Abstract

“Diffuse correlation spectroscopy” (DCS) is a technology for non-invasive transcranial measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) that can be hybridized with “near-infrared spectroscopy” (NIRS). Taken together these methods hold potential for monitoring hemodynamics in stroke patients. We explore the utility of DCS and NIRS to measure effects of head-of-bed (HOB) positioning at 30°, 15°, 0°, -5° and 0° angles in patients with acute ischemic stroke affecting frontal cortex and in controls. HOB positioning significantly altered CBF, oxy-hemoglobin (HbO2) and total-hemoglobin (THC) concentrations. Moreover, the presence of an ipsilateral infarct was a significant effect for all parameters. Results are consistent with the notion of impaired CBF autoregulation in the infarcted hemisphere.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  86. J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

2009 (1)

C. Zhou, S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. Friess, R. Ichor, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes in Piglet Brain with Closed Head Injury," J. Neurotrauma submitted (2009).

2008 (2)

W. M. Kuebler, "How NIR is the future in blood flow monitoring?" J Appl Physiol 104, 905-906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hargroves, R. Tallis, V. Pomeroy, and A. Bhalla, "The influence of positioning upon cerebral oxygenation after acute stroke: a pilot study," Age Ageing 37, 581-585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

M. S. Damian and R. Schlosser, "Bilateral near infrared spectroscopy in space-occupying middle cerebral artery stroke," Neurocritical Care 6, 165-173 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Carandang and D. W. Krieger, "Near infrared spectroscopy: finding utility in malignant hemi- spheric stroke," Neurocritical Care 6, 161-164 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, "Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man," Journal of Biomedical Optics 12(5) (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, "Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies," Opt. Express 15, 15,507-15,516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial-spin-labeling perfusion," Opt Exp 15, 1064-75 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chieregato, A. Tanfani, C. Compagnone, R. Pascarella, L. Targa, and E. Fainardi, "Cerebral blood flow in traumatic contusions is predominantly reduced after an induced acute elevation of cerebral perfusion pressure," Neurosurgery 60, 115-123 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Asil, U. Utku, K. Balci, and I. Uzunca, "Changing cerebral blood flow velocity by transcranial Doppler during head up tilt in patients with diabetes mellitus," Clin Neurol Neurosurg 109, 1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse Optical Correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem Photobiol 82, 1279-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Lopez, C. D. Mathers, M. Ezzati, D. T. Jamison, and C. J. L. Murray, "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data," The Lancet 367(9524), 1747-1757 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-35 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. Saunders, C. M. Seghal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurement of Blood flow in Breast Tumors," Opt Lett 30, 2915-17 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Wojner-Alexander, Z. Garami, O. Y. Chernyshev, and A. V. Alexandrov, "Heads down: flat positioning improves blood flow velocity in acute ischemic stroke," Neurology 64, 1354-1357 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Paula, "Heads down: flat positioning improves blood flow velocity in acute ischemic stroke," Neurology 65, 1514-1514 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (4)

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurements of Blood Flow, Blood Oxygenation and Metabolism in Human Brain during Sensorimotor Cortex Activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 38-42 (2004).
[PubMed]

M. H. Mahagne, O. David, J. Darcourt, O. Migneco, A. Dunac, M. Chatel, and J. C. Baron, "Voxel-based mapping of cortical ischemic damage using Tc 99m L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimmer SPECT in acute stroke," J Neuroimaging 14, 23-32 (2004).
[PubMed]

R. E. Latchaw, "Cerebral perfusion imaging in acute stroke," J Vasc Interv Radiol 15(1 Pt 2), 29-46 (2004).

2003 (6)

S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, and J. F. Potter, "Serial changes in static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation after acute ischaemic stroke," Cerebrovasc Dis 16, 69-75 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Miyai, H. Yagura, M. Hatakenaka, I. Oda, I. Konishi, and K. Kubota, "Longitudinal Optical Imaging Study for Locomotor Recovery After Stroke," Stroke 34, 2866-2870 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hs, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J.. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-40 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near- infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," NeuroImage 18, 865-79 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-Infrared light propagation in an adult head model. II. Effect of superficial tissue thickness on the sensitivity of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal," Appl. Opt. 42, 2915-21 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

