Abstract

We demonstrate a sensitive DNA biosensor based on a long period grating (LPG) formed by a photolithograph process on the surface of a side-polished fiber. The biomolecules of the biosensor were immobilized on the silica surface between LPG patterns. The resonance wavelength was red-shifted after the binding of the poly-L-lysine, probe ssDNA and target ssDNA to the sensor surface. The overall wavelength shift after the successful DNA hybridization was 1.82 nm. The proposed LPG-based DNA biosensor is ~2.5 times more sensitive than the previously reported fiber grating-based DNA biosensors.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Maguis, G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, B. Carbonnier, K. Kham, T. Mekhalif, and M. Millot, "Biofunctionalized tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings for label-free immunosensing," Opt. Express 16, 19049-19062 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. S. Lee and T. Erdogan, "Fiber mode coupling in transmissive and reflective tilted fiber gratings," Appl. Opt. 39, 1394-1404 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. S. Jang, K. N. Park, and K. S. Lee, "Characterization of tunable photonic crystal fiber directional couplers," Appl. Opt. 46, 3688-3693 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Yang, L. Yang, C. Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, and Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. D. Sawant and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine:an atomic force microscopy study," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, S99-S103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Chen, L. Zhang, K. Zhou, E. Davies, K. Sugden, I. Bennion, M. Hughes, and A. Hine, "Real time detection of DNA interactions with long period fiber grating based biosensor," Opt. Lett. 32, 2541-2543 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Maguis, G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, B. Carbonnier, K. Kham, T. Mekhalif, and M. Millot, "Biofunctionalized tilted Fiber Bragg Gratings for label-free immunosensing," Opt. Express 16, 19049-19062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

P. D. Sawant and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine:an atomic force microscopy study," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, S99-S103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Yang, C. Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, and Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Lee and T. Erdogan, "Fiber mode coupling in transmissive and reflective tilted fiber gratings," Appl. Opt. 39, 1394-1404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andreadis, J. D.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnhart, M.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartholomew, D. U.

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, T. M.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennion, I.

Bentley, W. E.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bis, C.

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Booksh, K. S.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbonnier, B.

Charles, P. T.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chau, L. K.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cheng, S. F.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, T. Y.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chinowskya, T. M.

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chryssis, A. N.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dagenais, M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, E.

Dong, X. Y.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dulcey, C. S.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Elkind, J. L.

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

K. S. Lee and T. Erdogan, "Fiber mode coupling in transmissive and reflective tilted fiber gratings," Appl. Opt. 39, 1394-1404 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferdinand, P.

Fortney, A. J.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frey, B. L.

C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hine, A.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, W. T.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

Hughes, M.

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishaq, I. M.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H. S.

Jordan, C. E.

C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, R.

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kham, K.

Kornguth, S.

C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laffont, G.

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. M.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Yang, C. Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, and Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, W.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. S.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. Q.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lopez-Higuera, J. M.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lorson, C. L.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luong, J. H.

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maguis, S.

Masson, J. F.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meador, C. E.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mehrvar, M.

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mekhalif, T.

Millot, M.

Moo-Young, M.

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. E.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ng, M. N.

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nicolau, D. V.

P. D. Sawant and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine:an atomic force microscopy study," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, S99-S103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nieman, R. A.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K. N.

Quinn, J. G.

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quintela, A.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saini, S. S.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sandhu, P.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sawant, P. D.

P. D. Sawant and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine:an atomic force microscopy study," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, S99-S103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scharer, J. M.

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, D. A.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sugden, K.

Tang, J. L.

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vora, G. J.

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Yang, C. Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, and Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C. Q.

Yang, J.

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, L. Yang, C. Q. Xu, C. Xu, W. Huang, and Y. Li, "Long-period grating refractive index sensor with a modified cladding structure for large operational range and high sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 45, 6142-6147 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yi, H.

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. J.

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

Zhou, K.

Anal. Sci. (1)

M. Mehrvar, C. Bis, J. M. Scharer, M. Moo-Young, and J. H. Luong, "Fiber optic biosensors-trends and advances," Anal. Sci. 16, 677-692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

J. F. Masson, M. Barnhart, T. M. Battaglia, G. E. Morris, R. A. Nieman, P. J. Young, C. L. Lorson, and K. S. Booksh, "Monitoring of recombinant survival motor neuron protein using fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance," Analyst 129, 855-859 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. S. Chiang, Y. Q. Liu, M. N. Ng, and X. Y. Dong, "Analysis of etched long-period fibre grating and its response to external refractive index," Electron. Lett. 36, 966-967 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (2)

A. N. Chryssis, S. S. Saini, S. M. Lee, H. Yi, W. E. Bentley, and M. Dagenais, "Detecting Hybridization of DNA by highly sensitive evanescent field etched core fiber bragg grating sensors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 11, 864-872 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, P. Sandhu, W. Liang, C. Xu, and Y. Li, "Label free fiber optic biosensors with enhanced sensitivity," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 13, 1691-1696 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, and M. Giordano, "Thinned fiber bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1149-1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

P. T. Charles, G. J. Vora, J. D. Andreadis, A. J. Fortney, C. E. Meador, C. S. Dulcey, and D. A. Stenger, "Fabrication and Surface Characterization of DNA Microarrays Using Amine- and Thiol-Terminated Oligonucleotide Probes," Langmuir 19, 1586-1591 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. E. Jordan, B. L. Frey, S. Kornguth, and R. M. Corn, "Characterization of poly-L-lysine adsorption onto alkanethiol modified gold surface with polarization modulation fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and surface Plasmon resonance measurements," Langmuir 10, 3642-3648 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Sens. Actuators B (5)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54, 3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Chinowskya, J. G. Quinn, D. U. Bartholomew, R. Kaiser, and J. L. Elkind, "Performance of the Spreeta 2000 integrated surface plasmon resonance affinity sensor," Sens. Actuators B 91, 266-274 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, T. Wei, H. Xiao, and Y. S. Lin, "Nano structured Pd-long period fiber gratings integrated optical sensor for hydrogen detection," Sens. Actuators B 134, 687-693 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Tang, S. F. Cheng, W. T. Hsu, T. Y. Chiang, and L. K. Chau, "Fiber optic biochemical sensing with a colloidal gold modified long period fiber grating," Sens. Actuators B 119, 105-109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Ishaq, A. Quintela, S. W. James, G. J. Ashwell, J. M. Lopez-Higuera, and R. P. Tatam, "Modification of the refractive index response of long period gratings using thin film overlays," Sens. Actuators B 107, 738-741 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smart Mater. Struct. (1)

P. D. Sawant and D. V. Nicolau, "Hierarchy of DNA immobilization and hybridization on poly-L-lysine:an atomic force microscopy study," Smart Mater. Struct. 15, S99-S103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the side-polished fiber with an LPG pattern. (b) Microscope image of the surface of the side-polished fiber with an LPG pattern.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission spectrum of the LPG in air.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resonance wavelengths with different external refractive indices for (a) the q mode, (b) r mode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The molecular structure of Poly-L-lysine, probe ssDNA and target ssDNA immobilized on the surface of a side polished fiber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Transmission spectra of an LPG sensor after a sequential procedure of PBS buffer, PLL, probe ssDNA and target ssDNA. (b) The resonance wavelength versus each procedure.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Resonance wavelength against time during the hybridization of a target ssDNA.

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