Abstract

Applying novel detector development based on CMOS technology to Fourier domain optical coherence tomography we achieve depth profile rates up to 200,000 scans/sec. This speed allows for dramatic improvement for imaging small retinal details, such as photo-receptors and capillaries. We demonstrate the impact of this achievable speed to Doppler tomography and discuss advantages as well as short-comings of high speed 3D Doppler imaging of the human retina. Experimental data of 3D static D-FDOCT sets from fovea and nerve head region are shown together with first 4D imaging of retinal capillary flow.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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Errata

Tilman Schmoll, Christoph Kolbitsch, and Rainer A. Leitgeb, "Ultra-high speed volumetric tomography of human retinal blood flow: erratum," Opt. Express 17, 6025-6025 (2009)
https://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-8-6025

References

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2008

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, "Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography," Opt. Lett. 33, 836-838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography-limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, and R. K. Wang, "In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography," Opt. Express 16, 11438-11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform," Opt. Express 16, 12350-12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, D. Vu, and A. A. Ferrante, "Dual-beam Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography of zebrafish," Opt. Express 16, 13624-13636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourierdomain OCT ophthalmic imaging at70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149-15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, "Measurement of absolute flow velocity vector using dual-angle, delay-encoded Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 32, 506-508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second," Opt. Lett. 32, 2049-2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

2002

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

L. Schmetterer, and M. Wolzt, "Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy," Diabetologia 42, 387-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Ahlers, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, L.

Bachmann, A. H.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

Basavanhally, A. N.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Berisha, F.

Blatter, C.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Cense, B.

Chen, T. C.

Chen, Y.

Choma, M. A.

Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, V. P.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Creazzo, T. L.

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellerbee, A. K.

Fabritius, T.

Fercher, A. F.

Ferguson, R. D.

Ferrante, A. A.

Flammer, J.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friedman, E.

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Goetzinger, E.

Gorczynska, I.

Hammer, D. X.

Hermann, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hong, Y.

Huang, D.

C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, "Measurement of absolute flow velocity vector using dual-angle, delay-encoded Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 32, 506-508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

Iftimia, N. V.

Izatt, J.

Izatt, J. A.

Jenkins, M. W.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Ko, T.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, T. H.

Kowalczyk, A.

Krieglstein, G. K.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasser, T.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le, T.

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Michaely, R.

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michels, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Orgul, S.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orzalesi, N.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Pedersen, C. J.

Pierce, M. C.

Pircher, M.

Potsaid, B.

Povazay, B.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, V. X.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, "Measurement of absolute flow velocity vector using dual-angle, delay-encoded Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 32, 506-508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacu, S.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Sattmann, H.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmetterer, L.

Schmidt-Erfurth, U.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scholda, C.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serra, L. M.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shure, M. A.

Srinivasan, V.

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stefansson, E.

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

Szkulmowska, A.

Szkulmowski, M.

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, Y. K.

Tearney, G. J.

Unterhuber, A.

Villiger, M. L.

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vu, D.

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, B. R.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wolzt, M.

L. Schmetterer, and M. Wolzt, "Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy," Diabetologia 42, 387-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yun, S. H.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

E. Friedman, "A hemodynamic model of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 124, 677-682 (1997).
[PubMed]

Diabetologia

L. Schmetterer, and M. Wolzt, "Ocular blood flow and associated functional deviations in diabetic retinopathy," Diabetologia 42, 387-405 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

U. Schmidt-Erfurth, R. A. Leitgeb, S. Michels, B. Povazay, S. Sacu, B. Hermann, C. Ahlers, H. Sattmann, C. Scholda, A. F. Fercher, and W. Drexler, "Three-dimensional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography of macular diseases," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 3393-3402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, "In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Michaely, A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Vectorial reconstruction of retinal blood flow in three dimensions measured with high resolution resonant Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041213 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, "In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 12,041215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology

M. Wojtkowski, V. Srinivasan, J. G. Fujimoto, T. Ko, J. S. Schuman, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Three-dimensional retinal imaging with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Ophthalmology 112, 1734-1746 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, W. Drexler, A. F. Fercher, R. J. Zawadzki, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time assessment of retinal blood flow with ultrafast acquisition by color Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3116-3121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. White, M. C. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. H. Park, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, T. C. Chen, and J. F. de Boer, "In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical Doppler tomography," Opt. Express 11, 3490-3497 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, "Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 2183-2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, W. Drexler, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, T. Bajraszewski, T. Le, A. Stingl, and A. F. Fercher, "Ultrahigh resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 12, 2156-2165 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, "Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging," Opt. Express 12, 2977-2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. An, and R. K. Wang, "In vivo volumetric imaging of vascular perfusion within human retina and choroids with optical micro-angiography," Opt. Express 16, 11438-11452 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Tao, A. M. Davis, and J. A. Izatt, "Single-pass volumetric bidirectional blood flow imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography using a modified Hilbert transform," Opt. Express 16, 12350-12361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Iftimia, D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, M. Mujat, D. Vu, and A. A. Ferrante, "Dual-beam Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography of zebrafish," Opt. Express 16, 13624-13636 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Potsaid, I. Gorczynska, V. J. Srinivasan, Y. Chen, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Ultrahigh speed Spectral / Fourierdomain OCT ophthalmic imaging at70,000 to 312,500 axial scans per second," Opt. Express 16, 15149-15169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, "Optical coherence angiography," Opt. Express 14, 7821-7840 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Bachmann, M. L. Villiger, C. Blatter, T. Lasser, and R. A. Leitgeb, "Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels," Opt. Express 15, 408-422 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, S. H. Yun, M. Mujat, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and J. F. de Boer, "Real-time fiber-based multi-functional spectral-domain optical coherence tomography at 1.3 µm," Opt. Express 13, 3931-3944 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szkulmowski, A. Szkulmowska, T. Bajraszewski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Flow velocity estimation using joint Spectral and Time domain Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 16, 6008-6025 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

