Abstract

This paper demonstrates the principle of the nanoparticle-contrast-agent-enabled terahertz imaging (CATHI) technique, which yields a dramatic sensitivity of the differential signal from cancer cells with nanoparticles. The terahertz (THz) reflection signal increased beam by 20% in the cancer cells with nanoparticles of gold nano-rods (GNRs) upon their irradiation with a infrared (IR) laser, due to the temperature rise of water in cancer cells by surface plasma ploritons. In the differential mode, the THz signal from the cancer cells with GNRs was 30 times higher than that from the cancer cells without GNRs. As the high sensitivity is achieved by the surface plasmon resonance through IR laser irradiation, the resolution of the CATHI technique can be as good as a few microns and THz endoscopy becomes more feasible.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (1)

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

L. Gou and C. J. Murph, "Fine-tuning the shape of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 3668-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

B. Ferguson and X. -C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Abbott, B. Davis, B. Gonzalez, A. Hernandez, and K. Eshraghian, "Modelling of low power CW laser beam heating effects on a GaAs substrate," Solid-State Electron. 42, 809-816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. -H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, "Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2519-2527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, D.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Abbott, B. Davis, B. Gonzalez, A. Hernandez, and K. Eshraghian, "Modelling of low power CW laser beam heating effects on a GaAs substrate," Solid-State Electron. 42, 809-816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

An, K. H.

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åstrand, P.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Atakaramians, S.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, J.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheon, J.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, E. -J.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, B.

D. Abbott, B. Davis, B. Gonzalez, A. Hernandez, and K. Eshraghian, "Modelling of low power CW laser beam heating effects on a GaAs substrate," Solid-State Electron. 42, 809-816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, I. H.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X. -C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez, B.

D. Abbott, B. Davis, B. Gonzalez, A. Hernandez, and K. Eshraghian, "Modelling of low power CW laser beam heating effects on a GaAs substrate," Solid-State Electron. 42, 809-816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gou, L.

L. Gou and C. J. Murph, "Fine-tuning the shape of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 3668-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haam, S.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hadjiloucas, S.

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, A.

D. Abbott, B. Davis, B. Gonzalez, A. Hernandez, and K. Eshraghian, "Modelling of low power CW laser beam heating effects on a GaAs substrate," Solid-State Electron. 42, 809-816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoshina, H.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, "Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041102/1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huh, Y. -M.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, H.

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. -T.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, I.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jun, Y. -W.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, C.

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawase, K.

Keiding, S. R.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, H.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. -H.

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. -H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074702/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. -H.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. -W.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. C.

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maeng, I.

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mickan, S. P.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, K. V.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Miyoshi, N.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, "Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041102/1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murph, C. J.

L. Gou and C. J. Murph, "Fine-tuning the shape of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 3668-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, S.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, "Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041102/1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W. -H.

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, B. W.-H.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

J. -H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, "Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2519-2527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ntziachristos, V.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light on to live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9,123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

Oh, S. J.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. -H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074702/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Otani, C.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, "Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041102/1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Png, G. M.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. -W.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, J. -H.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. -H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, "Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2519-2527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. -H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074702/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. -T.

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, J. -S.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ung, B. S. Y.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, Y.

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light on to live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9,123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, J. F.

J. -H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, "Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2519-2527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Withayachumnankul, W.

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, M.

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, "Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041102/1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, O.

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. -H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074702/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. -G.

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. -C.

B. Ferguson and X. -C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mat. (1)

J. Lee, J. Yang, H. Ko, S. J. Oh, J. Kang, J. -H. Son, K. Lee, S. -W. Lee, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, Y. -M. Huh, and S. Haam, "Multifunctional magnetic gold nanocomposites : human epithelial cancer detection via magnetic resonance imaging and localized synchronous therapy," Adv. Funct. Mat. 18, 258-264 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

L. Gou and C. J. Murph, "Fine-tuning the shape of gold nanorods," Chem. Mater. 17, 3668-3672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, W. Qian, and M. A. El-Sayed, "Cancer cell imaging and photothermal therapy in the near-infrared region by using gold nanorods," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 2115-2120 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biol. Syst. (1)

X. Yin, B. W. -H. Ng, D. Abbott, B. Ferguson, and S. Hadjiloucas, "Application of auto regressive models of wavelet sub-bands for classifying terahertz pulse measurements," J. Biol. Syst. 15, 551-571 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, "Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5319-3551 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

J. -H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, "Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 11, 2519-2527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Pickwell and V. P. Wallace, "Biomedical applications of terahertz technology," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39, R301-R310 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (2)

J. -H. Lee, Y. -M. Huh, Y. -W. Jun, J. -W. Seo, J. -T. Jang, H. -T. Song, S. Kim, E. -J. Cho, H. -G. Yoon, J. -S. Suh, and J. Cheon, "Artificially engineered magnetic nanoparticles for ultra-sensitive molecular imaging," Nat. Med. 13, 95-99 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, "Shedding light on to live molecular targets," Nat. Med. 9,123-128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

K. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, "Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding," Nature 432, 376-379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X. -C. Zhang, "Materials for terahertz science and technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, "Cutting-edge terahertz technology," Nat. Photonics 1, 97-105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, I. Jones, H. Lin, B. S. Y. Ung, J. Balakrishnan, B. W.-H. Ng, B. Ferguson, S. P. Mickan, B. M. Fischer, and D. Abbott, "T-Ray sensing and imaging," Proc. IEEE 95, 1528-1558 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, "Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors," Radiology 239, 533-540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

D. Abbott, B. Davis, B. Gonzalez, A. Hernandez, and K. Eshraghian, "Modelling of low power CW laser beam heating effects on a GaAs substrate," Solid-State Electron. 42, 809-816 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

S. Nakajima, H. Hoshina, M. Yamashita, C. Otani, and N. Miyoshi, "Terahertz imaging diagnostics of cancer tissues with a chemometrics technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041102/1-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Oh, O. Yoo, D. -H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz characteristics of electrolytes in aqueous Luria-Bertani media," J. Appl. Phys. 102, 074702/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kang, I. Maeng, S. J. Oh, S. C. Lim, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and J. -H. Son, "Terahertz optical and electrical properties of hydrogen-functionalized carbon nanotubes," Phys. Rev. B 75, 085410/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

TEM images of gold nano-rods (GNRs) with aspect ratios of (a) 3.2, (b) 4.0, and (c) 4.2; (d) UV-visible absorption spectra of the GNRs of (a), (b), and (c).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a reflection-mode THz imaging setup with an infrared (IR) laser for the induction of surface plasma polaritons.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reflected THz time-domain waveforms from the water with GNRs before (black line) and 5 minutes after their irradiation with an IR laser (red line).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) IR laser intensity dependence and (b) GNR density dependence of the reflected THz signals from the water with GNRs. (c) Peak reflection changes of the THz signals from live cancer cells with and without GNRs at IR intensities of 10 and 20 W/cm2 and (d) their enlarged data in time. Arrows indicate the onset of NIR excitation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Cancer cell images with and without GNRs. (a) Visible image; (b) THz image without IR irradiation; (c) THz image with IR irradiation; (d) amplitudes along the lines in (b) (black) and (c) (red); (e) differential image between (b) and (c); and (e) amplitude along the line in (e).

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