Abstract

Non-invasive methods of probing retinal function are of interest for the early detection of retinal disease. While retinal function is traditionally directly measured with the electroretinogram (ERG), recently functional optical imaging of the retina has been demonstrated. In this manuscript, stimulus-induced, intrinsic optical scattering changes in the human retina are measured in vivo with high-speed, ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) operating at 50,000 axial scans per second and ~3.3 micron axial resolution. A stimulus and measurement protocol that enables measurement of functional OCT retinal signals is described. OCT signal changes in the photoreceptors are demonstrated. Two distinct responses having different temporal and spatial properties are reported. These results are discussed in the context of optical intrinsic signals measured previously in the retina by fundus imaging and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Finally, challenges associated with in vivo functional retinal imaging in human subjects are discussed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
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  25. M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, "Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 47, 715-721 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Dynamic neuroimaging of retinal light responses using fast intrinsic optical signals," Neuroimage 33, 898-906 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. X. C. Yao, A. Yamauchi, B. Perry, and J. S. George, "Rapid optical coherence tomography and recording functional scattering changes from activated frog retina," Appl. Opt. 44, 2019-2023 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, "In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors," Opt. Exp. 15, 16141-16160 (2007).
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  30. K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
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  31. K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  33. G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, "In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2308-2310 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  39. E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  41. Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, "In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors," Opt. Exp. 15, 16141-16160 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, "Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 47, 715-721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Dynamic neuroimaging of retinal light responses using fast intrinsic optical signals," Neuroimage 33, 898-906 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, B. Cense, J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, W. Gao, R. J. Zawadzki, J. S. Werner, S. Jones, S. Olivier, and D. T. Miller, "High-speed volumetric imaging of cone photoreceptors with adaptive optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 14, 4380-4394 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, "In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2308-2310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

X. C. Yao, A. Yamauchi, B. Perry, and J. S. George, "Rapid optical coherence tomography and recording functional scattering changes from activated frog retina," Appl. Opt. 44, 2019-2023 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Crittin and C. E. Riva, "Functional imaging of the human papilla and peripapillary region based on flicker-induced reflectance changes," Neurosci. Lett. 360, 141-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, "Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 45, 3820-3826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. Hong, J. Narkiewicz, and R. H. Kardon, "Comparison of pupil perimetry and visual perimetry in normal eyes: decibel sensitivity and variability," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 42, 957-965 (2001).

2000

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. I. Klistorner and S. L. Graham, "Early magnocellular loss in glaucoma demonstrated using the pseudorandomly stimulated flash visual evoked potential," J. Glaucoma 8, 140-148 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Graham and A. Klistorner, "The diagnostic significance of the multifocal pattern visual evoked potential in glaucoma," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 10, 140-146. (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

A. I. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 39, 937-950 (1998).

V. C. Greenstein, S. Seliger, V. Zemon, and R. Ritch, "Visual evoked potential assessment of the effects of glaucoma on visual subsystems," Vision Res. 38, 1901-1911. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Vaegan and G. Sanderson, "Absence of ganglion cell subcomponents in multifocal luminance electroretinograms," Aust. N. Z. J. Ophthalmol. 25Suppl 1, S87-90 (1997).
[PubMed]

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

H. A. Baseler, E. E. Sutter, S. A. Klein, and T. Carney, "The topography of visual evoked response properties across the visual field," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 90, 65-81 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

R. H. Kardon, "Pupil perimetry," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 3, 565-570 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mierdel, H. J. Zenker, and E. Marre, "The pattern ERG in glaucoma: effect of pattern reversal time," Int. Opthamol. 16, 211-214. (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. T. Watts, P. A. Good, and E. C. O'Neill, "The flash stimulated VEP in the diagnosis of glaucoma," Eye 3, 732-737. (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

T. A. Berninger and G. B. Arden, "The pattern electroretinogram," Eye 2Suppl, S257-283 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, "Optical Imaging of Neuronal-Activity," Physiol Rev. 68, 1285-1366 (1988).
[PubMed]

Abramoff, M. D.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, "Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 47, 715-721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aloni, E.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

Anger, E.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, E. M.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arden, G. B.

T. A. Berninger and G. B. Arden, "The pattern electroretinogram," Eye 2Suppl, S257-283 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baseler, H. A.

