Abstract

We present a detailed investigation of the different processes responsible for the optical nonlinearities of silicon nanocrystals at 1550 nm. Through z-scan measurements, the bound-electronic and excited carrier contributions to the nonlinear refraction were measured in presence of two-photon absorption. A study of the nonlinear response at different excitation powers has permitted to determine the change in the refractive index per unit of photo-excited carrier density σr and the value of the real bound-electronic nonlinear refraction n2be as a function of the nanocrystals size. Moreover at high excitation power, a saturation of the nonlinear absorption was observed due to band-filling effects.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ogusu and K. Shinkawa, "Optical nonlinearities in silicon for pulse durations of the order of nanosecond at 1.06 μm," Opt. Express 16, 14780-14791 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez and J. Martì, "Design of Silicon-Based Slot Waveguide Configurations for Optimum Nonlinear Performance," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305, (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (3)

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, '"hird-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and C. Spinella, '"Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellutti, P.

L. Ferraioli, P. Bellutti, N. Daldosso, V. Mulloni, and L. Pavesi, "Nitrogen Influence on the Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, 0958-L07-10.

Blasco, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez and J. Martì, "Design of Silicon-Based Slot Waveguide Configurations for Optimum Nonlinear Performance," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305, (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Bongiorno, C.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, "Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3723-3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boninelli, S.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, "Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3723-3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, R.W.

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, Ö.

Canter, G. S.

Caplan, D. O.

Cazzanelli, M.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

L. Ferraioli, P. Bellutti, N. Daldosso, V. Mulloni, and L. Pavesi, "Nitrogen Influence on the Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, 0958-L07-10.

Degiorgio, V.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, '"hird-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J. M.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Ferraioli, L.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

L. Ferraioli, P. Bellutti, N. Daldosso, V. Mulloni, and L. Pavesi, "Nitrogen Influence on the Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, 0958-L07-10.

Ferre, R.

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and C. Spinella, '"Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Galán, J. V.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Garcia, C.

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, '"hird-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

García, J.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Garrido, B.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Gautier, P.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Guider, R.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Hagan, D. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hernandez, S.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Hernández, S.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Iacona, F.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, "Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3723-3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and C. Spinella, '"Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

Jordana, E.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Koonath, P.

Kumar, P.

Lebour, Y.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Martì, J.

Martinez, A.

Martínez, A.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Martínez, J. M.

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Morante, J. R.

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. A.

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mulloni, V.

L. Ferraioli, P. Bellutti, N. Daldosso, V. Mulloni, and L. Pavesi, "Nitrogen Influence on the Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, 0958-L07-10.

Ogusu, K.

Pavesi, L.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

L. Ferraioli, P. Bellutti, N. Daldosso, V. Mulloni, and L. Pavesi, "Nitrogen Influence on the Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, 0958-L07-10.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Payne, S.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Piredda, G.

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, "Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3723-3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, '"hird-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Raghunathan, V.

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, A. Martinez and J. Martì, "Design of Silicon-Based Slot Waveguide Configurations for Optimum Nonlinear Performance," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1298-1305, (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shinkawa, K.

Spano, R.

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Spinella, C.

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, "Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3723-3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and C. Spinella, '"Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tartara, L.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Tian, J. G.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vijaya Prakash, G.

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Yu, J.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

Zang, W. P.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, J.

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. P.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

W. P. Zang, J. G. Tian, Z. B. Liu, W. Y. Zhou, C. P. Zhang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Study on Z-scan characteristics of cascaded nonlinear media," Appl. Phys. B 77, 529-533 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Garcia, B. Garrido, P. Pellegrino, R. Ferre, J. A. Moreno, J. R. Morante, L. Pavesi, and M. Cazzanelli, "Size dependence of lifetime and absorption cross-section of Si nanocrystals embedded in SiO2," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1595-1597 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, '"hird-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Zhan, G. Piredda, R.W. Boyd, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Dispersion of silicon nonlinearities in the near infrared region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 021111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. A. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive Measurements of Optical Nonlinearities using a Single Beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and C. Spinella, '"Correlation between luminescence and structural properties of Si nanocrystals," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 1295-1303 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, C. Bongiorno, C. Spinella, S. Boninelli, and F. Priolo, "Formation and evolution of luminescent Si nanoclusters produced by thermal annealing of SiOx films," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3723-3732 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Vijaya Prakash, M. Cazzanelli, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, and F. Priolo, "Nonlinear optical properties of silicon nanocrystals grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4607-4610 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hernández, P. Pellegrino, A. Martínez, Y. Lebour, B. Garrido, R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, E. Jordana, and J. M. Fedeli, "Linear and non-linear optical properties of Si nanocrystals in SiO2 deposited by PECVD," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 064309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics. (1)

A. Martínez, J. Blasco, P. Sanchis, R. Spano, J. V. Galán, J. García, J. M. Martínez, E. Jordana, P. Gautier, Y. Lebour, R. Guider, P. Pellegrino, S. Hernández, N. Daldosso, B. Garrido, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, and J. Martí, "Ultrafast all-optical switching on a CMOS silicon chip," submitted to Nat. Photonics.

