Abstract

This paper describes MEMS micromirror characterization in space environments associated with our space applications in earth observation from the International Space Station and earth’s orbit satellite. The performance of the micromirror was tested for shock and vibration, stiction, outgassing from depressurization and heating, and electrostatic charging effects. We demonstrated that there is no degradation of the micromirror performance after the space environment tests. A test bed instrument equipped with the micromirrors was delivered and tested in the ISS. The results demonstrate that the proposed micromirrors are suitable for optical space systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

B. W. Yoo, J. H. Park, Y. H. Jang, and Y. K. Kim, "A low-drift, open-loop controlled, single crystalline silicon micromirror with floating field-limiting shields," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. H. Jang, K. N. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, "Characterization of a single crystal silicon micromirror array for maskless UV lithography in biochip applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 2360-2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Shea, "Reliability of MEMS for space applications," Proc. SPIE 6111, 61110A (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. M. van Spengen, "MEMS reliability from a failure mechanisms perspective," Microelectronics Reliability 43, 1049-1060 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

W. M. van Spengen, R. Pures, and I. De Wolf, "A physical model to predict stiction in MEMS," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 702-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optics correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Griffin, B. Swinyard, and L. Vigroux, "SPIRE - Herschel’s submillimetre camera and spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 4850, 686-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. George, "MEMS/NEMS development for Space Applications at NASA/JPL," Proc. SPIE 4755, 556-567, (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy-Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable Mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

P. F. V. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A MEMS-based projection display," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1687-1704 (1998).

R. S. Muller and K. Y. Lau, "Surface-micromachined microoptical elements and systems," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1705-1720 (1998).

T. G. Brown and B. Davis, "Dynamic high-g loading of MEMS Sensors: ground and flight testing," Proc. SPIE 3512, 228-235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, M. Hietschold, "Parasitic charging of dielectric surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)," Sens. Actuators A 71, 74-80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

Arendt, R.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Artikova, S.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optics correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy-Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable Mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boucarut, R. A.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

T. G. Brown and B. Davis, "Dynamic high-g loading of MEMS Sensors: ground and flight testing," Proc. SPIE 3512, 228-235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carper, J. S.

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

Chung, T.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cunnigham, S. J.

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

Davis, B.

T. G. Brown and B. Davis, "Dynamic high-g loading of MEMS Sensors: ground and flight testing," Proc. SPIE 3512, 228-235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Wolf, I.

W. M. van Spengen, R. Pures, and I. De Wolf, "A physical model to predict stiction in MEMS," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 702-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Douglass, M. R.

P. F. V. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A MEMS-based projection display," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1687-1704 (1998).

Garipov, G.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

George, T.

T. George, "MEMS/NEMS development for Space Applications at NASA/JPL," Proc. SPIE 4755, 556-567, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, M.

M. Griffin, B. Swinyard, and L. Vigroux, "SPIRE - Herschel’s submillimetre camera and spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 4850, 686-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hadjimichael, T.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hietschold, M.

J. A. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, M. Hietschold, "Parasitic charging of dielectric surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)," Sens. Actuators A 71, 74-80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Horenstein, M. N.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optics correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy-Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable Mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hornbeck, L. J.

P. F. V. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A MEMS-based projection display," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1687-1704 (1998).

Jang, Y. H.

B. W. Yoo, J. H. Park, Y. H. Jang, and Y. K. Kim, "A low-drift, open-loop controlled, single crystalline silicon micromirror with floating field-limiting shields," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Jang, K. N. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, "Characterization of a single crystal silicon micromirror array for maskless UV lithography in biochip applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 2360-2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaramillo, P. D.

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

Jeon, J. A.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jhabvala, M.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J. Y.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kessel, P. F. V.

P. F. V. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A MEMS-based projection display," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1687-1704 (1998).

Khrenov, B. A.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. E.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. K.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Yoo, J. H. Park, Y. H. Jang, and Y. K. Kim, "A low-drift, open-loop controlled, single crystalline silicon micromirror with floating field-limiting shields," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Jang, K. N. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, "Characterization of a single crystal silicon micromirror array for maskless UV lithography in biochip applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 2360-2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

King, T.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, P.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy-Mali, R.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy-Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable Mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kutyrev, A. S.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. Y.

R. S. Muller and K. Y. Lau, "Surface-micromachined microoptical elements and systems," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1705-1720 (1998).

Lee, H. Y.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. N.

Y. H. Jang, K. N. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, "Characterization of a single crystal silicon micromirror array for maskless UV lithography in biochip applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 2360-2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levine, B. M.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optics correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loughlin, J.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D. G.

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

Meier, R. E.

P. F. V. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A MEMS-based projection display," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1687-1704 (1998).

Moseley, S. H.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Muller, R. S.

R. S. Muller and K. Y. Lau, "Surface-micromachined microoptical elements and systems," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1705-1720 (1998).

