Abstract

Femtosecond laser processing of bulk transparent materials can generate localized positive changes of the refractive index. Thus, by translation of the laser spot, light-guiding structures are achievable in three dimensions. Increasing the number of laser processing spots can consequently reduce the machining effort. In this paper, we report on a procedure of dynamic ultrafast laser beam spatial tailoring for parallel photoinscription of photonic functions. Multispot operation is achieved by spatially modulating the wavefront of the beam with a time-evolutive periodical binary phase mask. The parallel longitudinal writing of multiple waveguides is demonstrated in fused silica. Using this technique, light dividers in three dimensions and wavelength-division demultiplexing (WDD) devices relying on evanescent wave coupling are demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

2007

S. Campbell, R. R. Thomson, D. P. Hand, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Frequency-doubling in femtosecond laser inscribed periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 17146-17150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "1.5 μm single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 15, 3190-3194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Wortmann, M. Ramme, and J. Gottmann, "Refractive index modification using fs-laser double pulses," Opt. Express 15, 10149-10153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, "Optical waveguide fabrication and integration with a micro-mirror inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 88, 699-704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31,620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Low-loss Type II waveguide writing in fused silica with single picosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 4826-4834 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hasegawa, Y. Hayasaki, and N. Nishida, "Holographic femtosecond laser processing with multiplexed phase Fresnel lenses," Opt. Lett. 31, 1705-1707 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

2000

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

1974

P. D. McIntyre, and A. W. Snyder, "Power transfer between nonparallel and tapered optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 286-288 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

Ams, M.

Apolonski, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

Bado, P.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, D.

Bonse, J.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Br¨auer, A.

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bricchi, E.

Brueckner, H. J.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

Callan, J. P.

Campbell, S.

Canalias, C.

Cerullo, G.

Chen, W.

Cheng, Y.

Chichkov, B. N.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D.

D. Christodoulides, N. Demetrios, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, " Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature (London) 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dawes, J. M.

De Silvestri, S.

Dekker, P.

Della Valle, G.

Demetrios, N.

D. Christodoulides, N. Demetrios, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, " Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature (London) 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dreisow, F.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubov, M.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, S. M.

Elflein, W.

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, A.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Festa, A.

Finlay, R. J.

Florea, C.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Gottmann, J.

Graf, R.

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hanada, Y.

Z. Wang, K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, "Optical waveguide fabrication and integration with a micro-mirror inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 88, 699-704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

Hartung, H.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, S.

Hayasaki, Y.

Her, T.-H.

Herman, P. R.

Hertel, I. V.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Ho, S.

Huang, L.

Huignard, J.-P.

Huot, N.

Itoh, K.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31,620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, M.

Kar, A. K.

Kawachi, M.

Kazansky, P. G.

Kim, J.

Klappauf, B. G.

Laporta, P.

Larat, C.

Laurell, F.

Lederer, F.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete Nonlinear Localization in Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Fused Silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Christodoulides, N. Demetrios, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, " Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature (London) 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

Li, J.

Li, S.

Little, D. J.

Loiseaux, B.

Marangoni, M.

Marshall, G. D.

Masuda, M.

Mauclair, C.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction," Opt. Express 16, 5481-5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maynard, R.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

McIntyre, P. D.

P. D. McIntyre, and A. W. Snyder, "Power transfer between nonparallel and tapered optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 286-288 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction," Opt. Express 16, 5481-5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Z. Wang, K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, "Optical waveguide fabrication and integration with a micro-mirror inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 88, 699-704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama,"Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 55-57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Milosavljevic, M.

Miura, K.

Ng, M. L.

Nishida, N.

Nolte, S.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31,620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete Nonlinear Localization in Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Fused Silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osellame, R.

Park, J.

Pasiskevicius, V.

Pertsch, T.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete Nonlinear Localization in Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Fused Silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

Ramme, M.

Ramponi, R.

Reid, D. T.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sanner, N.

