Abstract

Red upconversion (UC) emission at 626 nm is obtained from a LiNbO3 crystal codoped with Er3+ and Eu3+ under 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation. Energy transfer from (2H11/2,4S3/2) levels of Er3+, which are excited by excited state absorptions, to 5D1 of Eu3+ followed by cascade to 5D0 nonradiatively leads to this red UC emission. The energy transfer efficiency of ~30% is obtained in LiNbO3:Er3+(1.0 mol%),Eu3+(0.1 mol%). These initial experimental results indicate that the red UC emission can be obtained from Er3+/Eu3+ codoped system under diode laser excitation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth,and R. M. Macfarlane, "Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977-1979 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Graydon, "Jets of molten metal make industrial parts," Opto & Laser Europe 47, 15-20 (1998).
  5. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Jaque, J. Capmany, and J. G. Sole, "Continuous wave laser radiation at 669 nm from a self-frequency-doubled laser of YAl3(BO3)4:Nd3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1788-1790 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. P. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakud, and S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in Yb3+/Eu3+ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, M. Cha, and H. J. Seo, "Energy transfer in clustered sites of Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1990-1995 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, "Influence of Energy Transfer by the Exchange Mechanism on Donor Luminescence," J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Hayakawa, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, "Excitation-emission properties of Er3+ ions doped in nonlinear optical TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO glass by 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1092-1095 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "Nd3+ → Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118-9 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. Z. Chen, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, A. H. Li, and W. L. Liu, "Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in In3+-doped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. (In revision).
    [PubMed]
  23. J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and Hempstead, "Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transition in lithium niobate," J. Lumin. 69, 17-26 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Hayakawa, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, "Excitation-emission properties of Er3+ ions doped in nonlinear optical TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO glass by 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1092-1095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakud, and S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in Yb3+/Eu3+ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. P. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "Nd3+ → Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Ju, M.-H. Lee, M. Cha, and H. J. Seo, "Energy transfer in clustered sites of Er3+ ions in LiNbO3 crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1990-1995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, and J. G. Sole, "Continuous wave laser radiation at 669 nm from a self-frequency-doubled laser of YAl3(BO3)4:Nd3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1788-1790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

O. Graydon, "Jets of molten metal make industrial parts," Opto & Laser Europe 47, 15-20 (1998).

1996 (2)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and Hempstead, "Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transition in lithium niobate," J. Lumin. 69, 17-26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth,and R. M. Macfarlane, "Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977-1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, "Influence of Energy Transfer by the Exchange Mechanism on Donor Luminescence," J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alvarez, E. R.

E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amin, J.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and Hempstead, "Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transition in lithium niobate," J. Lumin. 69, 17-26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andresen, ¨A.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bahar, A. N.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Betzler, K.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.-C.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bueno, L. A.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Capmany, J.

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, and J. G. Sole, "Continuous wave laser radiation at 669 nm from a self-frequency-doubled laser of YAl3(BO3)4:Nd3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1788-1790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J. A.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. Z.

H. Z. Chen, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, A. H. Li, and W. L. Liu, "Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in In3+-doped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. (In revision).
[PubMed]

Conradi, D.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

da Costa, E. B.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Silva, E. A.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

da Vila, L. D.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

do Nascimento, R. F.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

do Nascimento, V. B.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dominiak-Dzik, G.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dussardier, B.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and Hempstead, "Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transition in lithium niobate," J. Lumin. 69, 17-26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, Y.

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakud, and S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in Yb3+/Eu3+ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J.

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foldvari, I.

E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Adeva, A. J.

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Golab, S.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, L.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gouveia-Neto, A. S.

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Graydon, O.

O. Graydon, "Jets of molten metal make industrial parts," Opto & Laser Europe 47, 15-20 (1998).

Guyot, Y.

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, M.

T. Hayakawa, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, "Excitation-emission properties of Er3+ ions doped in nonlinear optical TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO glass by 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1092-1095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, T.