A. Szkulmowska, M. Szkulmowski, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, "Phase-resolved Doppler optical coherence tomography-limitations and improvements," Opt. Lett. 33, 1425-1427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Goetzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Retinal cone mosaic imaged with transverse scanning optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31,1821-1823 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Pedersen, D. Huang, M. A. Shure, and A. M. Rollins, "Measurement of absolute flow velocity vector using dual-angle, delay-encoded Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 32, 506-508 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second," Opt. Lett. 32, 2049-2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Makita, T. Fabritius, and Y. Yasuno, "Quantitative retinal-blood flow measurement with three-dimensional vessel geometry determination using ultrahigh-resolution Doppler optical coherence angiography," Opt. Lett. 33, 836-838 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Choma, A. K. Ellerbee, C. Yang, T. L. Creazzo, and J. A. Izatt, "Spectral-domain phase microscopy," Opt. Lett. 30,1162-1164 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leitgeb, L. Schmetterer, C. K. Hitzenberger, A. F. Fercher, F. Berisha, M. Wojtkowski, and T. Bajraszewski, "Real-time measurement of in vitro flow by Fourier-domain color Doppler optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 29, 171-173 (2004).
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J. F. de Boer, B. Cense, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Improved signal-to-noise ratio in spectral-domain compared with time-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 28, 2067-2069 (2003).
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Prog. Retin. Eye Res

J. Flammer, S. Orgul, V. P. Costa, N. Orzalesi, G. K. Krieglstein, L. M. Serra, V. X. Renard, and E. Stefansson, "The impact of ocular blood flow in glaucoma," Prog. Retin. Eye Res 21, 359-393 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, M. Pircher, E. Goetzinger, C. K. Hitzenberger, R. A. Leitgeb, and L. Schmetterer, "Bi-directional Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography for measurement of absolute flow velocities in human retinal vessels," Opt. Lett.  33, 2967-2969 /2008).
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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (4109 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical Setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) spectral intensity of SLD. The yellow curves show the used apodized spectrum. (b) Coherence function for full spectrum (dotted line) and for the used spectrum (solid line). The intensity is normalized to the maximum of the original coherence function (dotted line). (c) Sensitivity decay with depth (red line 20kHz, black line 200kHz). (d) Sensitivity decay with line rate (black), and actual exposure time (blue).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Phase difference tomogram at 20kHz covering 4deg near the ONH. (b) Motion correction according to Makita et. al. [18] with small window size. Arrow points to an artifact. (c) Modified motion correction by limiting phase difference deviations (blue line) from fitted polynomial (red line) to area within dashed lines. (d) Result after modified motion correction algorithm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Histogram of phase differences for static structure at various line rates. The widths are almost identical. (b) Attenuation curves for different line rates depending on velocity. Dotted lines indicate the unambiguous maximum velocity limit (vertical line) and visibility limit (horizontal line).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Performance of 3D D-FDOCT at different acquisition speeds covering a patch of 4deg×4deg across the ONH. (A, (View 1), D, (View 2), G, (View 3), J) Volumes saved in the png file format containing D-FDOCT tomograms in the RGB channel and intensity tomograms in the α-channel. The volumes were recorded at line rates of 20kHz(A and J), 60kHz(D) and 100kHz(G). (B, E, H, K) corresponding en-face cross-section at a significant position. (C, F, I, L) corresponding fast axis cross-sections (B-scan) at significant positions. (J, K, L) demonstrate the possibility of a different color map on a 3D dataset acquired at a line rate of 20kHz. Dashed arrows in (B, E, H, K) show vessels with high flow speeds and large inclination. Solid arrows in (B, E, H, K) show vessels with lower flow speeds and almost perpendicular orientation to the detection axis. Interferometric data of measurements in Fig.5A, D, G are provided as download.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Flow within small retinal vessels. Intensity en-face view of small vessels within the GCL (A) and the capillary network within the INL (C) (View 4). (B and D) corresponding D-FDOCT en-face views covering a patch of 1.2deg × 1.2deg across the fovea.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

4D Micro-FDOCT.(A) cone photoreceptors imaged without the application of adaptive optics or active eye tracking. Size: 0.4deg × 0.4deg at 4deg eccentricity. (B) volume with removed NFL covering 0.6deg × 0.4 deg at 4 deg eccentricity showing a vessel in the GCL (Media 1).

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Tables (1)

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Table 1. Standard D-FDOCT performance figures for different array detector line rates

Equations (1)

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v = λ 4 π T arctan ( Im m exp ( i Δ Φ m ) Re m exp ( i Δ Φ m ) ) 1 cos α ,

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