Abstract

We present a novel mid-IR source based on optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) generating 96 fs pulses (9.0 cycles) at 3.2 μm with an energy of 1.2 μJ, at a repetition rate of 100 kHz. The amplified spectrum supports a minimum Fourier transform limited pulse duration of 45 fs, or 4.2 cycles. Our use of OPCPA allows the direct amplification of few-cycle pulses at this mid-IR wavelength, and is inherently scalable to higher energies. The seed source for the system is based on difference frequency generation (DFG) between two outputs of the same fibre laser: this source is expected to be intrinsically CEP stable.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, D. Brida, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, "Carrier-envelope phase stable, few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from visible to near IR," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B62-B69 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Vozzi, C. Manzoni, F. Calegari, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, "Characterization of a high-energy self-phase-stabilized near-infrared parametric source," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B112-B117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light," Opt. Lett. 33, 2128-2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, "Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 397-414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzone, "Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Exhaled Breath for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer," J. Thorac. Oncol. 3, 774-780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Mirell, O. Chalus, K. Peterson, and J. C. Diels, "Remote sensing of explosive using infrared and ultraviolet filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B108-B111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kling and F. Krausz, "Attoscience: An attosecond stopwatch," Nat. Phys. 4, 515-516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2004

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, "Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy," Solid-State Midinfrared LAaser Sources 89, 445-510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, "Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, G. H. C. New, and K. Osvay, "Analysis and optimization of optical parametric chirped pulse amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2945-2956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, F. Noack, M. Wittmann, and G. Korn, "Laser-diode-seeded operation of a femtosecond optical parametric amplifier with MgO:LiNbO3 and generation of 5-cycle pulses near 3 μm," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1539-1545 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, "The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 144,125-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Powerful Femtosecond Pulse Generation By Chirped And Stretched Pulse Parametric Amplification In Bbo Crystal," Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

Adel, P.

Adler, F.

Afaneh, F.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

Bates, P. K.

Benedetti, E.

Biegert, J.

C. Erny, K. Moutzouris, J. Biegert, D. Kuhlke, F. Adler, A. Leitensdorfer, U. Keller, "Mid-infrared differencefrequency generation of ultrashort pulses tunable between 3.2 and 4.8 μm from a compact fiber source," Opt. Lett. 32, 1138 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, K.

Brida, D.

Calegari, F.

Camp, M.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chalus, O.

D. Mirell, O. Chalus, K. Peterson, and J. C. Diels, "Remote sensing of explosive using infrared and ultraviolet filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B108-B111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chekhlov, O. V.

Chen, M.

Cheng, Z.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cirmi, G.

Cocke, C.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Collier, J. L.

O. V. Chekhlov, J. L. Collier, I. N. Ross, P. K. Bates, M. Notley, C. Hernandez-Gomez, W. Shaikh, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, P. Matousek, and S. Hancock, "35 J broadband femtosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system," Opt. Lett. 31, 3665-3667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, "The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 144,125-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Danson, C. N.

De Silvestri, S.

Diels, J. C.

D. Mirell, O. Chalus, K. Peterson, and J. C. Diels, "Remote sensing of explosive using infrared and ultraviolet filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B108-B111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dorner, R.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Powerful Femtosecond Pulse Generation By Chirped And Stretched Pulse Parametric Amplification In Bbo Crystal," Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eikema, K. S. E.

Erny, C.

Ferray, M.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Forget, N.

Fried, A.

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, "Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy," Solid-State Midinfrared LAaser Sources 89, 445-510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Gaarde, M.

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Galvanauskas, A.

Gibson, G.

Gonzalez, A.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, A.

Grisham, M. E.

Grosche, G.

Gu, X.

Haag, M.

Hancock, S.

Hansch, T. W.

Hauri, C.

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heese, C.

Heinrich, A.

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F.

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Gomez, C.

Hogervorst, W.

Holzwarth, R.

Huber, R.

Ishii, N.

Jagutzki, O.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jara, H.

Jeffers, J.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

Jonusauskas, G.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Powerful Femtosecond Pulse Generation By Chirped And Stretched Pulse Parametric Amplification In Bbo Crystal," Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kaertner, F.

