Abstract

Fabrication, characterization and application of periodical ferroelectric domains in ridges and Ti in-diffused ridge waveguides on X- and Y-cut Lithium Niobate (LN) are reported. The ridge waveguides of 3.5 µm height and 9 µm width were fabricated by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching followed by Ti in-diffusion into the ridges only. Appropriate electrodes on their side walls enabled domain inversion restricted to the ridge. The domain structure was investigated by selective chemical etching. Second harmonic generation in a 1.4 cm long ridge waveguide on an X-cut substrate was demonstrated at 1548 nm fundamental wavelength with an efficiency of 17% W-1

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Express 16, 1300-1320 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Harmonic blue light generation in X-cut MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Electron. Lett. 33, 806-807 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Sugita, K. Mizuuchi. Y. Kitaoka, and K. Yamamoto, "Ultraviolet light generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1751-1753 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "70+ µm deep domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use in a high-speed bandpass integrated-optic modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3852-3854 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in a domain-inverted MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguide by using a polarization axis inclined substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3048-3050 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3078-3080 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, "Efficient 340-nm light generation by a ridge-type waveguide in a first-order periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 28, 1344-1346 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Hui, Applied Physics, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn, Germany, is preparing a manuscript to be called "Self-aligned metal-deposition on ridge structures for diffusion doping and electrode definition".
  12. M. Garcia-Granda, "High bandwidth integrated optical ridge guide modulators," European Ph.D. thesis (submitted to the University of Oviedo and to the University of Paderborn in Dec. 2008).
  13. D. Hofmann, "Nichtlineare, integriert optische Frequenzkonverter für das mittlere Infrarot mit periodisch gepolten Ti:LiNbO3 -Streifenwellenleitern," 147-165, Ph.D.-thesis, University of Paderborn, 2001.
  14. G. Rosenman, V. D. Kugel, and D. Shur, "Diffusion-induced domain inversion in ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 172, 7-18 (1995).
  15. G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.
  16. R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

T. Sugita, K. Mizuuchi. Y. Kitaoka, and K. Yamamoto, "Ultraviolet light generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1751-1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "70+ µm deep domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use in a high-speed bandpass integrated-optic modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3852-3854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in a domain-inverted MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguide by using a polarization axis inclined substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3048-3050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3078-3080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Harmonic blue light generation in X-cut MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Electron. Lett. 33, 806-807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Rosenman, V. D. Kugel, and D. Shur, "Diffusion-induced domain inversion in ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 172, 7-18 (1995).

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baldenberger, G.

F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Berth, G.

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Bourliaguet, B.

F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Généreux, F.

F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gui, L.

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Hatori, M.

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3078-3080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in a domain-inverted MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguide by using a polarization axis inclined substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3048-3050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hu, H.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Hui, H.

H. Hui, Applied Physics, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn, Germany, is preparing a manuscript to be called "Self-aligned metal-deposition on ridge structures for diffusion doping and electrode definition".

Hüsch, K-P.

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Imaeda, M.

Kato, M.

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Harmonic blue light generation in X-cut MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Electron. Lett. 33, 806-807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, T.

Kishino, T.

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "70+ µm deep domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use in a high-speed bandpass integrated-optic modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3852-3854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kugel, V. D.

G. Rosenman, V. D. Kugel, and D. Shur, "Diffusion-induced domain inversion in ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 172, 7-18 (1995).

Lipson, M.

Miyazawa, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, "Efficient 340-nm light generation by a ridge-type waveguide in a first-order periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 28, 1344-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugita, K. Mizuuchi. Y. Kitaoka, and K. Yamamoto, "Ultraviolet light generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1751-1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Harmonic blue light generation in X-cut MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Electron. Lett. 33, 806-807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "70+ µm deep domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use in a high-speed bandpass integrated-optic modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3852-3854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rosenman, G.

G. Rosenman, V. D. Kugel, and D. Shur, "Diffusion-induced domain inversion in ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 172, 7-18 (1995).

Shur, D.

G. Rosenman, V. D. Kugel, and D. Shur, "Diffusion-induced domain inversion in ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 172, 7-18 (1995).

Sohler, W.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Sonoda, S.

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3078-3080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in a domain-inverted MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguide by using a polarization axis inclined substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3048-3050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, T.

K. Mizuuchi, T. Sugita, K. Yamamoto, T. Kawaguchi, T. Yoshino, and M. Imaeda, "Efficient 340-nm light generation by a ridge-type waveguide in a first-order periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3," Opt. Lett. 28, 1344-1346 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Sugita, K. Mizuuchi. Y. Kitaoka, and K. Yamamoto, "Ultraviolet light generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1751-1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, H.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tavlykaev, R. F.

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "70+ µm deep domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use in a high-speed bandpass integrated-optic modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3852-3854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruma, I.

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3078-3080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in a domain-inverted MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguide by using a polarization axis inclined substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3048-3050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Vallée, R.

F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wehrspohn, R. B.

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiedemeier, V.

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Yamamoto, K.

Yoshino, T.

Zrenner, A.

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, "Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators," Appl. Phys. B 36, 143-147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

F. Généreux, G. Baldenberger, B. Bourliaguet, and R. Vallée: "Deep periodic domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use for second harmonic generation near 1.5 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kishino, R. F. Tavlykaev, and R. V. Ramaswamy, "70+ µm deep domain inversion in X-cut LiNbO3 and its use in a high-speed bandpass integrated-optic modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3852-3854 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in a domain-inverted MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguide by using a polarization axis inclined substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3048-3050 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sonoda, I. Tsuruma, and M. Hatori, "Second harmonic generation in electric poled X-cut MgO-doped LiNbO3 waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3078-3080 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. Mizuuchi, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Harmonic blue light generation in X-cut MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Electron. Lett. 33, 806-807 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics (2)

G. Rosenman, V. D. Kugel, and D. Shur, "Diffusion-induced domain inversion in ferroelectrics," Ferroelectrics 172, 7-18 (1995).

G. Berth, V. Wiedemeier, K-P. Hüsch, L. Gui, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and A. Zrenner, "Imaging of ferroelectric micro-domains in X-cut lithium niobate by confocal second harmonic microscopy," Ferroelectrics, in press.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Hu, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, and R. B. Wehrspohn: "Lithium niobate ridge waveguides fabricated by wet etching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 417-419 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nishida, H. Miyazawa, M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, and H. Suzuki, "0-dB wavelength conversion using direct-bonded QPM-Zn:LiNbO3 ridge waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1049-1051 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sugita, K. Mizuuchi. Y. Kitaoka, and K. Yamamoto, "Ultraviolet light generation in a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, 1751-1753 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

H. Hui, Applied Physics, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn, Germany, is preparing a manuscript to be called "Self-aligned metal-deposition on ridge structures for diffusion doping and electrode definition".

M. Garcia-Granda, "High bandwidth integrated optical ridge guide modulators," European Ph.D. thesis (submitted to the University of Oviedo and to the University of Paderborn in Dec. 2008).

D. Hofmann, "Nichtlineare, integriert optische Frequenzkonverter für das mittlere Infrarot mit periodisch gepolten Ti:LiNbO3 -Streifenwellenleitern," 147-165, Ph.D.-thesis, University of Paderborn, 2001.

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