Abstract

We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface, indicating sufficient refractive-index contrast. Our results show that X-rays cannot be used to image through the lead white pigment which effectively blocks the X-rays. Although Infrared Reflectography is capable of vaguely observing the hidden paint strokes from the canvas side, we show that only terahertz imaging is capable of providing information on the thickness of the hidden paint layers. Terahertz imaging is thus shown to be a powerful imaging method for art historians, conservators and conservation scientists.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2008 (6)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript,” IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223–228 (2008)
[Crossref]

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 365–368 (2008)
[Crossref]

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy”, Opt. Eng. 47, 037003/1–5 (2008)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258–263 (2007)
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (2)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002)
[Crossref]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for THz science and Technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002)
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1997 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1997).

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, “T-Ray Tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904–906 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996)
[Crossref]

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Atkinson, N.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

Bakker, H. J.

Bastian, M.

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

Baudrit, B.

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

Baumbach, T.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Beyer, E.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Billinge, R.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

Boivin, L.

Bravin, A.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Coan, P.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Coerdt, A.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Cotte, M.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cupitt, J.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

Dik, J.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Duling, I.N.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Elyyan, M.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Ewert, U.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for THz science and Technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002)
[Crossref]

Fotakis, C.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 365–368 (2008)
[Crossref]

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript,” IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223–228 (2008)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258–263 (2007)
[Crossref]

Hasek, T.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

Hayashi, S.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript,” IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223–228 (2008)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258–263 (2007)
[Crossref]

Helfen, L.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Helm, M.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996)
[Crossref]

Hosaka, I.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript,” IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223–228 (2008)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258–263 (2007)
[Crossref]

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

Hu, B. B.

Hunsche, S.

Jackson, J.B.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1997).

Janssens, K.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy”, Opt. Eng. 47, 037003/1–5 (2008)
[Crossref]

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Keiding, S. R.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Klotzbach, U.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Koch, M.

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy”, Opt. Eng. 47, 037003/1–5 (2008)
[Crossref]

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Köhler, W.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Krug, K.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Krumbholz, N.

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

Leeuw, M. Den

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

Leitner, H.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Liang, H.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

Loeff, L. van der

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manceau, J.-M.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 365–368 (2008)
[Crossref]

Marel, W. A. M. van der

Menu, M.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, S. Hunsche, L. Boivin, and M. C. Nuss, “T-Ray Tomography,” Opt. Lett. 22, 904–906 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1997).

Mourou, G.A.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Mourou, M.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Nemoz, C.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

Nevin, A.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 365–368 (2008)
[Crossref]

Nienhuys, H.- K.

Nuss, M. C.

Oda, N.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript,” IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223–228 (2008)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258–263 (2007)
[Crossref]

Panzner, M.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Planken, P. C. M.

Porra, L.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Richter, H.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

Rickers, K.

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rutz, F.

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Saunders, D.

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

Schall, M.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002)
[Crossref]

Schyja, V.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Sekine, N.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

Snickt, G. Van Der

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sudoh, T.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

Tortora, J.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

Tzortzakis, S.

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 365–368 (2008)
[Crossref]

Valk, N. C. J. van der

Valk, N. van der

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002)
[Crossref]

Wallert, A.

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

Wenckebach, W. Th.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002)
[Crossref]

P. C. M. Planken, H.- K. Nienhuys, H. J. Bakker, and W. Th. Wenckebach, “Measurement and calculation of the orientation dependence of terahertz pulse detection in ZnTe,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 313 (2001).
[Crossref]

Whitaker, J.F.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Whitson, A.

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

Wietzke, S.

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

Williamson, S.L.

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Winnerl, S.

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

Winnewisser, C.

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996)
[Crossref]

Yoneyama, H.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for THz science and Technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002)
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996)
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002)
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

J. Dik, K. Janssens, G. Van Der Snickt, L. van der Loeff, K. Rickers, and M. Cotte, “Visualization of a Lost Painting by Vincent van Gogh Using Synchrotron Radiation Based X-ray Fluorescence Elemental Mapping”, Anal. Chem. 80, 6436–6442 (2008)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

K. Krug, J. Dik, M. Den Leeuw, A. Whitson, J. Tortora, P. Coan, C. Nemoz, and A. Bravin, “Visualization of pigment distributions in paintings using synchrotron K-edge imaging,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 83, 247–251 (2006)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J.-M. Manceau, A. Nevin, C. Fotakis, and S. Tzortzakis, “Terahertz time domain spectroscopy for the analysis of cultural heritage related materials,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 365–368 (2008)
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-dimensional electro-optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026–1028 (1996)
[Crossref]

F. Rutz, T. Hasek, M. Koch, H. Richter, and U. Ewert, “Terahertz birefringence of liquid crystal polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 221911/1–3 (2006)
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray Imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 679–692 (1997).