H. A. Baseler, E. E. Sutter, S. A. Klein, and T. Carney, "The topography of visual evoked response properties across the visual field," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 90, 65-81 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belkin, M.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

Berninger, T. A.

T. A. Berninger and G. B. Arden, "The pattern electroretinogram," Eye 2Suppl, S257-283 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Billson, F. A.

S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 39, 937-950 (1998).

Bilonick, R. A.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
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H. A. Baseler, E. E. Sutter, S. A. Klein, and T. Carney, "The topography of visual evoked response properties across the visual field," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 90, 65-81 (1994).
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Chance, B.

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V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
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Cowey, A.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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M. Crittin and C. E. Riva, "Functional imaging of the human papilla and peripapillary region based on flicker-induced reflectance changes," Neurosci. Lett. 360, 141-144 (2004).
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K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
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E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
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Duker, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
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V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, "In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2308-2310 (2006).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
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Fercher, A. F.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
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A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
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Frostig, R. D.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, "Optical Imaging of Neuronal-Activity," Physiol Rev. 68, 1285-1366 (1988).
[PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, "In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2308-2310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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Gao, W.

Gao, W. H.

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, "In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors," Opt. Exp. 15, 16141-16160 (2007).
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George, J. S.

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
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X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Dynamic neuroimaging of retinal light responses using fast intrinsic optical signals," Neuroimage 33, 898-906 (2006).
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X. C. Yao, A. Yamauchi, B. Perry, and J. S. George, "Rapid optical coherence tomography and recording functional scattering changes from activated frog retina," Appl. Opt. 44, 2019-2023 (2005).
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Gloesmann, M.

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Good, P. A.

M. T. Watts, P. A. Good, and E. C. O'Neill, "The flash stimulated VEP in the diagnosis of glaucoma," Eye 3, 732-737. (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Graham, S. L.

S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Klistorner and S. L. Graham, "Early magnocellular loss in glaucoma demonstrated using the pseudorandomly stimulated flash visual evoked potential," J. Glaucoma 8, 140-148 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Graham and A. Klistorner, "The diagnostic significance of the multifocal pattern visual evoked potential in glaucoma," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 10, 140-146. (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 39, 937-950 (1998).

Greenstein, V. C.

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

V. C. Greenstein, S. Seliger, V. Zemon, and R. Ritch, "Visual evoked potential assessment of the effects of glaucoma on visual subsystems," Vision Res. 38, 1901-1911. (1998).
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Grieve, K.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
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Grigg, J. R.

S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 39, 937-950 (1998).

Grinvald, A.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, "Optical Imaging of Neuronal-Activity," Physiol Rev. 68, 1285-1366 (1988).
[PubMed]

Hanazono, G.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, "Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 45, 3820-3826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hildesheim, R.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, "Optical Imaging of Neuronal-Activity," Physiol Rev. 68, 1285-1366 (1988).
[PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S.

S. Hong, J. Narkiewicz, and R. H. Kardon, "Comparison of pupil perimetry and visual perimetry in normal eyes: decibel sensitivity and variability," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 42, 957-965 (2001).

Hood, D. C.

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, M.

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Inomata, K.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, S.

Jonnal, R. S.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. Elzaiat, "Measurement of Intraocular Distances by Backscattering Spectral Interferometry," Opt. Commun. 117, 43-48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kangovi, S.

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

Kardon, R. H.

S. Hong, J. Narkiewicz, and R. H. Kardon, "Comparison of pupil perimetry and visual perimetry in normal eyes: decibel sensitivity and variability," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 42, 957-965 (2001).

R. H. Kardon, "Pupil perimetry," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 3, 565-570 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Kardon, P. A. Kirkali, and H. S. Thompson, "Automated pupil perimetry. Pupil field mapping in patients and normal subjects," Ophthalmology 98, 485-495; discussion 495-486 (1991).
[PubMed]

Kazato, Y.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kirkali, P. A.

R. H. Kardon, P. A. Kirkali, and H. S. Thompson, "Automated pupil perimetry. Pupil field mapping in patients and normal subjects," Ophthalmology 98, 485-495; discussion 495-486 (1991).
[PubMed]

Klein, S. A.