Schaffer, C.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31,620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, T.

Shihoyama, K.

Sikorski, Y.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. Christodoulides, N. Demetrios, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, " Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature (London) 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

P. D. McIntyre, and A. W. Snyder, "Power transfer between nonparallel and tapered optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 286-288 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder, "Coupled mode theory for optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1267-1277 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Stoian, R.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction," Opt. Express 16, 5481-5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Z. Wang, K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, "Optical waveguide fabrication and integration with a micro-mirror inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 88, 699-704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, and K. Shihoyama,"Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 55-57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szameit, A.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete Nonlinear Localization in Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Fused Silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taccheo, S.

Tan, Q.

Thomson, R. R.

Toyoda, K.

Tuennermann, A.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete Nonlinear Localization in Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Fused Silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, "Optical waveguide fabrication and integration with a micro-mirror inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 88, 699-704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31,620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

Wortmann, D.

Yu, C.

Yu, G.

Zhang, H.

Zheng, C.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

Z. Wang, K. Sugioka, Y. Hanada, and K. Midorikawa, "Optical waveguide fabrication and integration with a micro-mirror inside photosensitive glass by femtosecond laser direct writing," Appl. Phys. A 88, 699-704 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

R. Graf, A. Fernandez, M. Dubov, H. J. Brueckner, B. N. Chichkov, and A. Apolonski, "Pearl-chain waveguides written at megahertz repetition rate," Appl. Phys. B 87, 21-27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Hexagonal waveguide arrays written with fs-laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 82, 507-512 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, H. Hartung, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer "Quasi-incoherent propagation in waveguide arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 241113-241116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921-021924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sikorski, A. A. Said, P. Bado, R. Maynard, C. Florea, and K. A. Winick, "Optical waveguide amplifier in Nddoped glass written with near-IR femtosecond laser pulses," Electron. Lett. 36, 226-227 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

A. W. Snyder, "Coupled mode theory for optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1267-1277 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. D. McIntyre, and A. W. Snyder, "Power transfer between nonparallel and tapered optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 286-288 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

MRS Bull.

K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, S. Nolte, and C. Schaffer, "Ultrafast processes for bulk modification of transparent materials," MRS Bull. 31,620-625 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

D. Christodoulides, N. Demetrios, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, " Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature (London) 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

D. J. Little, M. Ams, P. Dekker, G. D. Marshall, J. M. Dawes, and M. J. Withford,"Femtosecond laser modification of fused silica: the effect of writing polarization on Si-O ring structure," Opt. Express 16, 20029-20037 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, D. Bloemer, J. Burghoff, T. Schreiber, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, A. Tuennermann, and F. Lederer, "Discrete Nonlinear Localization in Femtosecond Laser Written Waveguides in Fused Silica," Opt. Express 13, 10552-10557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, S. M. Eaton, and P. R. Herman, "Low-loss Type II waveguide writing in fused silica with single picosecond laser pulses," Opt. Express 14, 4826-4834 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Szameit, F. Dreisow, T. Pertsch, S. Nolte, and A. Tuennermann, "Control of directional evanescent coupling in fs laser written waveguides,". Opt. Express 15, 1579-1587 (2007),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, "1.5 μm single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing," Opt. Express 15, 3190-3194 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wortmann, M. Ramme, and J. Gottmann, "Refractive index modification using fs-laser double pulses," Opt. Express 15, 10149-10153 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Campbell, R. R. Thomson, D. P. Hand, A. K. Kar, D. T. Reid, C. Canalias, V. Pasiskevicius, and F. Laurell, "Frequency-doubling in femtosecond laser inscribed periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 17146-17150 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mauclair, A. Mermillod-Blondin, N. Huot, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, "Ultrafast laser writing of homogeneous longitudinal waveguides in glasses using dynamic wavefront correction," Opt. Express 16, 5481-5492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li,W. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, "Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 9443-9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. Pertsch, P. Dannberg, W. Elflein, A. Br¨auer, and F. Lederer, "Optical Bloch Oscillations in Temperature Tuned Waveguide Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4752-4755 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Mermillod-Blondin, I. M. Burakov, Yu. P. Meshcheryakov, N. M. Bulgakova, E. Audouard, A. Rosenfeld, A. Husakou, I. V. Hertel, and R. Stoian, "Flipping the sign of refractive index changes in ultrafast and temporally shaped laser-irradiated borosilicate crown optical glass at high repetition rates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 104205/1-8 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (2nd ed. McGraw-Hill, Singapore, 1996).