H. Kato, M. Izumiyama, H. Koizumi, A. Takahashi, and Y. Itoyama, "Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Topography as a Tool to Monitor Motor Reorganization After Hemiparetic Stroke: A Comparison With Functional MRI," Stroke 33, 2032-2036 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bonoczk, G. Panczel, and Z. Nagy, "Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler study," European Journal of Ultrasound 15(1-2), 85-91 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, "Effects of body position on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion in patients with large hemispheric stroke," Stroke 33, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (6)

J. C. Baron, "Mapping the ischaemic penumbra with PET: a new approach," Brain 124(Pt 1), 2-4 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Pindzola, J. R. Balzer, E. M. Nemoto, S. Goldstein, and H. Yonas, "Cerebrovascular reserve in patients with carotid occlusive disease assessed by stable xenon-enhanced ct cerebral blood flow and transcranial Doppler," Stroke 32, 1811-1817 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys Med Biol 46, 879-96. (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, "The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics," NeuroImage 13, 76-90 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. and Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kelly, A. Rudd, R. Lewis, and B. J. Hunt, "Venous thromboembolism after acute stroke," Stroke 32, 262-267 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (5)

L. A. Lipsitz, S. Mukai, J. Hamner, M. Gagnon, and V. Babikian, "Dynamic regulation of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in aging and hypertension," Stroke 31, 1897-1903 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Langhorne, D. J. Stott, L. Robertson, J. MacDonald, L. Jones, C. McAlpine, F. Dick, G. S. Taylor, and G. Murray, "Medical complications after stroke: a multicenter study," Stroke 31, 1223-1229 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Goldstein, "Should antihypertensive therapies be given to patients with acute ischemic stroke?" Drug Saf 22, 13-18 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Chalela, D. C. Alsop, J. B. Gonzalez-Atavales, J. A. Maldjian, S. E. Kasner, and J. A. Detre, "Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke using continuous arterial spin labeling," Stroke 31, 680-687 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Keller, G. Wietasch, P. Ringleb, M. Scholz, S. Schwarz, R. Stingele, S. Schwab, D. Hanley, and W. Hacke, "Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in patients with acute hemispheric stroke," Crit Care Med 28, 511-516 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

F. Vernieri, N. Rosato, F. Pauri, F. Tibuzzi, F. Passarelli, and P. M. Rossini, "Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Transcranial Doppler in Monohemispheric Stroke," Eur. Neurol. 41, 159-162 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Alexandrov, A. M. Demchuk, T. H. Wein, and J. C. Grotta, "Yield of transcranial Doppler in acute cerebral ischemia," Stroke 30, 1604-1609 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

C. Benesch and R. Holloway, "Economic Impact of Stroke and Implications for Interventions." CNS Drugs 9, 19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sakatani, Y. Xie, W. Lichty, S. Li, and H. Zuo, "Language-Activated Cerebral Blood Oxygena- tion and Hemodynamic Changes of the Left Prefrontal Cortex in Poststroke Aphasic Patients : A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study," Stroke 29(7), 1299-1304 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Kamran, D. Downey, and R. L. Ruff, "Pneumatic sequential compression reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in stroke patients," Neurology 50, 1683-1688 (1998).
[PubMed]

M. Kohl, C. Nolte, H. R. Heekeren, S. Horst, U. Scholz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor from near-infrared pulse signals," Phys Med Biol 43(6), 1771-1782 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

R. Fernandez-Crehuet, C. Diaz-Molina, J. de Irala, D. Martinez-Concha, I. Salcedo-Leal, and J. Masa-Calles, "Nosocomial infection in an intensive-care unit: identification of risk factors." Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 18, 825-830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Boas and A. G. Yodh, "Spatially varying dynamical properties of turbid media probed with diffusing temporal light correlation," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 192-215 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys Rev Lett 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304. (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

K. A. Hossmann, "Viability thresholds and the penumbra of focal ischemia," Ann Neurol 36, 557-565 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. P. Adams, B. H. Bendixen, L. J. Kappelle, J. Biller, B. B. Love, D. L. Gordon, and E. E. Marsh, "Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment," Stroke 24, 35-41 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-60 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Toth, E. O. R. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult’s head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant asa function of interoptode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by infra-red transillumination," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289- 294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, "Multiple light scattering from disordered media. The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers," Z. Phys. B 65, 409-413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. C. Bishop, S. Powell, D. Rutt, and N. L. Browse, "Transcranial Doppler measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity: a validation study," Stroke 17, 913-915 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. Astrup, B. K. Siesjo, and L. Symon, "Thresholds in cerebral ischemia - the ischemic penumbra," Stroke 12 723-725 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1905 (1)

A. Einstein, "On the motion of small particles suspended in liquids at rest required by the molecular-kinetic theory of heat," Annalen der Physik 17, 549-60 (1905).
[CrossRef]

Adams, H. P.