H. A. Baseler, E. E. Sutter, S. A. Klein, and T. Carney, "The topography of visual evoked response properties across the visual field," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 90, 65-81 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klistorner, A.

S. L. Graham and A. Klistorner, "The diagnostic significance of the multifocal pattern visual evoked potential in glaucoma," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 10, 140-146. (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klistorner, A. I.

S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Klistorner and S. L. Graham, "Early magnocellular loss in glaucoma demonstrated using the pseudorandomly stimulated flash visual evoked potential," J. Glaucoma 8, 140-148 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. I. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 39, 937-950 (1998).

Ko, T. H.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krupsky, S.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

Kwon, Y. H.

M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, "Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 47, 715-721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitgeb, R.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, "Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 11, 889-894 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebmann, J. M.

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

Lieke, E.

A. Grinvald, R. D. Frostig, E. Lieke, and R. Hildesheim, "Optical Imaging of Neuronal-Activity," Physiol Rev. 68, 1285-1366 (1988).
[PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marre, E.

P. Mierdel, H. J. Zenker, and E. Marre, "The pattern ERG in glaucoma: effect of pattern reversal time," Int. Opthamol. 16, 211-214. (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mierdel, P.

P. Mierdel, H. J. Zenker, and E. Marre, "The pattern ERG in glaucoma: effect of pattern reversal time," Int. Opthamol. 16, 211-214. (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. T.

Miyake, Y.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Monson, B. K.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, J. E.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narkiewicz, J.

S. Hong, J. Narkiewicz, and R. H. Kardon, "Comparison of pupil perimetry and visual perimetry in normal eyes: decibel sensitivity and variability," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 42, 957-965 (2001).

Nelson, D. A.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

Odel, J. G.

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

Oguchi, Y.

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, "Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 45, 3820-3826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S.

O'Neill, E. C.

M. T. Watts, P. A. Good, and E. C. O'Neill, "The flash stimulated VEP in the diagnosis of glaucoma," Eye 3, 732-737. (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, B.

Pflug, R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollack, A.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

Popov, S.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, P.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitsamer, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rha, J.

Ritch, R.

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

V. C. Greenstein, S. Seliger, V. Zemon, and R. Ritch, "Visual evoked potential assessment of the effects of glaucoma on visual subsystems," Vision Res. 38, 1901-1911. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riva, C. E.

M. Crittin and C. E. Riva, "Functional imaging of the human papilla and peripapillary region based on flicker-induced reflectance changes," Neurosci. Lett. 360, 141-144 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, M.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
[PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schuman, J. S.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Seliger, S.

V. C. Greenstein, S. Seliger, V. Zemon, and R. Ritch, "Visual evoked potential assessment of the effects of glaucoma on visual subsystems," Vision Res. 38, 1901-1911. (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinoda, K.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, V. J.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, "In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2308-2310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, E. E.

H. A. Baseler, E. E. Sutter, S. A. Klein, and T. Carney, "The topography of visual evoked response properties across the visual field," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 90, 65-81 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Tanifuji, M.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, "Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 45, 3820-3826 (2004).
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M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

Taylor, J. R.

K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, H. S.

R. H. Kardon, P. A. Kirkali, and H. S. Thompson, "Automated pupil perimetry. Pupil field mapping in patients and normal subjects," Ophthalmology 98, 485-495; discussion 495-486 (1991).
[PubMed]

Tsubota, K.

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, "Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 45, 3820-3826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
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E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanzetta, I.

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
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Villringer, A.

A. Villringer and B. Chance, "Non-invasive optical spectroscopy and imaging of human brain function," Trends Neurosci. 20, 435-442 (1997).
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Watts, M. T.

M. T. Watts, P. A. Good, and E. C. O'Neill, "The flash stimulated VEP in the diagnosis of glaucoma," Eye 3, 732-737. (1989).
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Wojtkowski, M.

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, M. Wojtkowski, J. G. Fujimoto, and J. S. Duker, "In vivo measurement of retinal physiology with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Opt. Lett. 31, 2308-2310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
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Yamauchi, A.

Yao, X. C.

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Dynamic neuroimaging of retinal light responses using fast intrinsic optical signals," Neuroimage 33, 898-906 (2006).
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X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
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X. C. Yao, A. Yamauchi, B. Perry, and J. S. George, "Rapid optical coherence tomography and recording functional scattering changes from activated frog retina," Appl. Opt. 44, 2019-2023 (2005).
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Yuzawa, M.