Kandula, D. Z.

Kaplan, D.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Keller, U.

Khayyat, K.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M.

M. Kling and F. Krausz, "Attoscience: An attosecond stopwatch," Nat. Phys. 4, 515-516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, "Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

Kornelis, W.

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

M. Kling and F. Krausz, "Attoscience: An attosecond stopwatch," Nat. Phys. 4, 515-516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuska, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, "Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm," Opt. Lett. 31, 1103-1105 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubina, P.

Kuhlke, D.

Kulander, K. C.

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Landers, A.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langley, A. J.

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, "The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 144,125-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leitensdorfer, A.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Li, X. F.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lipphardt, B.

Lompre, L. A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Luk, T. S.

Mainfray, G.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Manzoni, C.

Martin, J.

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matousek, P.

Mazzone, P.

P. Mazzone, "Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Exhaled Breath for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer," J. Thorac. Oncol. 3, 774-780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCann, P.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mcintyre, I.

McMillen, G.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mcpherson, A.

Mergel, V.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, T.

Mirell, D.

D. Mirell, O. Chalus, K. Peterson, and J. C. Diels, "Remote sensing of explosive using infrared and ultraviolet filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B108-B111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moutzouris, K.

Muller, H. G.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Namjou, K.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

New, G. H. C.

Nisoli, M.

Noack, F.

Notley, M.

Osvay, K.

Peterson, K.

D. Mirell, O. Chalus, K. Peterson, and J. C. Diels, "Remote sensing of explosive using infrared and ultraviolet filaments," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, B108-B111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

Piskarskas, A.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Powerful Femtosecond Pulse Generation By Chirped And Stretched Pulse Parametric Amplification In Bbo Crystal," Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

Reich, T.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renault, A.

Rhodes, C. K.

Richter, D.

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, "Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy," Solid-State Midinfrared LAaser Sources 89, 445-510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Roller, C.

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ross, I. N.

Rotermund, F.

Salieres, P.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

Sartania, S.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, K. J.

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, L.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-bocking, H.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, W.

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schnatz, H.

Sell, A.

Shaikh, W.

Sheehy, B.

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sotier, F.

Spielmann, C.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stagira, S.

Suzuki, T.

Svelto, O.

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, "High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 μm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization," Opt. Express 14, 10109-10116 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tate, J.

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teisset, C. Y.

Tempea, G.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorpe, M. J.

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, "Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 397-414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, F.

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, "Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy," Solid-State Midinfrared LAaser Sources 89, 445-510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Towrie, M.

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, "The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 144,125-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ullrich, J.

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Unverzagt, M.

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

Weber, T.

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Witte, S.

Wittmann, M.

Wolf, A. L.

Ye, J.

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, "Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 397-414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zinkstok, R. T.

Appl. Phys. B

M. J. Thorpe and J. Ye, "Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 91, 397-414 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Namjou, C. Roller, T. Reich, J. Jeffers, G. McMillen, P. McCann, and M. Camp, "Determination of exhaled nitric oxide distributions in a diverse sample population using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. B 85, 427 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, "Generation of intense, carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation," Appl. Phys. B 79, 673-677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, S. Sartania, Z. Cheng, G. Tempea, C. Spielmann, and F. Krausz, "Toward a terawatt-scale sub-10-fs laser technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 414-420 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases," J. Phys. B 21, L31-L35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Weber, K. Khayyat, R. Dorner, V. Mergel, O. Jagutzki, L. Schmidt, F. Afaneh, A. Gonzalez, C. Cocke, A. Landers, and H. Schmidt-bocking, "Kinematically complete investigation of momentum transfer for single ionization in fast proton-helium collisions," J. Phys. B 33, 3331-3344 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Thorac. Oncol.