H. P. Adams, B. H. Bendixen, L. J. Kappelle, J. Biller, B. B. Love, D. L. Gordon, and E. E. Marsh, "Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment," Stroke 24, 35-41 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adams, J.

J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Akaike, H.

H. Akaike, "A new look at the statistical model identification," Automatic Control, IEEE Trans- actions on 19(6), 716-723 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alberts, M. J.

J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Alexandrov, A. V.

A. W. Wojner-Alexander, Z. Garami, O. Y. Chernyshev, and A. V. Alexandrov, "Heads down: flat positioning improves blood flow velocity in acute ischemic stroke," Neurology 64, 1354-1357 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Alexandrov, A. M. Demchuk, T. H. Wein, and J. C. Grotta, "Yield of transcranial Doppler in acute cerebral ischemia," Stroke 30, 1604-1609 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alsop, D. C.

J. A. Chalela, D. C. Alsop, J. B. Gonzalez-Atavales, J. A. Maldjian, S. E. Kasner, and J. A. Detre, "Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke using continuous arterial spin labeling," Stroke 31, 680-687 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Toth, E. O. R. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult’s head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant asa function of interoptode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-60 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aschoff, A.

S. Schwarz, D. Georgiadis, A. Aschoff, and S. Schwab, "Effects of body position on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion in patients with large hemispheric stroke," Stroke 33, 497-501 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asil, T.

T. Asil, U. Utku, K. Balci, and I. Uzunca, "Changing cerebral blood flow velocity by transcranial Doppler during head up tilt in patients with diabetes mellitus," Clin Neurol Neurosurg 109, 1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astrup, J.

J. Astrup, B. K. Siesjo, and L. Symon, "Thresholds in cerebral ischemia - the ischemic penumbra," Stroke 12 723-725 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Babikian, V.

L. A. Lipsitz, S. Mukai, J. Hamner, M. Gagnon, and V. Babikian, "Dynamic regulation of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in aging and hypertension," Stroke 31, 1897-1903 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balci, K.

T. Asil, U. Utku, K. Balci, and I. Uzunca, "Changing cerebral blood flow velocity by transcranial Doppler during head up tilt in patients with diabetes mellitus," Clin Neurol Neurosurg 109, 1-6 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balzer, J. R.

R. R. Pindzola, J. R. Balzer, E. M. Nemoto, S. Goldstein, and H. Yonas, "Cerebrovascular reserve in patients with carotid occlusive disease assessed by stable xenon-enhanced ct cerebral blood flow and transcranial Doppler," Stroke 32, 1811-1817 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbier, E.

M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baron, J. C.

M. H. Mahagne, O. David, J. Darcourt, O. Migneco, A. Dunac, M. Chatel, and J. C. Baron, "Voxel-based mapping of cortical ischemic damage using Tc 99m L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimmer SPECT in acute stroke," J Neuroimaging 14, 23-32 (2004).
[PubMed]

J. C. Baron, "Mapping the ischaemic penumbra with PET: a new approach," Brain 124(Pt 1), 2-4 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bendixen, B. H.

H. P. Adams, B. H. Bendixen, L. J. Kappelle, J. Biller, B. B. Love, D. L. Gordon, and E. E. Marsh, "Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment," Stroke 24, 35-41 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benesch, C.

C. Benesch and R. Holloway, "Economic Impact of Stroke and Implications for Interventions." CNS Drugs 9, 19 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhalla, A.

D. Hargroves, R. Tallis, V. Pomeroy, and A. Bhalla, "The influence of positioning upon cerebral oxygenation after acute stroke: a pilot study," Age Ageing 37, 581-585 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatt, D. L.

J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Biller, J.

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G. Strangman, M. A. Franceschini, and D. A. Boas, "Factors affecting the accuracy of near- infrared spectroscopy concentration calculations for focal changes in oxygenation parameters," NeuroImage 18, 865-79 (2003).
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P. Bonoczk, G. Panczel, and Z. Nagy, "Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler study," European Journal of Ultrasound 15(1-2), 85-91 (2002).
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M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
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C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
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C. C. Bishop, S. Powell, D. Rutt, and N. L. Browse, "Transcranial Doppler measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity: a validation study," Stroke 17, 913-915 (1986).
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Busch, T. M.