K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
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Zawadzki, R. J.

Zemon, V.

V. C. Greenstein, S. Seliger, V. Zemon, and R. Ritch, "Visual evoked potential assessment of the effects of glaucoma on visual subsystems," Vision Res. 38, 1901-1911. (1998).
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P. Mierdel, H. J. Zenker, and E. Marre, "The pattern ERG in glaucoma: effect of pattern reversal time," Int. Opthamol. 16, 211-214. (1992).
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D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
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D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

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Appl. Opt.

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S. L. Graham and A. Klistorner, "The diagnostic significance of the multifocal pattern visual evoked potential in glaucoma," Curr. Opin. Ophthalmol. 10, 140-146. (1999).
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D. C. Hood and X. Zhang, "Multifocal ERG and VEP responses and visual fields: comparing disease-related changes," Doc. Ophthalmol. 100, 115-137 (2000).
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Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol.

H. A. Baseler, E. E. Sutter, S. A. Klein, and T. Carney, "The topography of visual evoked response properties across the visual field," Electroencephalogr. Clin. Neurophysiol. 90, 65-81 (1994).
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Exp. Eye Res.

E. M. Anger, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, C. Schubert, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Ultrahigh resolution optical coherence tomography of the monkey fovea. Identification of retinal sublayers by correlation with semithin histology sections," Exp. Eye Res. 78, 1117-1125 (2004).
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Eye

M. T. Watts, P. A. Good, and E. C. O'Neill, "The flash stimulated VEP in the diagnosis of glaucoma," Eye 3, 732-737. (1989).
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T. A. Berninger and G. B. Arden, "The pattern electroretinogram," Eye 2Suppl, S257-283 (1988).
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P. Mierdel, H. J. Zenker, and E. Marre, "The pattern ERG in glaucoma: effect of pattern reversal time," Int. Opthamol. 16, 211-214. (1992).
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M. Kondo, Y. Miyake, M. Horiguchi, S. Suzuki, and A. Tanikawa, "Clinical evaluation of multifocal electroretinogram," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 36, 2146-2150 (1995).

S. Hong, J. Narkiewicz, and R. H. Kardon, "Comparison of pupil perimetry and visual perimetry in normal eyes: decibel sensitivity and variability," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 42, 957-965 (2001).

D. C. Hood, X. Zhang, V. C. Greenstein, S. Kangovi, J. G. Odel, J. M. Liebmann, and R. Ritch, "An interocular comparison of the multifocal VEP: a possible technique for detecting local damage to the optic nerve," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 41, 1580-1587 (2000).

A. I. Klistorner, S. L. Graham, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Multifocal topographic visual evoked potential: improving objective detection of local visual field defects," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 39, 937-950 (1998).

K. Tsunoda, Y. Oguchi, G. Hanazono, and M. Tanifuji, "Mapping cone- and rod-induced retinal responsiveness in macaque retina by optical imaging," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 45, 3820-3826 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Hanazono, K. Tsunoda, K. Shinoda, K. Tsubota, Y. Miyake, and M. Tanifuji, "Intrinsic signal imaging in macaque retina reveals different types of flash-induced light reflectance changes of different origins," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 48, 2903-2912 (2007).
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M. D. Abramoff, Y. H. Kwon, D. Ts'o, P. Soliz, B. Zimmerman, J. Pokorny, and R. Kardon, "Visual stimulus-induced changes in human near-infrared fundus reflectance," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 47, 715-721 (2006).
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K. Inomata, K. Tsunoda, G. Hanazono, Y. Kazato, K. Shinoda, M. Yuzawa, M. Tanifuji, and Y. Miyake, "Distribution of retinal responses evoked by transscleral electrical stimulation detected by intrinsic signal imaging in macaque monkeys," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 2193-2200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Grieve and A. Roorda, "Intrinsic signals from human cone photoreceptors," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 713-719 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Gloesmann, B. Hermann, C. Schubert, H. Sattmann, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Histologic correlation of pig retina radial stratification with ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 44, 1696-1703 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Srinivasan, B. K. Monson, M. Wojtkowski, R. A. Bilonick, I. Gorczynska, R. Chen, J. S. Duker, J. S. Schuman, and J. G. Fujimoto, "Characterization of outer retinal morphology with high-speed, ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Invest. Opthamol. Visual Sci. 49, 1571-1579 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, "In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 457-463 (2002).
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G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, ""Coherence radar" and "spectral radar"-new tools for dermatological diagnosis," J. Biomed. Opt. 3, 21-31 (1998).
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X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Near-infrared imaging of fast intrinsic optical responses in visible light-activated amphibian retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064030 (2006).
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S. L. Graham, A. I. Klistorner, J. R. Grigg, and F. A. Billson, "Objective VEP perimetry in glaucoma: asymmetry analysis to identify early deficits," J. Glaucoma 9, 10-19 (2000).
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A. I. Klistorner and S. L. Graham, "Early magnocellular loss in glaucoma demonstrated using the pseudorandomly stimulated flash visual evoked potential," J. Glaucoma 8, 140-148 (1999).
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Neuroimage