Na, G. W.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S. J.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Panasyuk, M.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, I. H.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Yoo, J. H. Park, Y. H. Jang, and Y. K. Kim, "A low-drift, open-loop controlled, single crystalline silicon micromirror with floating field-limiting shields," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-S.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perreault, J.

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy-Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable Mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perreault, J. A.

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optics correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, G.

J. A. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, M. Hietschold, "Parasitic charging of dielectric surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)," Sens. Actuators A 71, 74-80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pures, R.

W. M. van Spengen, R. Pures, and I. De Wolf, "A physical model to predict stiction in MEMS," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 702-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rapchun, D.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwinger, D. S.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shea, H. R.

H. R. Shea, "Reliability of MEMS for space applications," Proc. SPIE 6111, 61110A (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silverberg, R. F.

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swinyard, B.

M. Griffin, B. Swinyard, and L. Vigroux, "SPIRE - Herschel’s submillimetre camera and spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 4850, 686-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, W.

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

van Spengen, W. M.

W. M. van Spengen, "MEMS reliability from a failure mechanisms perspective," Microelectronics Reliability 43, 1049-1060 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. M. van Spengen, R. Pures, and I. De Wolf, "A physical model to predict stiction in MEMS," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 702-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vigroux, L.

M. Griffin, B. Swinyard, and L. Vigroux, "SPIRE - Herschel’s submillimetre camera and spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 4850, 686-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wibbeler, J. A.

J. A. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, M. Hietschold, "Parasitic charging of dielectric surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)," Sens. Actuators A 71, 74-80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, B. W.

B. W. Yoo, J. H. Park, Y. H. Jang, and Y. K. Kim, "A low-drift, open-loop controlled, single crystalline silicon micromirror with floating field-limiting shields," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H. J.

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. S. Kutyrev, R. Arendt, S. H. Moseley, R. A. Boucarut, T. Hadjimichael, M. Jhabvala, T. King, M. J. Li, J. Loughlin, D. Rapchun, D. S. Schwinger, and R. F. Silverberg, "Programmable microshutter arrays for the JWST NIRSpec: optical performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 652-661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Bifano, J. Perreault, R. Krishnamoorthy-Mali, and M. N. Horenstein, "Microelectromechanical Deformable Mirrors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 83-90 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (3)

Y. H. Jang, K. N. Lee, and Y. K. Kim, "Characterization of a single crystal silicon micromirror array for maskless UV lithography in biochip applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 2360-2368 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Yoo, J. H. Park, Y. H. Jang, and Y. K. Kim, "A low-drift, open-loop controlled, single crystalline silicon micromirror with floating field-limiting shields," J. Micromech. Microeng. 18, 035031 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. M. van Spengen, R. Pures, and I. De Wolf, "A physical model to predict stiction in MEMS," J. Micromech. Microeng. 12, 702-713 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Microelectronics Reliability (1)

W. M. van Spengen, "MEMS reliability from a failure mechanisms perspective," Microelectronics Reliability 43, 1049-1060 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (1)

S. Nam, S. Artikova, T. Chung, G. Garipov, J. A. Jeon, S. Jeong, J. Y. Jin, B. A. Khrenov, J. E. Kim, M. Kim, Y. K. Kim, P. Klimov, J. Lee, H. Y. Lee, G. W. Na, S. J. Oh, M. Panasyuk, I. H. Park, J. H. Park, Y.-S. Park, B. W. Yoo, and H. J. Yoo, "A telescope for observation from space of extreme lightning in the upper atmosphere," Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588, 197-200 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. A. Perreault, T. G. Bifano, B. M. Levine, and M. N. Horenstein, "Adaptive optics correction using microelectromechanical deformable mirrors," Opt. Eng. 41, 561-566 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (5)

S. J. Cunnigham, D. G. McIntyre, J. S. Carper, P. D. Jaramillo, and W. Tang, "Microstructures designed for shock robustness," Proc. SPIE 2880, 99-107 (1996).

T. G. Brown and B. Davis, "Dynamic high-g loading of MEMS Sensors: ground and flight testing," Proc. SPIE 3512, 228-235 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Shea, "Reliability of MEMS for space applications," Proc. SPIE 6111, 61110A (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Griffin, B. Swinyard, and L. Vigroux, "SPIRE - Herschel’s submillimetre camera and spectrometer," Proc. SPIE 4850, 686-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. George, "MEMS/NEMS development for Space Applications at NASA/JPL," Proc. SPIE 4755, 556-567, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems (2)

P. F. V. Kessel, L. J. Hornbeck, R. E. Meier, and M. R. Douglass, "A MEMS-based projection display," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1687-1704 (1998).

R. S. Muller and K. Y. Lau, "Surface-micromachined microoptical elements and systems," inProceedings of IEEE Special Issue: Integrated Sensors, Microactuators, and Microsystems(MEMS) 86, 1705-1720 (1998).

