulator-metal structure: a comprehensive model,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 802–809 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. W. Hickmott, “Voltage-dependent dielectric breakdown and voltage-controlled negative resistance in anodized Al-Al2O3-Au diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2805–2812 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

A. K. Ray and C. A. Hogarth, “A critical review of the observed electrical properties of MIM devices showing VCNR,” Int. J. Electron. 57, 1–78 (1984).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

D. P. Oxley, “Electroforming, switching and memory effects in oxide thin films,” Electrocomponent Sci. Technol. 3, 217–224 (1977).

1970 (1)

G. Dearnaley, A. M. Stoneham, and D. V. Morgans, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1129–1191 (1970).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

T. W. Hickmott, “Potential distribution and negative resistance in thin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2679–2689 (1964).
[Crossref]

Abiyasa, A. P.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, N. S.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. L.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, and D. R. Yang, “Fairly pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, T. P.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. C.

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheng, C. P.

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chua, S. J.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dearnaley, G.

G. Dearnaley, A. M. Stoneham, and D. V. Morgans, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1129–1191 (1970).
[Crossref]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heo, Y. W.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hickmott, T. W.

T. W. Hickmott, “Voltage-dependent dielectric breakdown and voltage-controlled negative resistance in anodized Al-Al2O3-Au diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2805–2812 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hickmott, “Potential distribution and negative resistance in thin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2679–2689 (1964).
[Crossref]

Hng, H. H.

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hogarth, C. A.

A. K. Ray and C. A. Hogarth, “A critical review of the observed electrical properties of MIM devices showing VCNR,” Int. J. Electron. 57, 1–78 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ip, K.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuo, S. Y.

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lai, F. I.

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lau, S. P.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. W.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Leong, E. S. P.

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, D. S.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, H. D.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ma, X. Y.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, and D. R. Yang, “Fairly pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maeng, S.

N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Morgans, D. V.

G. Dearnaley, A. M. Stoneham, and D. V. Morgans, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1129–1191 (1970).
[Crossref]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ng, C. Y.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Norton, D. P.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Oxley, D. P.

R. E. Thurstans and D. P. Oxley, “The electroformed metal-insulator-metal structure: a comprehensive model,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 802–809 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. P. Oxley, “Electroforming, switching and memory effects in oxide thin films,” Electrocomponent Sci. Technol. 3, 217–224 (1977).

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, N.-M.

N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, S.-J.

N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ray, A. K.

A. K. Ray and C. A. Hogarth, “A critical review of the observed electrical properties of MIM devices showing VCNR,” Int. J. Electron. 57, 1–78 (1984).
[Crossref]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Steiner, T.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Stoneham, A. M.

G. Dearnaley, A. M. Stoneham, and D. V. Morgans, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1129–1191 (1970).
[Crossref]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thurstans, R. E.

R. E. Thurstans and D. P. Oxley, “The electroformed metal-insulator-metal structure: a comprehensive model,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 802–809 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. R.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, and D. R. Yang, “Fairly pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, H. Y.

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yong, A. M.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, S. F.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuen, C.

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. H.

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Y.

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) (1)

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, T. P. Chen, A. P. Abiyasa, and C. Y. Ng, “High-temperature lasing characteristics of ZnO epilayers,” Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 771–774 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. F. Yu, H. D. Li, A. P. Abiyasa, E. S. P. Leong, and S. P. Lau, “The formation characteristics of closed-loop random cavities inside highly disordered ZnO polycrystalline thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121126 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Y. Ma, P. L. Chen, D. S. Li, Y. Y. Zhang, and D. R. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 251109–251103 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. L. Chen, X. Y. Ma, and D. R. Yang, “Fairly pure ultraviolet electroluminescence from ZnO-based light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 111112 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. H. Zhang, S. J. Chua, A. M. Yong, H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, and S. P. Lau, “Exciton related stimulated emission in ZnO polycrystalline thin film deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 191112 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. D. Li, S. F. Yu, S. P. Lau, and E. S. P. Leong, “Simultaneous formation of visible and ultraviolet random lasings in ZnO films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 021110 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, H. C. Ong, S. T. Ho, J. Y. Dai, J. Y. Wu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Ultraviolet lasing in resonators formed by scattering in semiconductor polycrystalline films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3656–3658 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3244–3246 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. Yuen, S. F. Yu, E. S. P. Leong, H. Y. Yang, S. P. Lau, N. S. Chen, and H. H. Hng, “Low-loss and directional output ZnO thin-film ridge waveguide random lasers with MgO capped layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 031112 (2005).
[Crossref]

N.-M. Park, S. H. Kim, S. Maeng, and S.-J. Park, “High negative differential resistance in silicon quantum dot metal-insulator-semiconductor structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 153117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Electrocomponent Sci. Technol. (1)

D. P. Oxley, “Electroforming, switching and memory effects in oxide thin films,” Electrocomponent Sci. Technol. 3, 217–224 (1977).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. P. Abiyasa, S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, and S. P. Lau, “Influence of surface roughness on the lasing performance of highly disordered ZnO films,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18,2380(2006).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Electron. (1)

A. K. Ray and C. A. Hogarth, “A critical review of the observed electrical properties of MIM devices showing VCNR,” Int. J. Electron. 57, 1–78 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

T. W. Hickmott, “Voltage-dependent dielectric breakdown and voltage-controlled negative resistance in anodized Al-Al2O3-Au diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2805–2812 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hickmott, “Potential distribution and negative resistance in thin oxide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 15, 2679–2689 (1964).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

R. E. Thurstans and D. P. Oxley, “The electroformed metal-insulator-metal structure: a comprehensive model,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 35, 802–809 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Y. Kuo, F. I. Lai, W. C. Chen, C. P. Cheng, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Ultraviolet lasing of sol-gel-derived zinc oxide polycrystalline films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3662–3665 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2278–2281 (1999).
[Crossref]

Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, “Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293–340 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

G. Dearnaley, A. M. Stoneham, and D. V. Morgans, “Electrical phenomena in amorphous oxide films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 1129–1191 (1970).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

I-V characteristic of a typical ZnO-based MIS device. The inset shows the schematic diagram of the MIS device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

RT EL spectra of the ZnO-based MIS device at different forward bias voltages: 6.5, 8.5, 10.2, 11.0 and 12.5 V, respectively. The inset shows the spectrally integrated EL intensity as a function of the current.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The dependences of spectrally integrated EL intensity and current on the voltage for the ZnO-based MIS device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagrams of electron transport in SiOx film: (a) tunneling and (b) trapping of electrons are dominant, respectively. (c) Schematic energy-band diagram for the forward-biased ZnO-based MIS device.

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