X. C. Yao and J. S. George, "Dynamic neuroimaging of retinal light responses using fast intrinsic optical signals," Neuroimage 33, 898-906 (2006).
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Neurosci. Lett.

M. Crittin and C. E. Riva, "Functional imaging of the human papilla and peripapillary region based on flicker-induced reflectance changes," Neurosci. Lett. 360, 141-144 (2004).
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Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging

D. A. Nelson, S. Krupsky, A. Pollack, E. Aloni, M. Belkin, I. Vanzetta, M. Rosner, and A. Grinvald, "Special report: Noninvasive multi-parameter functional optical imaging of the eye," Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging 36, 57-66 (2005).
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M. Wojtkowski, V. J. Srinivasan, T. H. Ko, J. G. Fujimoto, A. Kowalczyk, and J. S. Duker, "Ultrahigh-resolution, high-speed, Fourier domain optical coherence tomography and methods for dispersion compensation," Opt. Express 12, 2404-2422 (2004).
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R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. H. Gao, and D. T. Miller, "In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors," Opt. Exp. 15, 16141-16160 (2007).
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K. Bizheva, R. Pflug, B. Hermann, B. Povazay, H. Sattmann, P. Qiu, E. Anger, H. Reitsamer, S. Popov, J. R. Taylor, A. Unterhuber, P. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, "Optophysiology: depth-resolved probing of retinal physiology with functional ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 103, 5066-5071 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. H. Kardon, P. A. Kirkali, and H. S. Thompson, "Automated pupil perimetry. Pupil field mapping in patients and normal subjects," Ophthalmology 98, 485-495; discussion 495-486 (1991).
[PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of OCT system (a) and spectrometer (b) used for functional OCT experiments. (c) Measured sensitivity drop as a function of imaging depth in air. (d) Measured resolution in air as a function of imaging depth in air for the spectrometer design shown. The resolution was measured as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function amplitude in air, without accounting for water absorption in the eye.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Fundus photograph with OCT raster scan shown in red. (b) Unwrapped 3D OCT data set, flattened to the IS / OS junction. Because the data set is flattened to the IS / OS junction, the IS / OS junction appears at the same axial position across the image. (c) En face image obtained by summing over the entire retina. (d) En face image obtained by summing over the photoreceptors only. The axial range corresponding to the photoreceptors is shown by two horizontal white lines in (b). (e) Cross-sectional image in the periphery showing the outer retina in detail. The location of this cross-sectional image is shown in red in (b)-(d). (F) Cross-sectional image obtained from a raster scan of the parafovea showing the outer retina in detail. The corresponding raster scan is not shown. (ELM – external limiting membrane, IS / OS – photoreceptor inner segment / outer segment junction, COST – cone outer segment tips, ROST – rod outer segment tips, RPE – retinal pigment epithelium, BM – Bruch’s membrane)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a-b) Stimulus protocol 1 for functional experiments in human subjects. An OCT raster scan of 128 images × 168 axial scans, shown in red, is repeated, generating 2 volumes / second. For each trial, one side of the field is randomly selected for illumination, corresponding to one of the two cases shown in (a-b). (c) Analysis of the functional experiment. The analysis procedure for each region is the same whether or not it was illuminated for a particular trial. For each frame within a trial, correlation is performed to determine portions of region 1 and region 2 that overlap with the baseline frame. Only the areas shaded in gray are used to determine the fractional changes in normalized reflectance described by Eq. (1)-(4). (d-f) Stimulus protocol 2 and analysis used for functional experiments. For this protocol, an OCT raster scan of 64 images × 112 axial scans, shown in red, is repeated, generating 6 volumes / second.