Abstract

The triggering and guiding of the stationary high voltage (HV) discharges at 5–40 kV are demonstrated by using plasma filaments generated by single and dual femtosecond(fs) laser pulses in air. A significant reduction of the breakdown voltage threshold due to the pre-ionization of the air gap by laser pulse filamentaion was observed. The amount of free electrons of filaments generated by different pulse configurations was compared by sonography method. The lifetime of filaments is measured by using time-resolved fluorescence spectrum, and the lifetime of filaments generated by dual fs laser pulses was doubled due to the re-ionization by the succeeding pulse. The triggering ability of dual fs laser pulses was demonstrated to be enhanced due to the longer lifetime of filaments.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  17. H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti : Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47-189 (2007).

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

2006 (2)

G. M’ejean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Woste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Mchain, V. Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, L. Woste, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. W¨oste, T. Fujii, Y. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. Mercure, "Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610-615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti : Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

1995 (1)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Ackermann, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Mchain, V. Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, L. Woste, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, M.

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andre, Y.-B.

Aris, I.

N. Khan, N. Mariun, I. Aris, and J. Yeak, "Laser-triggered lightning discharge," New J. Phys. 4, 61.1- 61.20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ball, L. M.

Baronavski, A.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boutou, V.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Briscoe, E.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.

D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. Mercure, "Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610-615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti : Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. Mercure, "Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610-615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47-189 (2007).

Desparois, A.

D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. Mercure, "Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610-615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diels, J.-C.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dong-Dong, Z.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Favre, C.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

Geffroy, S.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Girardi, P.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, D.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grounds, P.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hubbard, R.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huller, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishikubo, Y.

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jie, Z.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Johnston, T.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2008).

Kawasaki, Z.

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khan, N.

N. Khan, N. Mariun, I. Aris, and J. Yeak, "Laser-triggered lightning discharge," New J. Phys. 4, 61.1- 61.20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. Mercure, "Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610-615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, H.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ling, W.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manka, C.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mariun, N.

N. Khan, N. Mariun, I. Aris, and J. Yeak, "Laser-triggered lightning discharge," New J. Phys. 4, 61.1- 61.20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mechain, G.

Mejean, G.

Mercure, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Motokoshi, S.

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47-189 (2007).

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Nikolov, S.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Ogata, A.

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti : Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ping, Y.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Prade, B.

Rairoux, P.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Rodriguez, M.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. W¨oste, T. Fujii, Y. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rohwetter, P.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Mchain, V. Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, L. Woste, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ronneberger, F.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Salmon, E.

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. W¨oste, T. Fujii, Y. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Schillinger, H.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Sheng, Z.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi-Chang, Z.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Shimada, Y.

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Slinker, S.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stein, B.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Stelmaszczyk, K.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Mchain, V. Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, L. Woste, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti : Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Teng, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ting, A.

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsubakimoto, K.

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, S.

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W¨oste, L.

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wedekind, C.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Wei, Z.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Wille, H.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. W¨oste, T. Fujii, Y. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Wolf, J.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

Woste, L.

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. W¨oste, T. Fujii, Y. Andre, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments," Opt. Lett. 27, 772-774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Xin, L.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Yamanaka, C.

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, T.

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, H.

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yeak, J.

N. Khan, N. Mariun, I. Aris, and J. Yeak, "Laser-triggered lightning discharge," New J. Phys. 4, 61.1- 61.20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, R. Ackermann, Y.-B. Andre, G. Mechain, G. Mejean, B. Prade, P. Rohwetter, E. Salmon, K. Stelmaszczyk, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, L. Woste, and J.-P. Wolf, "Electric events synchronized with laser filaments in thunderclouds," Opt. Express 16, 5757-5763 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan-Yuan, M.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Zhang, J.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhao-Hua, W.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Zhe, Z.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Zheng, Z.

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zuo-Qiang, H.

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Acta Phys. Sin. (1)

Z. Zhe, L. Xin, H. Zuo-Qiang, Z. Shi-Chang, Z. Dong-Dong, W. Zhao-Hua, M. Yuan-Yuan, Y. Ping, and Z. Jie, "Laboratory simulation of femtosecond laser guided lightning discharge," Acta Phys. Sin. 56, 5293-5297 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, Y. Li, X. Lu, X. Yuan, Z. Zheng, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "Prolongation of the fluorescence lifetime of plasma channels in air induced by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 627-630 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Ackermann, K. Stelmaszczyk, P. Rohwetter, G. Mejean, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, G. Mchain, V. Bergmann, S. Schaper, B. Weise, T. Kumm, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, L. Woste, and J. Wolf, "Triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges by laser-induced filaments under rain conditions," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5781-5783 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. M’ejean, R. Ackermann, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J. Wolf, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, P. Rohwetter, K. Stelmaszczyk, and L. Woste, "Improved laser triggering and guiding of megavolt discharges with dual fs-ns pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, P. Couture, H. Mercure, C. Potvin, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, and I. Gallimberti, "Triggering and guiding leader discharges using a plasma channel created by an ultrashort laser pulse," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 819-821 (2000).
[CrossRef]

