Abstract

Here we report the second harmonic emission properties of self-organized gold nanowires arrays supported on dielectric substrates with a sub-wavelength periodic pattern. The peculiar morphology of the nanowires, which are locally tilted with respect to the average plane of the substrate, allows to generate maximum second harmonic signal at normal incidence with a polarization direction driven by the orientation of the wires (perpendicular to the wires). The generation efficiency was increased by tailoring the growth process in order to tune the metal plasmon resonance close to the pump field frequency and also by increasing the local tilt of the nanowires.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials: erratum," Opt. Express 16, 8055 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Rudnick and E. A. Stern, "Second-Harmonic Radiation from Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 4, 4274 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. Valbusa, C. Boragno and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 8153-8175 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Buatier de Mongeot et al. Patent pending.

2008

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials: erratum," Opt. Express 16, 8055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

U. Valbusa, C. Boragno and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 8153-8175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1971

J. Rudnick and E. A. Stern, "Second-Harmonic Radiation from Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 4, 4274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968

C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P.-M.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Airola, M.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ansari, D. O.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aslan, K.

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bachelot, R.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Billot, L.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boragno, C.

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Valbusa, C. Boragno and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 8153-8175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buatier de Mongeot, F.

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Valbusa, C. Boragno and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 8153-8175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Buatier-de-Mongeot, F.

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Buzio, R.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. Z.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiappe, D.

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, M. H.

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Costantini, G.

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorkenoo, K. D.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Enkrich, C.

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feth, N.

Fort, A.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, C. D.

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gindre, D.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grand, J.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harmsen, R. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, A. R.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hubert, C.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. W.

M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials: erratum," Opt. Express 16, 8055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials: erratum," Opt. Express 16, 8055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, E. J.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Massabò, D.

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Measor, P.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molle, A.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.-H.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prangsma, J. C.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, X.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Royer, P.

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rudnick, J.

J. Rudnick and E. A. Stern, "Second-Harmonic Radiation from Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 4, 4274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Rusponi, S.

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandtke, M.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seballos, L.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shin, D. M.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
[CrossRef]

So, V. C. Y.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stern, E. A.

J. Rudnick and E. A. Stern, "Second-Harmonic Radiation from Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 4, 4274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Toma, A.

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Valbusa, U.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Valbusa, C. Boragno and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 8153-8175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Nieuwstadt, J. A. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, E. G.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. D.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials: erratum," Opt. Express 16, 8055 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, D.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin-Goen, Q.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. N.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Z.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Measor, L. Seballos, D. Yin, J. Z. Zhang, E. J. Lunt, A. R. Hawkins, H. Schmidt, "On-chip surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using integrated liquid-core waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 211107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Hubert, L. Billot, P.-M. Adam, R. Bachelot, P. Royer, J. Grand, D. Gindre, K. D. Dorkenoo, and A. Fort, "Role of surface plasmon in second harmonic generation from gold nanorods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 181105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Toma, D. Chiappe, D. Massabò, C. Boragno, and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Self-organized metal nanowire arrays with tunable optical anisotropy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Rusponi, G. Costantini, F. Buatier-de-Mongeot, C. Boragno, and U. Valbusa, "Patterning a surface on the nanometric scale by ion sputtering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3318-3320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

M. Airola, Y. Liu, and S. Blair, "Second-harmonic generation from an array of sub-wavelength metal apertures," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, S118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

M. H. Chowdhury, K. Ray, K. Aslan, J. R. Lakowicz, and C. D. Geddes, "Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence of Phycobiliproteins from Heterogeneous Plasmonic Nanostructures," J. Phys. Chem. C 111, 18856 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, Y. Fu, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, "Single-Molecule Studies on Fluorescently Labeled Silver Particles: Effects of Particle Size," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 18 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.: Condens. Matter

U. Valbusa, C. Boragno and F. Buatier de Mongeot, "Nanostructuring surfaces by ion sputtering," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 8153-8175 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. Qian, X.-H. Peng, D. O. Ansari, Q. Yin-Goen, G. Z. Chen, D. M. Shin, L. Yang, A. N. Young, M. D. Wang, and S. Nie, "In vivo: tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags," Nat. Biotechnol. 26, 83 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

C. H. Lee, "Optical Second-Harmonic Generation in Reflection from Media with Inversion Symmetry," Phys. Rev. 174, 813 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. E. Sipe, V. C. Y. So, M. Fukui and G. I. Stegeman, "Analysis of second-harmonic generation at metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 21, 4389 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Rudnick and E. A. Stern, "Second-Harmonic Radiation from Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rev. B 4, 4274 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Buatier de Mongeot, W. Zhu, A. Molle, R. Buzio, C. Boragno, U. Valbusa, E. G. Wang, Z. Zhang, "Nanocrystal Formation and Faceting Instability in Al(110) Homoepitaxy: True Upward Adatom Diffusion at Step Edges and Island Corners," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, "Strong Modification of the Nonlinear Optical Response of Metallic Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

M. W. Klein, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden," Second-Harmonic Generation from Magnetic Metamaterials," Science 313, 502 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

F. Buatier de Mongeot et al. Patent pending.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Samples morphology. (a) AFM representing morphology after Au deposition (the same sample in Fig. 2(a). The inset shows a 2.5 X zoom of the derivative signal of the AFM topography. (b) a comparison between the derivative of two line profiles is shown: top trace, before Au deposition, bottom trace, after Au deposition. The lateral width (w) of the Au NWs is identified by the presence of additional dips (indicated by dashed lines).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Test samples. (a)-(e) red and black traces refer to the optical transmission spectra of samples A,B,C,D,E obtained at normal incidence for two perpendicular polarization states of the incoming light (parallel-red and perpendicular-black with respect to the NW axis). The blue stars represent the differential absorption spectra (ΔA = A - A //). The black arrows indicate the estimated plasmon absorption peak position. The Au coverage was varied from h ≅ 11 nm (Sample A) to h ≅ 70 nm (Sample D and E). In panels (f)-(l) the corresponding SH conversion efficiency η I /I ω is plotted. On the left side the samples morphology is sketched.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reference samples: in panels (a)-(c) the optical transmission spectra of the three reference samples F,G,H and their differential absorbance are plotted. (a - Sample F) is a flat Au film (20 nm thick), (b- Sample G) represents an Au film conformal capping a nanostructured glass template and (c - Sample H) is an array of Au nanowires locally parallel with respect to the glass substrate. In panels (d)-(f) the corresponding SH conversion efficiency η = I /I ω is plotted. On the left side the samples morphology is sketched.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

z-component of the nonlinear polarization vector at 2ω (arbitray units) calculated for a p-polarized wave propagating along the x axis in the case: (a) untilted wires; (b) tilted wires.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission (blue), reflection (red) and absorption (black) spectra calculated for different gold wires distance as described in the inset.

Equations (1)

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P 2 ω = ( i γ 2 ω 2 ) [ e 2 m ω 2 ( · J ω ) E ω e μ 0 ( J ω × H ω ) ] ,

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