Abstract

We consider outdoor non-line-of-sight deep ultraviolet (UV) solar blind communications at ranges up to 100 m, with different transmitter and receiver geometries. We propose an empirical channel path loss model, and fit the model based on extensive measurements. We observe range-dependent power decay with a power exponent that varies from 0.4 to 2.4 with varying geometry. We compare with the single scattering model, and show that the single scattering assumption leads to a model that is not accurate for small apex angles. Our model is then used to study fundamental communication system performance trade-offs among transmitted optical power, range, link geometry, data rate, and bit error rate. Both weak and strong solar background radiation scenarios are considered to bound detection performance. These results provide guidelines to system design.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, "Ultraviolet communications: potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67-73 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. L. Harvey, "A survey of ultraviolet communication systems," Naval Research Laboratory Technical Report, Washington D.C., March 1964.
  3. D. E. Sunstein, "A scatter communications link at ultraviolet frequencies," B.S. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1968.
  4. D. M. Reilly, "Atmospheric optical communications in the middle ultraviolet," M.S. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1976.
  5. E. S. Fishburne, M. E. Neer, and G. Sandri, "Voice communication via scattered ultraviolet radiation," final report of Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., NJ, February 1976.
  6. D. M. Junge, "Non-line-of-sight electro-optic laser communications in the middle ultraviolet," M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, December 1977.
  7. W. S. Ross and R. S. Kennedy, "An investigation of atmospheric optically scattered non-line-of-sight communication links," Army Research Office Project Report, Research Triangle Park, NC, January 1980.
  8. M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).
  12. A. M. Stark, "Ultraviolet non-line of sight digital communications," M.S. Thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, May 2003.
  13. D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).
  16. Z. Xu, "Approximate performance analysis of wireless ultraviolet links," in Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Proc. (IEEE, Honolulu, 2007).
  17. Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).
  18. G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, Z. Xu, and B. M. Sadler, "Experimental evaluation of LED-based solar blind NLOS communication links," Opt. Express 16, 15059-15068 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. R. Luettgen, J. H. Shapiro, and D. M. Reilly, "Non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1964-1972 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Xu, H. Ding, B. M. Sadler, and G. Chen, "Analytical performance study of solar blind non-line of sight ultraviolet short-range communication links," Opt. Lett. 33, 1860-1862 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications, 2nd ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995).
  22. M. R. Frey, "Information capacity of the Poisson channel," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 244-256 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (4)

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

2006 (1)

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

2004 (2)

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

Abou-Galala, F.

G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, Z. Xu, and B. M. Sadler, "Experimental evaluation of LED-based solar blind NLOS communication links," Opt. Express 16, 15059-15068 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Adivarahan, V.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asif, M.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Chitnis, A. S.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Dupuis, R. D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

Fareed, Q.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fishburne, E. S.

E. S. Fishburne, M. E. Neer, and G. Sandri, "Voice communication via scattered ultraviolet radiation," final report of Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., NJ, February 1976.

Frey, M. R.

M. R. Frey, "Information capacity of the Poisson channel," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 244-256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, G. L.

G. L. Harvey, "A survey of ultraviolet communication systems," Naval Research Laboratory Technical Report, Washington D.C., March 1964.

Katona, T.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, R. S.

W. S. Ross and R. S. Kennedy, "An investigation of atmospheric optically scattered non-line-of-sight communication links," Army Research Office Project Report, Research Triangle Park, NC, January 1980.

Khan, A.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonardi, M.

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Limb, J. B.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

Liu, H.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luettgen, M. R.

Maynard, J. A.

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mcintosh, D.

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Model, J.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, D. T.

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Neer, M. E.

E. S. Fishburne, M. E. Neer, and G. Sandri, "Voice communication via scattered ultraviolet radiation," final report of Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., NJ, February 1976.

Nischan, M. L.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reilly, D. M.

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Luettgen, J. H. Shapiro, and D. M. Reilly, "Non-line-of-sight single-scatter propagation model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 8, 1964-1972 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ross, W. S.

W. S. Ross and R. S. Kennedy, "An investigation of atmospheric optically scattered non-line-of-sight communication links," Army Research Office Project Report, Research Triangle Park, NC, January 1980.

Ryou, J. H.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

Sadler, B. M.

Sandri, G.

E. S. Fishburne, M. E. Neer, and G. Sandri, "Voice communication via scattered ultraviolet radiation," final report of Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., NJ, February 1976.

Shapiro, J. H.

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. A.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, S. C.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

Siegel, A. M.