P. Mazzone, "Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds in the Exhaled Breath for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer," J. Thorac. Oncol. 3, 774-780 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

M. Kling and F. Krausz, "Attoscience: An attosecond stopwatch," Nat. Phys. 4, 515-516 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nat. Phys. 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B

R. Moshammer, M. Unverzagt, W. Schmitt, J. Ullrich, and H. Schmidt-Bocking, "A 4π recoil-ion electron momentum analyzer: a high-resolution "microscope" for the investigation of the dynamics of atomic, molecular and nuclear reactions," Nuc. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. Sec. B 108, 425-445 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. Dubietis, G. Jonusauskas, and A. Piskarskas, "Powerful Femtosecond Pulse Generation By Chirped And Stretched Pulse Parametric Amplification In Bbo Crystal," Opt. Commun. 88, 437-440 (1992).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Ross, P. Matousek, M. Towrie, A. J. Langley, and J. L. Collier, "The prospects for ultrashort pulse duration and ultrahigh intensity using optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers," Opt. Commun. 144,125-133 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

O. V. Chekhlov, J. L. Collier, I. N. Ross, P. K. Bates, M. Notley, C. Hernandez-Gomez, W. Shaikh, C. N. Danson, D. Neely, P. Matousek, and S. Hancock, "35 J broadband femtosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplification system," Opt. Lett. 31, 3665-3667 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Erny, K. Moutzouris, J. Biegert, D. Kuhlke, F. Adler, A. Leitensdorfer, U. Keller, "Mid-infrared differencefrequency generation of ultrashort pulses tunable between 3.2 and 4.8 μm from a compact fiber source," Opt. Lett. 32, 1138 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Renault, D. Z. Kandula, S. Witte, A. L. Wolf, R. T. Zinkstok, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Phase stability of terawatt-class ultrabroadband parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 32, 2363-2365 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji and T. Suzuki, "Generation of sub-two-cycle mid-infrared pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in air," Opt. Lett. 32, 3330-3332 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Adler, A. Sell, F. Sotier, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, "Attosecond relative timing jitter and 13 fs tunable pulses from a two-branch Er : fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 32, 3504-3506 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, N. Ishii, C. Y. Teisset, X. Gu, T. Metzger, A. Baltuska, N. Forget, D. Kaplan, A. Galvanauskas, and F. Krausz, "Parametric amplification of few-cycle carrier-envelope phase-stable pulses at 2.1 μm," Opt. Lett. 31, 1103-1105 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Popmintchev, M. Chen, O. Cohen, M. E. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "Extended phase matching of high harmonics driven by mid-infrared light," Opt. Lett. 33, 2128-2130 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, "Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 133901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tate, T. Auguste, H. G. Muller, P. Salieres, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, "Scaling of wave-packet dynamics in an intense midinfrared field," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 013901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sheehy, J. Martin, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, M. Gaarde, and K. C. Kulander, "High harmonic generation at long wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 5270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

P. Agostini and L. F. DiMauro, "The physics of attosecond light pulses," Rep. Prog. Phys. 67, 813-855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Midinfrared Laser Sources

F. Tittel, D. Richter, and A. Fried, "Mid-infrared laser applications in spectroscopy," Solid-State Midinfrared LAaser Sources 89, 445-510 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Mid-IR OPCPA source layout. Two arms of a fibre laser (HNLF = highly nonlinear fibre) are combined through DFG to generate 3.2mm radiation. This is then amplified by a double stage OPCPA pumped by a Nd:YVO4 laser and finally compressed by a Martinez-type compressor. WP are waveplates, PB are polarising beamsplitters, D are delay stages, M1,4,7 are dichroic mirrors and other M represent gold mirrors.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectra at each nonlinear stage. The mid-IR spectrum after the difference frequency generation (red), first (orange) and second (blue) OPCPA stages.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured and retrieved FROG traces. (a) Measured FROG trace of the mid-IR pulse - the colour scale represents the square root of the normalised intensity, chosen to highlight the small features (b) Retrieved FROG trace of the mid-IR pulse, using the same colour scale.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstructed pulse from the FROG measurement. (a) Temporal profile and instantaneous frequency retrieved by the FROG: 96fs FWHM = 9.0 cycles (at 3.2μm one cycle=10.7 fs) The spatial profile is shown in inset, width of image corresponds to 5 mm (b) Spectrum and phase retrieved by the FROG.

Metrics