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem Photobiol 82, 1279-84 (2006).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. Saunders, C. M. Seghal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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Caille, J. M.

M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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D. A. Boas, L. E. Campbell, and A. G. Yodh, "Scattering and Imaging with Diffusing Temporal Field Correlations," Phys Rev Lett 75, 1855-1858 (1995).
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R. Carandang and D. W. Krieger, "Near infrared spectroscopy: finding utility in malignant hemi- spheric stroke," Neurocritical Care 6, 161-164 (2007).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and Herbolzheimer, "Diffusing-wave spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1134-1137 (1988).
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J. A. Chalela, D. C. Alsop, J. B. Gonzalez-Atavales, J. A. Maldjian, S. E. Kasner, and J. A. Detre, "Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke using continuous arterial spin labeling," Stroke 31, 680-687 (2000).
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A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time- dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscle Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J Biomed Opt 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J Biomed Opt 11, 064,021 (2006).
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M. H. Mahagne, O. David, J. Darcourt, O. Migneco, A. Dunac, M. Chatel, and J. C. Baron, "Voxel-based mapping of cortical ischemic damage using Tc 99m L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimmer SPECT in acute stroke," J Neuroimaging 14, 23-32 (2004).
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Cheng, X.

D. A. Boas, T. Gaudette, G. Strangman, X. Cheng, J. J. A. Marota, and J. B. Mandeville, "The Accuracy of Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging during Focal Changes in Cerebral Hemodynamics," NeuroImage 13, 76-90 (2001).
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A. W. Wojner-Alexander, Z. Garami, O. Y. Chernyshev, and A. V. Alexandrov, "Heads down: flat positioning improves blood flow velocity in acute ischemic stroke," Neurology 64, 1354-1357 (2005).
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J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-24 (2003).
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C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hs, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J.. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-40 (2003).
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C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. and Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
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A. Chieregato, A. Tanfani, C. Compagnone, R. Pascarella, L. Targa, and E. Fainardi, "Cerebral blood flow in traumatic contusions is predominantly reduced after an induced acute elevation of cerebral perfusion pressure," Neurosurgery 60, 115-123 (2007).
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Choe, R.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurement of Blood flow in Breast Tumors," Opt Lett 30, 2915-17 (2005).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J Biomed Opt 11, 064,021 (2006).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304. (1995).
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A. Chieregato, A. Tanfani, C. Compagnone, R. Pascarella, L. Targa, and E. Fainardi, "Cerebral blood flow in traumatic contusions is predominantly reduced after an induced acute elevation of cerebral perfusion pressure," Neurosurgery 60, 115-123 (2007).
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Cope, M.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304. (1995).
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S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-60 (1992).
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M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by infra-red transillumination," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289- 294 (1988).
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Culver, J. P.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-24 (2003).
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C. Menon, G. M. Polin, I. Prabakaran, A. Hs, C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, J.. Pingpank, C. S. Sehgal, A. G. Yodh, D. G. Buerk, and D. L. Fraker, "An Integrated Approach to Measuring Tumor Oxygen Status using Human Melanoma Xenografts as a Model," Cancer Res. 63, 7232-40 (2003).
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C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. and Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
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Czerniecki, B. J.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurement of Blood flow in Breast Tumors," Opt Lett 30, 2915-17 (2005).
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M. S. Damian and R. Schlosser, "Bilateral near infrared spectroscopy in space-occupying middle cerebral artery stroke," Neurocritical Care 6, 165-173 (2007).
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M. H. Mahagne, O. David, J. Darcourt, O. Migneco, A. Dunac, M. Chatel, and J. C. Baron, "Voxel-based mapping of cortical ischemic damage using Tc 99m L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimmer SPECT in acute stroke," J Neuroimaging 14, 23-32 (2004).
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M. H. Mahagne, O. David, J. Darcourt, O. Migneco, A. Dunac, M. Chatel, and J. C. Baron, "Voxel-based mapping of cortical ischemic damage using Tc 99m L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimmer SPECT in acute stroke," J Neuroimaging 14, 23-32 (2004).
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S. L. Dawson, R. B. Panerai, and J. F. Potter, "Serial changes in static and dynamic cerebral autoregulation after acute ischaemic stroke," Cerebrovasc Dis 16, 69-75 (2003).
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R. Fernandez-Crehuet, C. Diaz-Molina, J. de Irala, D. Martinez-Concha, I. Salcedo-Leal, and J. Masa-Calles, "Nosocomial infection in an intensive-care unit: identification of risk factors." Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 18, 825-830 (1997).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Delpy, D. T.