Sens. Actuators A (1)

J. A. Wibbeler, G. Pfeifer, M. Hietschold, "Parasitic charging of dielectric surfaces in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)," Sens. Actuators A 71, 74-80 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

J. R. Wertz, Space Mission Analysis and Design, W. J. Larson, ed., (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991), pp. 183-193.

NASA, "International Space Station, expedition 16," http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/expeditions/expedition16/index.html.

L. M. Miller, "MEMS for space applications," Symp. on design, test and microfabrication of MEMS/MOEMS, (Paris, France, 1996), pp. 1-11.

B. Stark, "MEMS reliability assurance guidelines for space applications," in JPL publication 99-1 (1999).

D. M. Tanner, "The effect of humidity on the reliability of a surface micromachined microengine," in Proceedings of IRPS, (San Diego, Calif., 1999), pp. 189-197.

S. Waldis, P. Ayyalasomayajula, W. Noell, and N. F. dep Rooij, "Micromirrors for multiobject spectroscopy: Large array actuation and cryogenic compatibility," in Proceedings of IEEE Int. Conf. Optical MEMS and Nanophotonics, (Huwalian, Taiwan, 2007), pp. 87-88.
[CrossRef]

J. Porter, H. Queener, J. Lin, K. Thor, and A. Awwal, Adaptive Optics for Vision Science (Wiley-Interscience, 2006), Chap. 4.
[CrossRef]

L. Muller, M. H. Hecht, L. M. Miller, H. K. Rockstad, and J. C. Lyke, "Packaging and qualification of MEMS-based space systems," Proc. MEMS, (Atlanta, USA, 1996), pp. 503-508.

D. Content, S. Antonille, D. Rabin, T. Wallace, "Sounding-rocket telescope uses new technology ultra-light-weight mirrors," (SPIE newsroom, 2006), http://spie.org/documents/Newsroom/Imported/260/2006070260.pdf.

D. M. Tanner, J. A. Walraven, K. Helgesen, L. W. Irwin, F. Brown, N. F. Smith, and N. Masters, "MEMS reliability in shock environments," in Proceedings of IRPS, (San Jose, USA, 2000), pp. 129-138.

C. Shepherd, M. Zalalutdinov, T. Alan, H. Craighead, A. Zehnder, and J. Parpia, "Fracture strength of single crystal silicon at micron dimensions," (Department of Physics, University of Florida, 2003), http://www.hgc.cornell.edu/Nems%20Folder/fracture%20paper.pdf.

A. N. Perminov, For the space mission of a space flight participant to the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS) Description of ISS RS and general technical requirements (Russian Federal Space Agency, 2007), Appendix I.
[PubMed]

J. A. Walraven, "Failure mechanism in MEMS," in Proceedings of ITC international test conference, (Charlotte, NC, 2003), pp. 808-833.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

An instrument for test of the micromirrors in the ISS with a cover removed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A one-axis parallel-plate micromirror. (a) Schematic view of a mirror plate and a pair of electrodes. (b) Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of the micromirror, and (c) addressing electrodes and grounded landing site.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A two-axis comb-drive micromirror. (a) Schematic view of the micromirror, (b) SEM image of the comb-drive actuator with a mirror plate removed, and (c) SEM image of the mirror plate bonded on the inner plate of the actuator.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mechanical simulation with ANSYS Workbench of a one-axis parallel-plate micromirror. Simulation results (a) on total deformation and (b) on equivalent stress distribution of the micromirror with a 40 g shock.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Launch-level vibration test of the MEMS micromirrors and (b) Launch-level shock test of the MEMS micromirrors.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured resonance frequency of the micromirrors (a) parallel-plate micromirror and (b) outer actuator of the comb-drive micromirror.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Parallel-plate micromirror with field-limiting shield [16]. (a) SEM image of a pair of bottom electrodes surrounded by a field-limiting shield and (b) SEM image of magnified view of addressing electrodes and field-limiting shield.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Flow of humidity test.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Tilt angle drift characteristic when 83% of the pull-in voltage is applied to the micromirror [16]. (a) With field-limiting shield, micromirror drifts less than 0.005°. (b) Without field-limiting shield, micromirror drifts by 0.5°.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Micromirror reflectivity before and after outgassing test.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Operation of the trigger micromirror in the telescope after space environment tests. Trigger micromirror is toggling off after triggering the event from (a) to (f).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Operation of zoom micromirror in the telescope after the space environment tests. Images from (a) to (i) demonstrate close-up process of the detected event. Close-up image is positioned at the center of an MAPMT.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Light intensity reflected by the micromirror for a pixel of MAPMT in the unit of ADC counts. (a) Data measured before launching and (b) data measured in the ISS.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F app = ma = 2.2834 × 10 7 N ,
σ = FLt 2 I ,
I = b t 3 12 ,
F fracture = σb t 2 6 L 10 3 N ,

Metrics