IEICE Electron. Express (2)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Terahertz Spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4, 258–263 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosaka, “Application of terahertz spectroscopy for character recognition in a medieval manuscript,” IEICE Electron. Express 5, 223–228 (2008)
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. (2)

S. Wietzke, C. Jördens, N. Krumbholz, B. Baudrit, M. Bastian, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: a new nondestructive technique for the quality control of plastic weld joints,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 2, 07013/1–5 (2007)
[Crossref]

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Commun. 3, 08027/1–4 (2008)
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Materials (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for THz science and Technology,” Nature Materials 1, 26–33 (2002)
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J.B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J.F. Whitaker, I.N. Duling, S.L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G.A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281, 527–532 (2008)
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Jördens and M. Koch, “Detection of foreign bodies in chocolate with pulsed terahertz spectroscopy”, Opt. Eng. 47, 037003/1–5 (2008)
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

P. U. Jepsen, C. Winnewisser, M. Schall, V. Schyja, S. R. Keiding, and H. Helm, “Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate,” Phys. Rev. E 53, R3052–3054 (1996)
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. Th. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 1715–1719 (2002)
[Crossref]

Studies in Conservation (1)

D. Saunders, R. Billinge, J. Cupitt, N. Atkinson, and H. Liang, “A new camera for high-resolution infrared imaging of works of art,” Studies in Conservation 51, 277–290 (2006)

Other (2)

K. Krug, L. Porra, P. Coan, A. Wallert, J. Dik, A. Coerdt, A. Bravin, M. Elyyan, L. Helfen, and T. Baumbach, “Relics in Medieval Altarpieces? Combining X-ray Tomographic, Laminographic and Phase-Contrast Imaging to Visualize Thin Organic Objects in Paintings,” J. of Synchrotron Radiation, 2008, doi:10.1107S0909049507045438

W. Köhler, M. Panzner, U. Klotzbach, E. Beyer, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, F. Rutz, C. Jördens, M. Koch, and H. Leitner, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Paintings with THz-Radiation,” 9th European Conference on NonDestructive Testing, Sept. 2006, Berlin, Germany

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic cross section of the experiment to observe hidden paint layers in paintings on canvas. THz pulses are focused on the painting from the canvas side. THz pulses reflected from the canvas and from the different paint layers interfaces are detected in a standard electro-optic detection setup. (b) Photograph of a painting with six trokes of raw umber on a 4×4 cm2 canvas (left) and of the painting with six strokes of raw umber covered with lead white, used in the experiments.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured THz electric field, reflected off a metal mirror. (b) Measured THz electric field as a function of time, reflected off a position on the canvas where one of the raw umber strokes is located. (c) Measured THz electric field as a function of time, reflected off a position in between two raw umber strokes. (d) Polarized light microscopic image of a cross section of the canvas approximately at the location where the reflected THz electric field shown in (b) was measured. (e) Polarized light microscopic image of a cross section of the canvas where the reflected THz electric field in (c) was measured.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Refractive index of lead white (black) and raw umber (red), extracted from measurements of the transmitted THz electric field assuming an average sample thickness of 1.9 mm. The error bars give an indication of the uncertainty in the calculated values. The uncertainty is based on the results of several measurements at slightly different positions on the same sample.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Photograph of the front surface of the painting on which the six raw umber strokes, hidden underneath the lead white, have schematically been drawn. The dashed lines represent the location of the line scans of which the results are shown in (b) and (c). (b) THz electric field (color coded) reflected from the canvas side of the painting, as a function of time and as a function of position along the line covering two raw umber strokes as indicated in (a). The two arrows at the top indicate the two maximum in the reflection from the canvas/ground layer-raw umber interface and the raw umber/lead white interface respectively (b) THz electric field reflected from the canvas side of the painting, as a function of time and as a function of position along the line in between the raw umber strokes shown in (a). The arrow at the top indicates the peak electric field associated with a reflection from the canvas/lead white interface. In both (b) and (c), yellow indicates a positive electric field, black indicates a negative electric field.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Time separation between the second and the third positive peak in the reflected THz signal, as a function of position on the canvas, which is a measure of the optical thickness of the raw umber strokes. (b) X-ray transmission image of the paint sample. (c) Infrared Reflectography image of the paint sample.

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