Abstract

We theoretically show that the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, which enables high-contrast vibrational imaging, is similar to that of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. We experimentally confirm that the sensitivity of our SRS microscope is lower than the shot-noise limit only by <15 dB, which indicates that the high-sensitivity of SRS microscopy is readily available.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Isobe, S. Kataoka, R. Murase, W. Watanabe, T. Higashi, S. Kawakami, S. Matsunaga, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, "Stimulated parametric emission microscopy," Opt. Express 14, 786-793 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-786.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. -X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341-1343 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-17-1341.
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-24-2923.
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1872-1874 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1872.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 1322-1327 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1322.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).
  13. P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," the 8th European/French Israeli Symposium on Nonlinear and Quantum Optics, Mo-B, 2005, http://www.weizmann.ac.il/conferences/frisno8/program.html.
  14. E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Dake, Y. Ozeki, and K. Itoh, "Principle confirmation of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," presented at Optics & Photonics Japan (OPJ2008), paper 5pC12, Tsukuba, Nov. 5th, 2008 (in Japanese).
  16. C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman lectures on physics (Addison-Wesley, 1963).

2008 (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

H. Kano and H. Hamaguchi, "Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy," Opt. Express 13, 1322-1327 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1322.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2001 (2)

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341-1343 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-17-1341.
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berner, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Book, L. D.

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. -X.

Cheng, J.-X.

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

Freudiger, C. W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukui, K.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gilch, P.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamaguchi, H.

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashi, T.

Holtom, G. R.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Isobe, K.

Itoh, K.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kataoka, S.

Kawakami, S.

Laimgruber, S.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsunaga, S.

Matthews, T. E.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murase, R.

Ploetz, E.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-24-2923.
[CrossRef]

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1872-1874 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1872.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Wei, M.-D.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, "High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy," Opt. Lett. 31, 1872-1874 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1872.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy," Opt. Lett. 29, 2923-2925 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-24-2923.
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. -X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X. S. Xie, "Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Opt. Lett. 26, 1341-1343 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-17-1341.
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurtsever, G.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinth, W.

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

E. Ploetz, S. Laimgruber, S. Berner, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, "Femtosecond stimulated Raman microscopy," Appl. Phys. B 87, 389-393 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, "Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 922-924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, "High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation," Biophys. J. 77, 3341-3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, "Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, "Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4142-4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, "Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 23901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, "Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," Science 322, 1857-1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, and M. Sands, The Feynman lectures on physics (Addison-Wesley, 1963).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, "Vibrational imaging and microspectroscopies based on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," the 8th European/French Israeli Symposium on Nonlinear and Quantum Optics, Mo-B, 2005, http://www.weizmann.ac.il/conferences/frisno8/program.html.

F. Dake, Y. Ozeki, and K. Itoh, "Principle confirmation of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy," presented at Optics & Photonics Japan (OPJ2008), paper 5pC12, Tsukuba, Nov. 5th, 2008 (in Japanese).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of SRS microscopy. DM: dichroic mirror. OB: objective lens. PD: photodiode. AOM: acousto-optic modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) SRS spectrum of a polystyrene bead. (b) Dependence of SRS signal on the excitation beam powers. Raman shift: 3086 cm-1.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of a polystyrene bead with (a) SRS and (b) CARS. The diameter of the bead: 4.5 μm. Pixel dwell time: 2 ms. Scale bar: 2 μm. Number of pixels: 100 × 100. (c) Cross-sections at the broken lines in (a) and (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SRS images of an unstained tobacco BY-2 cell. Pixel dwell time: 3 ms. (a) 2D image. Number of pixels: 400 × 400. C.W.: cell wall. N.C.: nucleus. Scale bar: 10 μm. (b) 3D image. Volume size: 40 × 40 × 40 μm3. Number of pixels: 160 × 160 × 40.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cross-sectional curves of SRS signal of a polystyrene bead with a diameter of 50 nm. (a) Lateral direction. (b) Axial direction. Pixel dwell time: 10 ms.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P 1 = 3 ε 0 ( 2 χ e + χ R ) E 1 E 2 2 ,
P FWM = 3 ε 0 ( χ e + χ R ) E 1 2 E 2 * ,
Δ E 1 = i ω 1 P 1 l 2 n ε 0 c = 3 i ω 1 l 2 n c ( 2 χ e + χ R ) E 1 E 2 2 = i γ ω 1 ( 2 χ e + χ R ) E 1 E 2 2 ,
Δ E FWM = i ω FWM P FWM l 2 n ε 0 c = 3 i ω FWM l 2 n c ( χ e + χ R ) E 1 2 E 2 * = i γ ω FWM ( χ e + χ R ) E 1 2 E 2 * ,
S FWM = 2 ε ħ ω FWM Δ E FWM 2 A eff c T n = Γ ω FWM Δ E FWM 2 = Γ γ 2 ω FWM χ e + χ R 2 E 1 4 E 2 2 ,
T = Δ t f rep τ ,
N FWM = S FWM .
V = χ e + χ R 2 Re ( χ e + χ R ) 2 χ e + χ R 2 = Im χ R 2 χ e + χ R 2 ,
SNR CARS = ( S FWM V N FWM ) 2 = Γ γ 2 ω FWM Im χ R 4 χ e + χ R 2 E 1 4 E 2 2 .
S SRS = Γ ω 1 ( 1 2 E 1 2 1 2 E 1 + Δ E 1 2 )
= Γ γ Im χ R E 1 2 E 2 2 ,
N SRS = Γ E 1 2 ω 1 .
SNR SRS = ( S SRS N SRS ) 2 = Γ γ 2 ω 1 Im χ R 2 E 1 2 E 2 4 .
SNR SRS SNR CARS = ω 1 ω FWM χ e + χ R 2 E 2 2 Im χ R 2 E 1 2 ,
v shot = 2 I e τ G Z ,
v L = ( v N 2 v shot 2 v c 2 ) 1 / 2 = 10.5 μV .

Metrics