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "High-resolution study of photoinduced modification in fused silica produced by a tightly focused femtosecond laser beam in the presence of aberrations," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013517/1-5 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics (4th ed. Saunders College Publ., 1991).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online): Scheme of double spot operation. BPM: Binary phase mask. Insert: Double spot intensity profile inside the sample at the focus of the objective generated by a simple step grating phase at very low power captured by direct imaging on a CCD camera. The blue arrow shows the direction of motion of the sample for longitudinal photoinscription.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color online): Comparison between single and double spot longitudinal photoin-scription of waveguides in fused silica. Up: Single spot operation, down double spot operation. (a) Side view PCM picture of SSO photowritten waveguides written at different translation speeds at 10 kHz, 8 mW, superposed with transversal cross section of the relative gray scale decrease indicating a positive change of the refractive index (see text body). (b) corresponding nearfield profile of 633nm injected guide written at 5μm/s, 10kHz, 8mW in single spot operation. (c) PCM picture of two simultaneously photowritten waveguides through double spot operation at 5μm/s, 10 kHz, 24 mW. (d) Optical transmission microscope picture of the cross section of one of the waveguides in (c) in white light illumination. (e) nearfield profile of one of the waveguides pictured in (c) at 633 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online): Bulk photowritten light divider based on evanescent coupling of injected waves in partial arrays achieved through double spot operation at 24 mW total power and 5μm/s scan velocity: (a) schematic view of the structure: The conditions followed by lc and l c2 enabling evanescent coupling from the central to the external guides are given in the text. (b) Assemblage of PCM side-pictures of the device, its total length is 8.2 mm and the lateral separation between tracks is 9μm. (c) Nearfield profile under HeNe injection at 633 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online): Bulk photowritten WDD device achieved through double spot operation at 24 mW total power and 5 μm/s scan velocity. (a) Schematic view of the structure (condition followed by lo is given in the text). (b) Nearfield profile under 633 nm (solid) and 800 nm (dashed) simultaneous injection in the top arm. (c) PCM side-image of the overlapping region. (d) Theoretical prediction of the 633 nm (solid) and 800 nm (dashed) intensity variations in the excited waveguide according to [31,32] taking into account the wavelength dependance of the coupling coefficient. The total length of the structure is 7.4 mm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(color online): (a) Schematic view of a bulk photowritten twisted X coupler achieved through DMSO in a single scan. (b) Optical transmission microscopy pictures of the central region, showing 90° rotation. (c) Nearfield profile at the output of the top arm under 633 nm injection in the bottom waveguide.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(color online): Schematic view of a bulk photowritten 3D hexagonal light divider achieved through DMSO. The condition followed by lo is given in the text. Insert: Nearfield profile under 633 nm injection in the central waveguide.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η m 0 = 1 cos ( Δ ϕ ) 2 sinc 2 ( πm 2 ) .
η 0 = 1 + cos ( Δ ϕ ) 2 .
l c = π 2 κ ,
κ = 2 h 2 p × exp ( ps ) β ( w + 2 / p ) ( h 2 + p 2 ) .
h = ( n 1 2 k 0 2 β 2 ) 1 / 2
p = ( β 2 n 0 2 k 0 2 ) 1 / 2
β = k 0 n eff .
κ N = κ N .
l cN = l c N .
F = 1 if 1 N < 3
= [ 1 + ( κ ss κ cs N ) 2 ] 1 otherwise .

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