Abstract

We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show that X-rays cannot be used to image through the lead white pigment which effectively blocks the X-rays. Although Infrared Reflectography is capable of vaguely observing the hidden paint strokes from the canvas side, we show that only terahertz imaging is capable of providing information on the thickness of the hidden paint layers. Terahertz imaging is thus shown to be a powerful imaging method for art historians, conservators and conservation scientists.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
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2008 (5)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript," IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

2007 (1)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for THz science and Technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-Ray Tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray Imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1997).

1996 (2)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Atkinson, N.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

Bakker, H. J.

Baumbach, T.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Billinge, R.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

Boivin, L.

Bravin, A.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coan, P.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coerdt, A.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Cotte, M.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cupitt, J.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

Den Leeuw, M.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dik, J.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Elyyan, M.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for THz science and Technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fotakis, C.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript," IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript," IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helfen, L.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hosaka, I.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript," IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B. B.

Hunsche, S.

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray Imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1997).

Janssens, K.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krug, K.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

Manceau, J.-M.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Menu, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray Imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1997).

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, "T-Ray Tomography," Opt. Lett. 22, 904-906 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mourou, G. A.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nemoz, C.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nevin, A.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nienhuys, H.- K.

Nuss, M. C.

Ogawa, Y.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript," IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

Porra, L.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Rickers, K.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunders, D.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schyja, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, J.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van der Loeff, L.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Marel, W. A. M.

Van Der Snickt, G.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N. C. J.

Wallert, A.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Wenckebach, W. Th.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. C. M. Planken, H.- K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and W. Th. Wenckebach, "Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitson, A.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Williamson, S. L.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for THz science and Technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, "Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh using Synchrotron Radiation based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping," Anal. Chem. 80, 6436-6442 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, A. Bravin, "Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247-251 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, "Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials," Appl. Phys. B 90, 365-368 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, "Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026-1028 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, "T-ray Imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679-692 (1997).

IEICE Electron. Express (2)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation," IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258-263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, "Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript," IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223-228 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen and T. Baumbach, "Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings," J. Synchrotron Radiat. 15, 55-61 (2008).

Nature Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, "Materials for THz science and Technology," Nature Mater. 1, 26-33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. DulingIII, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, G. A. Mourou, "Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings," Opt. Commun. 281, 527-532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, "Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate," Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052-3054 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, "Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715-1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Studies in Conservation (1)

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, "A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art," Studies in Conservation 51, 277-290 (2006).

Other (5)

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, "Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun.  3, 08027/1-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, "Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy," Opt. Eng.  47, 037003/1-5 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, "Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints," J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun.  2, 07013/1-5 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, "Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett.  89, 221911/1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, "Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation," 9th European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic cross section of the experiment to observe hidden paint layers in paintings on canvas. THz pulses are focused on the painting from the canvas side. THz pulses reflected from the canvas and from the different paint layers interfaces are detected in a standard electro-optic detection setup. (b) Photograph of a painting with six trokes of raw umber on a 4×4 cm2 canvas (left) and of the painting with six strokes of raw umber covered with lead white, used in the experiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured THz electric field, reflected off a metal mirror. (b) Measured THz electric field as a function of time, reflected off a position on the canvas where one of the raw umber strokes is located. (c) Measured THz electric field as a function of time, reflected off a position in between two raw umber strokes. (d) Polarized light microscopic image of a cross section of the canvas approximately at the location where the reflected THz electric field shown in (b) was measured. (e) Polarized light microscopic image of a cross section of the canvas where the reflected THz electric field in (c) was measured.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index of lead white (black) and raw umber (red), extracted from measurements of the transmitted THz electric field assuming an average sample thickness of 1.9 mm. The error bars give an indication of the uncertainty in the calculated values. The uncertainty is based on the results of several measurements at slightly different positions on the same sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Photograph of the front surface of the painting on which the six raw umber strokes, hidden underneath the lead white, have schematically been drawn. The dashed lines represent the location of the line scans of which the results are shown in (b) and (c). (b) THz electric field (color coded) reflected from the canvas side of the painting, as a function of time and as a function of position along the line covering two raw umber strokes as indicated in (a). The two arrows at the top indicate the two maximum in the reflection from the canvas/ground layer-raw umber interface and the raw umber/lead white interface respectively (b) THz electric field reflected from the canvas side of the painting, as a function of time and as a function of position along the line in between the raw umber strokes shown in (a). The arrow at the top indicates the peak electric field associated with a reflection from the canvas/lead white interface. In both (b) and (c), yellow indicates a positive electric field, black indicates a negative electric field.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Time separation between the second and the third positive peak in the reflected THz signal, as a function of position on the canvas, which is a measure of the optical thickness of the raw umber strokes. (b) X-ray transmission image of the paint sample. (c) Infrared Reflectography image of the paint sample.

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