Abstract

This paper describes the development, characterisation and environmental testing of a high performance state-of-the-art optical filter for separating the Mie and Rayleigh backscatter signals for the ATLID LIDAR of the EarthCARE mission. The filter assembly utilises capacitance stabilised Fabry-Pérot étalon technology to provide high resolution optical filtering of the LIDAR signal, efficiently separating the two critical backscatter components from the atmosphere. The paper describes the development of the filter assembly and its subsequent performance testing. The filter has demonstrated state-of-the-art optical performance. Additionally, one of the étalons has been taken through complete environmental testing for space applications.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. EarthCARE: Earth Clouds Aerosol and Radiation Explorer Mission report ESA SP - 1279 (1) April (2004).
  2. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Bond, M. Foster, V. K. Thompson, D. Rees, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, "High Resolution Optical Filtering Technology," 22nd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (ILRC 2004), Metera, Italy, 12-16 July, (2004).
  4. G. Hernandez, Fabry-Pérot Interferometers Cambridge (Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521322383 1986).
  5. D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. A. Hoffman, "Dynamics Explorer Program," Eos61 (1980).

1982

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dines, T.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayes, P. B.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R. A.

R. A. Hoffman, "Dynamics Explorer Program," Eos61 (1980).

Killeen, T. L.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyons, A.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, and P. B. Hays, "Stable and Rugged Etalon for the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Pérot Interferometer: I. Design and Construction," Appl. Opt. 21, 3896-3902 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hayes, and T. Dines, "A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-stabilized Piezo-electric scanned Fabry-Pérot Etalon," J. Phys. E: Sci. Instrum. 14, 11320-11325 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. A. Bond, M. Foster, V. K. Thompson, D. Rees, and J. Pereira Do Carmo, "High Resolution Optical Filtering Technology," 22nd Int. Laser Radar Conf. (ILRC 2004), Metera, Italy, 12-16 July, (2004).

G. Hernandez, Fabry-Pérot Interferometers Cambridge (Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521322383 1986).

R. A. Hoffman, "Dynamics Explorer Program," Eos61 (1980).

EarthCARE: Earth Clouds Aerosol and Radiation Explorer Mission report ESA SP - 1279 (1) April (2004).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the ALFA filter assembly.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic diagram of the BFA étalon (all dimensions are in mm); A is the PZT stacks, B is the drive capacitors, and C is the reference capacitors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

An example of the finite element analysis performed in designing the CSE plate mounting structure.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The complete mounting structure of the CSE.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The ALFA test bench.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The fully-assembled BFA étalon, mounted with its mechanical cage and structure.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The Space version of the ALFA assembly (design by Thales Alenia Space).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The ALFA assembly test rig: 1: Laser source, 2: Lenses, 3:Calibration beam splitter, 4: Reflecting mirror, 5: Interference Filter, 6: BFA Fabry-Pérot étalon, 7: MRF Fabry-Pérot étalon, 8: ¼ Wave plate, 9: Polarising beam splitter, 10: calibration detection channel 11: Mie Co Polar channel, 12: Mie Cross- polar channel, 13: Rayleigh Channel.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The BFA CSE transmission profile.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The MRF CSE transmission profile.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Transmission profile of the ALFA assembly as a function of the MRF tuning position (steps of tuning): The filled black circles are the Mie co- polar output, red circles are the Rayleigh output, and the dashed lines are the Mie cross-polar output (units are μW).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Tracking of the laser wavelength drift by the MRF CSE. The black line is the measured intensity; the red line is the CSE tuning position. (Intensity was measured in μW).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Low-level sine response in the (y) axis.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Temperature profiles measured by temperature sensors during thermal-vacuum tests.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Specifications for the BFA and MRF CSEs.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Measured performance of the BFA and MRF CSEs.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Measured performance of the BFA and MRF CSEs.

Tables Icon

Table 4. High sine vibration levels.

Tables Icon

Table 5. Random vibration levels.

Equations (2)

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T = F R F
1 F 2 1 F D 2 + 1 F R 2 + 1 F A 2

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