E. Okada and D. T. Delpy, "Near-Infrared light propagation in an adult head model. II. Effect of superficial tissue thickness on the sensitivity of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal," Appl. Opt. 42, 2915-21 (2003).
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A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304. (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Toth, E. O. R. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult’s head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant asa function of interoptode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
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S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis," Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531-60 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cope and D. T. Delpy, "System for long-term measurement of cerebral blood flow and tissue oxygenation on newborn infants by infra-red transillumination," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 26, 289- 294 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, and J. Wyatt, "Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement," Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433-1442 (1988).
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A. V. Alexandrov, A. M. Demchuk, T. H. Wein, and J. C. Grotta, "Yield of transcranial Doppler in acute cerebral ischemia," Stroke 30, 1604-1609 (1999).
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Detre, J. A.

G. Yu, T. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial-spin-labeling perfusion," Opt Exp 15, 1064-75 (2007).
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T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurements of Blood Flow, Blood Oxygenation and Metabolism in Human Brain during Sensorimotor Cortex Activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
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J. A. Chalela, D. C. Alsop, J. B. Gonzalez-Atavales, J. A. Maldjian, S. E. Kasner, and J. A. Detre, "Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke using continuous arterial spin labeling," Stroke 31, 680-687 (2000).
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Diaz-Molina, C.

R. Fernandez-Crehuet, C. Diaz-Molina, J. de Irala, D. Martinez-Concha, I. Salcedo-Leal, and J. Masa-Calles, "Nosocomial infection in an intensive-care unit: identification of risk factors." Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 18, 825-830 (1997).
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P. Langhorne, D. J. Stott, L. Robertson, J. MacDonald, L. Jones, C. McAlpine, F. Dick, G. S. Taylor, and G. Murray, "Medical complications after stroke: a multicenter study," Stroke 31, 1223-1229 (2000).
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J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044,002-1-044,002-12 (2005).
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M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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Dohmen, C.

C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
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Dousset, V.

M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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S. I. Kamran, D. Downey, and R. L. Ruff, "Pneumatic sequential compression reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in stroke patients," Neurology 50, 1683-1688 (1998).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J Biomed Opt 11, 064,021 (2006).
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Dunac, A.

M. H. Mahagne, O. David, J. Darcourt, O. Migneco, A. Dunac, M. Chatel, and J. C. Baron, "Voxel-based mapping of cortical ischemic damage using Tc 99m L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimmer SPECT in acute stroke," J Neuroimaging 14, 23-32 (2004).
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Duncan, A.

A. Duncan, J. H. Meek, M. Clemence, C. E. Elwell, L. Tyszczuk, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, "Optical pathlength measurements on adult head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant using phase resolved optical spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 295-304. (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

C. Zhou, S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. Friess, R. Ichor, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes in Piglet Brain with Closed Head Injury," J. Neurotrauma submitted (2009).

G. Yu, T. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial-spin-labeling perfusion," Opt Exp 15, 1064-75 (2007).
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U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, "Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies," Opt. Express 15, 15,507-15,516 (2007).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem Photobiol 82, 1279-84 (2006).
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C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse Optical Correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-44 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. Saunders, C. M. Seghal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurement of Blood flow in Breast Tumors," Opt Lett 30, 2915-17 (2005).
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T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurements of Blood Flow, Blood Oxygenation and Metabolism in Human Brain during Sensorimotor Cortex Activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-24 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J Biomed Opt 11, 064,021 (2006).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time- dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscle Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J Biomed Opt 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
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P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Toth, E. O. R. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult’s head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant asa function of interoptode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
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C. Zhou, S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. Friess, R. Ichor, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes in Piglet Brain with Closed Head Injury," J. Neurotrauma submitted (2009).