European Physical J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J. Wolf, and L. Woste, "Teramobile: A mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system," Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 20, 183-190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J.-C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, "Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 599 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Science (1)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Mercure, H. Pepin, and F. Rizk, "The influence of electron density on the formation of streamers in electrical discharges triggered with ultrashort laser pulses," IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 27, 688-700 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. La Fontaine, D. Comtois, C. Chien, A. Desparois, F. Genin, G. Jarry, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, F. Martin, R. Mawassi, H. Pepin, F. Rizk, F. Vidal, C. Potvin, P. Couture, and H. Mercure, "Guiding large-scale spark discharges with ultrashort pulse laser filaments," J. Appl. Phys. 88, 610-615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mechanics & Astronomy (1)

Z. Hao, J. Zhang, J. Yu, Z. Zheng, X. Yuan, Z. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, W. Ling, and Z. Wei, "The comparison study of diagnostics of light filaments in air," Sci. China Ser. G 49, 228-235 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, and S. Chin, "Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti : Sapphire laser pulse in air," Opt. Commun. 171, 285-290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optoelektron (1)

L. Woste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, "Femtosecond atmospheric lamp," Laser Optoelektron. 29, 51-53 (1997).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

H. Yang, J. Zhang, Y. Li, J. Zhang, Y. Li, Z. Chen, H. Teng, Z. Wei, and Z. Sheng, "Characteristics of self-guided laser plasma channels generated by femtosecond laser pulses in air," Phys. Rev. E 66, 016406 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tzortzakis, B. Prade, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, S. Huller, and P. Mora, "Femtosecond laser-guided electric discharge in air," Phys. Rev. E 64, 057401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Physics of Plasmas (1)

D. Gordon, A. Ting, R. Hubbard, E. Briscoe, C. Manka, S. Slinker, A. Baronavski, H. Ladouceur, P. Grounds, and P. Girardi, "Streamerless guided electric discharges triggered by femtosecond laser filaments," Phys. Plasmas 10, 4530-4538 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters (1)

A. Couairon and A. Mysyrowicz, "Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media," Physics Reports-Review Section of Physics Letters 441, 47-189 (2007).

Proc. SPIE (1)

Y. Shimada, S. Uchida, C. Yamanaka, A. Ogata, T. Yamanaka, Z. ichiro Kawasaki, and E. Fujiwara, "Experiments of discharge guiding using strongly and weakly ionized plasma channels for laser-triggered lightning," Proc. SPIE 3886, 663-670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

SPIE (1)

T. Yamanaka, S. Uchida, Y. Shimada, H. Yasuda, S. Motokoshi, K. Tsubakimoto, Z. Kawasaki, Y. Ishikubo, M. Adachi, and C. Yamanaka, "First observation of laser triggered lightning," SPIE 3343, 281-288 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, "Physics and applications of atmospheric nonlinear optics and filamentation," Opt. Express 16, 466-493 (2008).

N. Khan, N. Mariun, I. Aris, and J. Yeak, "Laser-triggered lightning discharge," New J. Phys. 4, 61.1- 61.20 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. Johnston, J. Kieffer, H. Pepin, and H. Mercure, "Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beams resulting from their propagation over long distances in air," Phys. Plasmas, 6, 1 615-1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, S. Geffroy, C. Favre, V. Boutou, and J. Wolf. "Sonographic probing of laser filaments in air," Appl. Opt. 42, 7117-7120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Discharge setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The experiment setup for filaments diagnostics

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Acoustics signals along the propagation distance with laser energy 15 mJ, 30 mJ and the dual fs+fs pulse.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

A sample of the fluorescence spectrum at the focal point with laser energy 15 mJ, delay time 2 ns.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The temporal evolution of the spectral line 383.8 nm, the dashed line is the deconvolution results with the ICCD gate and delay time.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Breakdown voltage for natural discharge and laser triggering discharge.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The laser triggered discharge spark in a 45 mm gap.

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