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, and S. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phys. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

P. Sanchis, F. Cuesta-Soto, J. Blasco, J. García, A. Martínez, J. Marti, F. Riboli, and L. Pavesi, "All-optical MZI XOR logic gate based on Si slot waveguides filled by Si-nc embedded in SiO2," Group IV Photonics 3rd IEEE International Conference on, 81-83 (2006).

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, eds., Optical interconnects, (Springer Series in Optical Sciences) Vol. 119.

L. Ferraioli, P. Bellutti, N. Daldosso, V. Mulloni, and L. Pavesi, "Nitrogen Influence on the Photoluminescence Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, 0958-L07-10.

R. Spano, M. Cazzanelli, N. Daldosso, Z. Gaburro, L. Ferraioli, L. Tartara, J. Yu, V. Degiorgio, S. Hernandez, Y. Lebour, P. Pellegrino, B. Garrido, E. Jordana, J. M. Fedeli, and L. Pavesi, '"Non-linear optical properties of Si Nanocrystals," Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 958, L08-06(2007).

R. L. Sutherland, ed., Handbook of Nonlinear Optics (Marcel Dekker, New York, 2003), pp. 465, 688.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Closed aperture z-scan trace recorded from sample A annealed at T = 800°C and excited at I0= (1.05±0.4)×1012 W/cm2.. The beam waist was measured by knife edge technique and was w0=23 μm. The red curve is the result of the fit with Eq. (1). From the fit we obtained a total nonlinear phase shift (quartz substrate and Silicon nanocrystals layer) Δφ = (0.72±0.02) and a nonlinear absorption parameter B=0.08±0.01. The resulting nonlinear refractive index is n2 = (1.03±0.4) ×10-3 cm2/ W and nonlinear absorption is β= (4.4±1.5)×10-10 cm/W.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Open aperture z-scan trace recorded from sample A annealed at T = 800°C, and excited at I0=(9±3)×1011 W/cm2. The red curve is the result of the fit with Eq. (4). From the fit we obtained the total nonlinear absorption (quartz substrate and Silicon nanocrystals layer) B=0.06±0.01, the resulting nonlinear absorption is β= (2.4±0.7)×10-10 cm/ W.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Closed aperture z-scan trace recorded from sample B annealed at T=1100°C, and excited at I0= (2.3±0.8)×1011W/cm2. The red curve is the result of the fit with Eq. (2). From the fit we obtain the nonlinear phase shift (quartz substrate and Silicon nanocrystals layer) Δφ= (0.13±0.01) and a nonlinear absorption parameter B~0, the resulting nonlinear refractive index is n2= (4±2) ×10-14 cm2/ W.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Nonlinear refractive index measured at a high (top) and a low (bottom) peak intensity as a function of the Si excess for different annealing temperatures. The data for the 24% silicon excess sample have been omitted in the top plot since this sample shows a distorted z-scan trace when pumped at high intensities. In addition, the data for the 5% silicon excess sample are absent in the bottom plot since the z-scan trace at low power excitation was too weak to extract reliable nonlinear coefficients.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Z-scan trace for the sample B, annealed at T=800°C, for different peak intensities (given as a label in the plot in unit of 1011 W/cm2).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Nonlinear refraction and absolute value of the nonlinear absorption from sample B annealed at 800°C. The data are fitted with Eq. (9) and Eq. (10).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Bound-electronic nonlinear response extracted from the non-linear refractive index by fitting the procedure depicted in Equation (10) as a function of annealing temperature for the sample B (top) and as a function of Silicon excess for samples annealed at T=800°C (bottom). The temperature of the as deposited sample was labeled as T=0°C, as a convention. The lines represent only a guide for the eyes.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Linear parameters at 1550 nm with respect to the Silicon excess (Siexc). n0 refers to the linear refractive index, k to the extinction coefficient, α to the absorption coefficient and L to the sample thickness.

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Table 2. Comparison of the experimental results with the simulation data for sample B having a 8 at. % Si excess and annealed at T = 800°C. The β and n2 values are extracted from the z-scan n 2exc computed with eq. (6).

Equations (11)

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T = 1 4 B ( x 3 + 3 ) ( x 2 + 9 ) ( x 2 + 1 ) + 8 Δ φx ( x 2 + 9 ) ( x 2 + 1 ) .
B = β I 0 L eff 2 2 ,
Δ φ = 2 π I 0 L eff λ 2 n 2 .
T op = 1 B 1 + x 2 .
Δ n 2 = n 2 ( Δ ( Δ φ ) ( Δ φ ) + Δ P AVE P AVE + 2 Δ w 0 w 0 )
Δ N t = β I 0 2 2 ħ ω Δ N τ .
n 2 exc = e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 c 2 ε 0 n 0 ( 1 m ce * + 1 m ch * ) Δ N I 0
Δ n = n 2 be I 0 σ r N
N ( I ) = β 2 ħ ω t I 0 2 ( t ) dt
β = β 0 1 + ( I 0 I s ) 2
Δ n I 0 = n 2 = n 2 be C σ r I 0 1 + ( I 0 I s ) 2

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