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Srivastava, S.

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, "Ultraviolet communications: potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, H. Ding, B. M. Sadler, and G. Chen, "Analytical performance study of solar blind non-line of sight ultraviolet short-range communication links," Opt. Lett. 33, 1860-1862 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, Z. Xu, and B. M. Sadler, "Experimental evaluation of LED-based solar blind NLOS communication links," Opt. Express 16, 15059-15068 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

Yoo, D.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

Zhang, J.

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

Z. Xu and B. M. Sadler, "Ultraviolet communications: potential and state-of-the-art," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 67-73 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Zhang, A. S. Chitnis, V. Adivarahan, J. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif. Khan, "Deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes using quaternary AlInGaN multiple quantum wells," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 302-309 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Bai, D. Mcintosh, H. Liu, and J. C. Campbell, "Ultraviolet single photon detection with Geiger-mode 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1822-1824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Shen, Y. Zhang, D. Yoo, J. B. Limb, J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, and R. D. Dupuis, "Performance of deep ultraviolet GaN avalanche photodiodes grown by MOCVD," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1744-1746 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

M. R. Frey, "Information capacity of the Poisson channel," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 37, 244-256 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Adivarahan, Q. Fareed, S. Srivastava, T. Katona, M. Gaevski, and A. Khan, "Robust 285 nm deep UV light emitting diodes over metal organic hydride vapor phase epitaxially grown AlN/sapphire templates," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 537-539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

Z. Xu, G. Chen, F. Abou-Galala, and M. Leonardi, "Experimental performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication systems," Proc. SPIE 67090Y, 1-12 (2007).

D. M. Reilly, D. T. Moriarty, and J. A. Maynard, "Unique properties of solar blind ultraviolet communication systems for unattended ground sensor networks," Proc. SPIE 5611, 244-254 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, J. Model, and M. L. Nischan, "Field testing and evaluation of a solar-blind UV communication link for unattended ground sensors," Proc. SPIE 5417, 250-261 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Shaw, A. M. Siegel, and J. Model, "Extending the range and performance of non-line-of-sight ultraviolet communication links," Proc. SPIE 62310C, 1-12 (2006).

Other (9)

Z. Xu, "Approximate performance analysis of wireless ultraviolet links," in Proc. IEEE Intl. Conf. on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Proc. (IEEE, Honolulu, 2007).

R. M. Gagliardi and S. Karp, Optical Communications, 2nd ed., (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995).

A. M. Stark, "Ultraviolet non-line of sight digital communications," M.S. Thesis, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, May 2003.

G. L. Harvey, "A survey of ultraviolet communication systems," Naval Research Laboratory Technical Report, Washington D.C., March 1964.

D. E. Sunstein, "A scatter communications link at ultraviolet frequencies," B.S. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1968.

D. M. Reilly, "Atmospheric optical communications in the middle ultraviolet," M.S. Thesis, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 1976.

E. S. Fishburne, M. E. Neer, and G. Sandri, "Voice communication via scattered ultraviolet radiation," final report of Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., NJ, February 1976.

D. M. Junge, "Non-line-of-sight electro-optic laser communications in the middle ultraviolet," M.S. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, December 1977.

W. S. Ross and R. S. Kennedy, "An investigation of atmospheric optically scattered non-line-of-sight communication links," Army Research Office Project Report, Research Triangle Park, NC, January 1980.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

NLOS path loss test-bed diagram.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

LOS path loss versus distance.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

UV NLOS link geometry.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Path loss exponent α versus Rx apex angle for different Tx apex angles.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Path loss factor ξ versus Rx apex angle for different Tx apex angles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of predicted and tested path loss for different Tx and Rx angles at 100 m distance.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison with single scattering model for different Tx and Rx angles.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

BER versus path loss under Tx power 10 mW.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

BER versus communication distance under 30° Tx/Rx apex angle and 10 mW power.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

BER versus Tx/Rx apex angles at 25 m distance under 10 mW transmitted power.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

BER versus transmitted optical power for different communication distances.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

BER versus data rate with 30° Tx/Rx apex angle and 10 mW transmitted power.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L all = ξ r α e βr ,
L = ξ r α ,
BER mh = Q ( SNR ) .
BER l = 1 2 k = 0 m T ( N d + N n ) k e ( N d + N n ) k ! + 1 2 k = m T + 1 +∞ N e k e N n k ! ,
m T = a , a = N d ln ( 1 + N d N n ) .

Metrics