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A. D. Lopez, C. D. Mathers, M. Ezzati, D. T. Jamison, and C. J. L. Murray, "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data," The Lancet 367(9524), 1747-1757 (2006).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem Photobiol 82, 1279-84 (2006).
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G. Yu, T. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial-spin-labeling perfusion," Opt Exp 15, 1064-75 (2007).
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C. Zhou, S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. Friess, R. Ichor, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes in Piglet Brain with Closed Head Injury," J. Neurotrauma submitted (2009).

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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Furuya, D.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse Optical Correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-44 (2006).
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J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-24 (2003).
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L. A. Lipsitz, S. Mukai, J. Hamner, M. Gagnon, and V. Babikian, "Dynamic regulation of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in aging and hypertension," Stroke 31, 1897-1903 (2000).
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J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044,002-1-044,002-12 (2005).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. Saunders, C. M. Seghal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
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M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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J. A. Chalela, D. C. Alsop, J. B. Gonzalez-Atavales, J. A. Maldjian, S. E. Kasner, and J. A. Detre, "Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke using continuous arterial spin labeling," Stroke 31, 680-687 (2000).
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H. P. Adams, B. H. Bendixen, L. J. Kappelle, J. Biller, B. B. Love, D. L. Gordon, and E. E. Marsh, "Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment," Stroke 24, 35-41 (1993).
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C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
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M. Wintermark, M. Sesay, E. Barbier, K. Borbely, W. P. Dillon, J. D. Eastwood, T. C. Glenn, C. B. Grandin, S. Pedraza, J. F. Soustiel, T. Nariai, G. Zaharchuk, J. M. Caille, V. Dousset, and H. Yonas, "Comparative overview of brain perfusion imaging techniques," Stroke 36, 83-99 (2005).
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Greenberg, J. H.

C. Zhou, G. Yu, D. Furuya, J. H. Greenberg, A. G. Yodh, and T. Durduran, "Diffuse Optical Correlation tomography of cerebral blood flow during cortical spreading depression in rat brain," Opt. Express 14, 1125-44 (2006).
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T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurements of Blood Flow, Blood Oxygenation and Metabolism in Human Brain during Sensorimotor Cortex Activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
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J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Tomography of Cerebral Blood Flow, Oxygenation and Metabolism in Rat During Focal Ischemia," J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911-24 (2003).
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C. Cheung, J. P. Culver, K. Takahashi, J. H. Greenberg, and A. G. Yodh, "In vivo cerebrovascular measurement combining diffuse near-infrared absorption and correlation spectroscopies," Phys. Med. and Biol. 46, 2053-2065 (2001).
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A. V. Alexandrov, A. M. Demchuk, T. H. Wein, and J. C. Grotta, "Yield of transcranial Doppler in acute cerebral ischemia," Stroke 30, 1604-1609 (1999).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Hacke, W.

E. Keller, G. Wietasch, P. Ringleb, M. Scholz, S. Schwarz, R. Stingele, S. Schwab, D. Hanley, and W. Hacke, "Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in patients with acute hemispheric stroke," Crit Care Med 28, 511-516 (2000).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, T. C. Zhu, J. C. Finlay, T. M. Busch, S. B. Malkowicz, S. M. Hahn, and A. G. Yodh, "Real-time In situ Monitoring of Human Prostate Photodynamic Therapy with Diffuse Light," Photochem Photobiol 82, 1279-84 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamner, J.

L. A. Lipsitz, S. Mukai, J. Hamner, M. Gagnon, and V. Babikian, "Dynamic regulation of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in aging and hypertension," Stroke 31, 1897-1903 (2000).
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E. Keller, G. Wietasch, P. Ringleb, M. Scholz, S. Schwarz, R. Stingele, S. Schwab, D. Hanley, and W. Hacke, "Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in patients with acute hemispheric stroke," Crit Care Med 28, 511-516 (2000).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Harscher, S.

C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 38-42 (2004).
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C. Dohmen, B. Bosche, R. Graf, T. Reithmeier, R. I. Ernestus, G. Brinker, J. Sobesky, and W. D. Heiss, "Identification and clinical impact of impaired cerebrovascular autoregulation in patients with malignant middle cerebral artery infarction," Stroke 38, 56-61 (2007).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

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E. M. C. Hillman, "Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man," Journal of Biomedical Optics 12(5) (2007).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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C. Zhou, S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. Friess, R. Ichor, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes in Piglet Brain with Closed Head Injury," J. Neurotrauma submitted (2009).