T. Hayakawa, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, "Excitation-emission properties of Er3+ ions doped in nonlinear optical TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO glass by 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1092-1095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirayama, F.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, "Influence of Energy Transfer by the Exchange Mechanism on Donor Luminescence," J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Hommerich, U.

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hreniak, D.

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Inokuti, M.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, "Influence of Energy Transfer by the Exchange Mechanism on Donor Luminescence," J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "Nd3+ → Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, and J. G. Sole, "Continuous wave laser radiation at 669 nm from a self-frequency-doubled laser of YAl3(BO3)4:Nd3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1788-1790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ju, J. J.

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.-H.

Lenth, W.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth,and R. M. Macfarlane, "Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977-1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, A. H.

H. Z. Chen, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, A. H. Li, and W. L. Liu, "Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in In3+-doped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. (In revision).
[PubMed]

Lukasiewicz, T.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth,and R. M. Macfarlane, "Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977-1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Messadeq, Y.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Naccache, R.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Newkirk, H. W.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

T. Hayakawa, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, "Excitation-emission properties of Er3+ ions doped in nonlinear optical TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO glass by 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1092-1095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. P. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nyein, E. E.

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oprea, I. I.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pandozzi, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pankrath, R.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Polgar, K.

E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rai, S. B.

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakud, and S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in Yb3+/Eu3+ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M. O.

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "Nd3+ → Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and Hempstead, "Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transition in lithium niobate," J. Lumin. 69, 17-26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seo, H. J.

Silversmith, A. J.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth,and R. M. Macfarlane, "Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977-1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, P.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Somesfalean, G.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sosa, R. F.

E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strek, W.

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

H. Z. Chen, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, A. H. Li, and W. L. Liu, "Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in In3+-doped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. (In revision).
[PubMed]

Sun, Q.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tarelho, V. G.

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thakud, S. N.

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakud, and S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in Yb3+/Eu3+ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voelker, U.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F. P.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wannemacher, R.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wohlecke, M.

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, H. P.

H. P. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. G.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z. R.

H. Z. Chen, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, A. H. Li, and W. L. Liu, "Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in In3+-doped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. (In revision).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Dwivedi, S. N. Thakud, and S. B. Rai, "Study of frequency upconversion in Yb3+/Eu3+ by cooperative energy transfer in oxyfluoroborate glass matrix," Appl. Phys. B 89, 45-51 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth,and R. M. Macfarlane, "Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977-1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, "Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er:YLiF4," Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1727-1729 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, J. Capmany, and J. G. Sole, "Continuous wave laser radiation at 669 nm from a self-frequency-doubled laser of YAl3(BO3)4:Nd3+," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1788-1790 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Chen, Y. G. Zhang, G. Somesfalean, Z. G. Zhang, Q. Sun, and F. P. Wang, "Two-color upconversion in rare-earth-ion-doped ZrO2 nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163105-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Gouveia-Neto, L. A. Bueno, R. F. do Nascimento, E. A. da Silva, Jr., E. B. da Costa, and V. B. do Nascimento, "White light generation by frequency upconversion in Tm3+/Ho3+/Yb3+-codoped fluorolead germinate glass," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091114-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. You and M. Nogami, "Three-photon-excited fluorescence of Al2O3-SiO2 glass containing Eu3+ ions by femtosecond laser irradiation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 2076-2078 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Hreniak, W. Strek, A. Speghini, M. Bettinelli, G. Boulon, and Y. Guyot, "Infrared induced red luminescence of Eu3+-doped polycrystalline LiNbO3," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 161118-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, G. Dominiak-Dzik, P. Solarz, and T. Lukasiewicz, "Conversion of infrared radiation into red emission in YVO4:Yb,Ho," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3026-3028 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, H. W. Newkirk, L. L. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, "LiCaAlF6:Cr3+: A Promising New Solid-State Laser Material," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 2243-2252 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. D. da Vila, L. Gomes, V. G. Tarelho, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Messadeq, "Mechanism of the Yb-Er energy transfer in fluorozirconate glass," J. Appl. Phys. 93, 3873-3880 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Hayakawa, M. Hayakawa, and M. Nogami, "Excitation-emission properties of Er3+ ions doped in nonlinear optical TeO2-Nb2O5-ZnO glass by 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation," J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 116, 1092-1095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, "Influence of Energy Transfer by the Exchange Mechanism on Donor Luminescence," J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978-1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