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Response from the IS / OS junction in the parafovea (rSig = rISOS , rRef = rRPE). (a) The individual trials show that when region 1 is illuminated, Δγ1(t) increases relative to Δγ2(t) after the stimulus, and when region 2 is illuminated, Δγ2(t) increases relative to Δγ1(t) after the stimulus. (b) The average time courses for each group are shown, along with standard errors. The estimated local response is shown in black, and represents an increase in reflectance of the IS / OS junction. (c) A scatter plot of Δγavg shows a clear difference between the two groups (p < 1e-7, two-tailed t-test). Results were obtained with protocol 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a-f) Scatter plots showing the effect of the data analysis procedure on the measured functional response. As shown, normalizing to a reference (RPE) layer and comparing two regions of the retina improves discrimination between the two groups. Above each panel are modifications to Eq. (1) – Eq. (2). Results were obtained with protocol 1.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) An unwrapped 3D OCT data set from the parafovea, illustrating the variation in anatomy over the region scanned for the functional experiment. The data set has been flattened to the IS / OS junction. Axial position (z) is shown in microns on the horizontal axis. (b) The t-statistic is plotted as a function of axial position using either rRef = rRPE (red dashed line) or rRef = rTot (blue dotted line). As shown, the only axial position with a high t-statistic corresponds to the IS / OS junction. (c-d) Averaged differential photoreceptor response map described in Eq. (9) is shown in colorscale. The average is performed over 8 trials (c) and 9 trials (d) to reduce noise. Median filtering of the map reduces speckle noise and noise from registration errors. (e) Because of good correspondence between the illumination location and the functional response, a combined differential map can by formed by averaging all 17 trials by flipping the differential maps from case 2 (Fig. 3(b)) so that the illuminated regions correspond. Results were obtained with protocol 1.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Comparison of photoreceptor responses in the perifovea (a-f) and periphery (g-i). (a) In the perifovea, the t-statistic plot (0.58 s ≤ t ≤ 0.92 s) showed a positive peak at the IS / OS junction, as expected based on the previous results. (b-c) The time course of the IS / OS reflectance change shows a return to baseline by t=2.5 s. (d) In the perifovea the t-statistic plot (2.75 s ≤ t ≤ 3.08 s) showed a negative peak at the rod outer segment tips (ROST). The plot in D did not show a positive peak at the IS / OS junction as seen in A because the t-statistic was computed at a later time interval. A later time interval is chosen to compute the t-statistic for the ROST response because the reflectance change in the ROST layer is delayed (e-f). In the periphery, there was no response seen at the IS / OS junction (g). However, a negative response is clearly seen at the position corresponding to the ROST (g-i). The ROST layer is only a few microns anterior to the RPE. Results were obtained with protocol 2.

Equations (9)

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Γ 1 ( t ) = [ r Sig ( t ) r Ref ( t ) ] Region 1
Γ 2 ( t ) = [ r Sig ( t ) r Ref ( t ) ] Region 2
Δ γ 1 ( t ) = Γ 1 ( t ) Γ 1 , baseline Γ 1 , baseline
Δ γ 2 ( t ) = Γ 2 ( t ) Γ 2 , baseline Γ 2 , baseline
Δγ ( t ) = Δ γ 1 ( t ) Δ γ 2 ( t ) = Γ 1 ( t ) / Γ 1 , baseline Γ 2 ( t ) / Γ 2 , baseline
Δγ avg = t > 0.5 s Δγ ( t )
Δγ avg = t 1 t t 2 Δγ ( t )
t = m 1 m 2 s 1 2 N 1 + s 2 2 N 2
m ( x , y ) = [ r ISOS ( x , y ) r RPE ( x , y ) ] post stimulus [ r ISOS ( x , y ) r RPE ( x , y ) ] pre stimulus [ r ISOS ( x , y ) r RPE ( x , y ) ] pre stimulus

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