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, "Noninvasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 044,002-1-044,002-12 (2005).
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A. D. Lopez, C. D. Mathers, M. Ezzati, D. T. Jamison, and C. J. L. Murray, "Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data," The Lancet 367(9524), 1747-1757 (2006).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

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P. Langhorne, D. J. Stott, L. Robertson, J. MacDonald, L. Jones, C. McAlpine, F. Dick, G. S. Taylor, and G. Murray, "Medical complications after stroke: a multicenter study," Stroke 31, 1223-1229 (2000).
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H. P. Adams, B. H. Bendixen, L. J. Kappelle, J. Biller, B. B. Love, D. L. Gordon, and E. E. Marsh, "Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment," Stroke 24, 35-41 (1993).
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J. A. Chalela, D. C. Alsop, J. B. Gonzalez-Atavales, J. A. Maldjian, S. E. Kasner, and J. A. Detre, "Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in acute ischemic stroke using continuous arterial spin labeling," Stroke 31, 680-687 (2000).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

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C. Zhou, S. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. Friess, R. Ichor, S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Monitoring of Hemodynamic Changes in Piglet Brain with Closed Head Injury," J. Neurotrauma submitted (2009).

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F. Vernieri, N. Rosato, F. Pauri, F. Tibuzzi, F. Passarelli, and P. M. Rossini, "Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Transcranial Doppler in Monohemispheric Stroke," Eur. Neurol. 41, 159-162 (1999).
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G. Yu, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, H. W. Wang, M. E. Putt, M. Saunders, C. M. Seghal, E. Glatstein, A. G. Yodh, and T. M. Busch, "Noninvasive Monitoring of Murine Tumor Blood Flow During and After Photodynamic Therapy Provides Early Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy," Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 3543-3552 (2005).
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E. Keller, G. Wietasch, P. Ringleb, M. Scholz, S. Schwarz, R. Stingele, S. Schwab, D. Hanley, and W. Hacke, "Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow in patients with acute hemispheric stroke," Crit Care Med 28, 511-516 (2000).
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P. Langhorne, D. J. Stott, L. Robertson, J. MacDonald, L. Jones, C. McAlpine, F. Dick, G. S. Taylor, and G. Murray, "Medical complications after stroke: a multicenter study," Stroke 31, 1223-1229 (2000).
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J. Astrup, B. K. Siesjo, and L. Symon, "Thresholds in cerebral ischemia - the ischemic penumbra," Stroke 12 723-725 (1981).
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P. Langhorne, D. J. Stott, L. Robertson, J. MacDonald, L. Jones, C. McAlpine, F. Dick, G. S. Taylor, and G. Murray, "Medical complications after stroke: a multicenter study," Stroke 31, 1223-1229 (2000).
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T. Durduran, R. Choe, G. Yu, C. Zhou, J. C. Tchou, B. J. Czerniecki, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurement of Blood flow in Breast Tumors," Opt Lett 30, 2915-17 (2005).
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C. Terborg, S. Bramer, S. Harscher, M. Simon, and O. W. Witte, "Bedside assessment of cerebral perfusion reductions in patients with acute ischaemic stroke by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green," J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 75, 38-42 (2004).
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F. Vernieri, N. Rosato, F. Pauri, F. Tibuzzi, F. Passarelli, and P. M. Rossini, "Near Infrared Spectroscopy and Transcranial Doppler in Monohemispheric Stroke," Eur. Neurol. 41, 159-162 (1999).
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P. van der Zee, M. Cope, S. R. Arridge, M. Essenpreis, L. A. Potter, A. D. Edwards, J. S. Wyatt, D. C. McCormick, S. C. Toth, E. O. R. Reynolds, and D. T. Delpy, "Experimentally measured optical pathlengths for the adult’s head, calf and forearm and the head of the newborn infant asa function of interoptode spacing," Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 316, 143-153 (1992).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-35 (2005).
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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys Med Biol 46, 879-96. (2001).
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M. Kohl, C. Nolte, H. R. Heekeren, S. Horst, U. Scholz, H. Obrig, and A. Villringer, "Determination of the wavelength dependence of the differential pathlength factor from near-infrared pulse signals," Phys Med Biol 43(6), 1771-1782 (1998).
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J. Adams, HaroldP , G. del Zoppo, M. J. Alberts, D. L. Bhatt, L. Brass, A. Furlan, R. L. Grubb, R. T. Higashida, E. C. Jauch, C. Kidwell, P. D. Lyden, L. B. Morgenstern, A. I. Qureshi, R. H. Rosenwasser, P. A. Scott, and E. F. Wijdicks, "Guidelines for the Early Management of Adults With Ischemic Stroke,".