J. Amin, B. Dussardier, T. Schweizer, and Hempstead, "Spectroscopic analysis of Er3+ transition in lithium niobate," J. Lumin. 69, 17-26 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

F. Pandozzi, F. Vetrone, J.-C. Boyer, R. Naccache, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "A spectroscopic analysis of blue and ultraviolet upconverted emissions from Gd3Ga5O12:Tm3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 17400-17405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opto & Laser Europe (1)

O. Graydon, "Jets of molten metal make industrial parts," Opto & Laser Europe 47, 15-20 (1998).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. J. Garcia-Adeva, R. Balda, J. Fernandez, E. E. Nyein, and U. Hommerich, "Dynamics of the infrared-to-visible upconversion in an Er3+doped KPb2Br5 crystal," Phys. Rev. B 72, 165116-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, M. O. Ramirez, L. E. Bausa, J. G. Sole, E. Cavalli, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, "Nd3+ → Yb3+ energy transfer in the YAl3(BO3)4 nonlinear laser crystal," Phys. Rev. B 68, 035118-9 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rew. B (1)

A. Andresen, A. N. Bahar, D. Conradi, I. I. Oprea, R. Pankrath, U. Voelker, K. Betzler, M. Wohlecke, U. Caldino, E.Martın, D. Jaque, and J. G. Sole, "Spectroscopy of Eu3+ ions in congruent strontium barium niobate crystals," Phys. Rew. B 77, 214102-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

E. R. Alvarez, R. F. Sosa, I. F¨oldvari, K. Polgar, A. Peter, and A. F. Munoz, "Co-emission of Tb3+ and Eu3+ ions in LiNbO3:,Tb3+, Eu3+ single crystals, " Phys. Stat. Sol. (c)  4, 826-829 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, "A Three-Color, Solid-State, Three-Dimensionla Display," Science 273, 1185-1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Z. Chen, Z. R. Zheng, L. Sun, A. H. Li, and W. L. Liu, "Spectroscopic analysis of Eu3+ in In3+-doped LiNbO3 crystals," J. Appl. Phys. (In revision).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Red and green UC emission spectrum of LiNbO3:Er3+,Eu3+ crystal under 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation at room temperature.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Double logarithmic plot of the pump energy dependence of the UC emission intensities of LiNbO3:Er3+,Eu3+ under 800 nm laser excitation at room temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Color online) Time evolution of red UC emission after 800 nm femtosecond laser excitation with pump energy of 50μJ/pulse at room temperature. The open dots are the experimental points and full line corresponds to the best fitting to Eq. (2). The inset shows the Er3+ decay curve at 550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(Color online) Temperature dependence of the integrated red UC emission and the SHG intensities and the intensity ratios of red emission to SHG under 800 nm laser excitation. The insets show the emission spectra obtained at 45 and 160 °C.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Energy levels scheme of Er3+ and Eu3+ and proposed UC emission processes. The solid, jagged, and dashed arrows denote radiative transitions, multiphonon relaxations, and ET, respectively. Ground state absorption is abbreviated to GSA.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I UC P pumo n ,
I ( t ) = k [ exp ( t τ A ) exp ( γ 6 t t τ D ) ] ,
η t = α 1 η Eu 583 nm 720 nm I 1 um Eu ( λ ) d λ α 2 η Er β Er 510 nm 570 nm I 1 um Er ( λ ) d λ + α 1 η Eu 583 nm 720 nm I 1 um Eu ( λ ) d λ ,

Metrics