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, J. Steinbrink, M. Moller, R. Macdonald, H. Rinneberg, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, "Bed-side assessment of cerebral perfusion in stroke patients based on optical monitoring of a dye bolus by time-resolved diffuse reflectance," Neuroimage 24, 426-35 (2005).
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J. Steinbrink, H. Wabnitz, H. Obrig, A. Villringer, and H. Rinneberg, "Determining changes in NIR absorption using a layered model of the human head," Phys Med Biol 46, 879-96. (2001).
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U. Sunar, S. Makonnen, C. Zhou, T. Durduran, G. Yu, H. W. Wang, W. M. Lee, and A. G. Yodh, "Hemodynamic responses to antivascular therapy and ionizing radiation assessed by diffuse optical spectroscopies," Opt. Express 15, 15,507-15,516 (2007).
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G. Yu, T. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial-spin-labeling perfusion," Opt Exp 15, 1064-75 (2007).
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G. Yu, T. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, "Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial-spin-labeling perfusion," Opt Exp 15, 1064-75 (2007).
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T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse Optical Measurements of Blood Flow, Blood Oxygenation and Metabolism in Human Brain during Sensorimotor Cortex Activation," Opt. Lett. 29, 1766-1768 (2004).
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C. Zhou, R. Choe, N. Shah, T. Durduran, G. Yu, A. Durkin, D. Hsiang, R. Mehta, J. Butler, A. Cerussi, B. J. Tromberg, and A. G. Yodh, "Diffuse optical monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation in human breast cancer during early stages of neoadjuvant chemotherapy," J Biomed Opt 12, 051,903 (2007).
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U. Sunar, H. Quon, T. Durduran, J. Zhang, J. Du, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, A. Kilger, R. Lustig, L. Loevner, S. Nioka, B. Chance, and A. G. Yodh, "Non-invasive diffuse optical measurement of blood flow and blood oxygenation for monitoring radiation therapy in patients with head and neck tumors: a pilot study," J Biomed Opt 11, 064,021 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, T. Durduran, G. Lech, C. Zhou, B. Chance, E. R. Mohler, and A. G. Yodh, "Time- dependent Blood Flow and Oxygenation in Human Skeletal Muscle Measured with Noninvasive Near-infrared Diffuse Optical Spectroscopies," J Biomed Opt 10, 024,027-1-12 (2005).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the measurement protocol (top), the probe positioning (middle), and the corresponding volume interrogated by the diffusing photons . (Bottom) Sample intensity auto-correlation data measured at HOB = 30° and -5°.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation in CBF due to HOB positioning on first study day from peri- and contra-infarct hemispheres are shown for all patients (different color per patient)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) rCBF30° and (b) ∆THC30° as a function of time with HOB angle from a patient with right MCA occlusion. HOB position is a significant factor in both hemispheres, but a larger effect is observed in the infarct (right) hemisphere. Blue(gray) indicate left(right) hemispheres.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

rCBF30° (a) and ∆THC30° (b) changes over time with HOB angle in a subject with vascular risk factors. Blue(gray) lines indicate left(right) hemispheres. Thick vertical bars indicate HOB changes to the labeled angle.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Detailed patient characteristics (see Section 2.1 for details).

Tables Icon

Table 2. Statistical findings in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) group. SEM=Standard Error of Mean. Bold font implies statistical significance .

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ A ( t , λ ) = ln I ( t , λ ) I 0 ( < t 30 ° > , λ ) = Δ μ a ( t , λ ) DPF ( λ ) r .
[ Δ μ a ( λ 1 , t ) Δ μ a ( λ 2 , t ) ] = [ H b ( λ 1 , t ) H b O 2 ( λ 1 , t ) H b ( λ 2 , t ) H b O 2 ( λ 2 , t ) ] [ Δ H b ( t ) Δ H b O 2 ( t ) ] .
G 1 ( r , t , τ ) = 3 μ s 4 π ( e K ( t , τ ) r r e K ( t , τ ) r 2 r 2 ) ,
g 2 ( r , t , τ ) = 1 + β g 1 ( r , t , τ ) 2 .

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