Abstract

This work demonstrates a promising method to fabricate periodic nanovein structures, which can be served as templates for fabricating photonic crystals possessing a large complete photonic bandgap. First, the fabrication of a one-dimensional grating structure connected with nanolines is demonstrated by controlling the exposure dosage of the second exposure of the two-exposure two-beam interference technique. Secondly, by using the same interference technique but setting each exposure under the same exposure dosage, two-dimensional periodic structures with nanovein connections were fabricated. These structures were obtained by using either a pure negative photoresist with very low concentration of photoinitiator or a mixing of a negative and a positive photoresists. The fabricated structures are not, as usual, a duplication of the interference pattern but are constituted by square or triangular rods connecting with narrow veins. They can be used as templates for fabricating photonic crystals with very large complete photonic bandgap.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. 1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. 2. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. 3. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonics Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995).
  4. 4. C. Y. Wu, N. D. Lai, and C. C. Hsu, "Rapidly self-assembling three-dimensional opal photonic crystals," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52, 1585-1588 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. 5. V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. 6. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. 7. N. D. Lai, W. P. Liang, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, "Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional periodic structures by multi-exposure of two-beam interference technique," Opt. Express 13, 9605-9610 (2005),
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9605.
    [CrossRef]
  9. 8. M. Straub and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. 9. M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nature Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. 10. B. de A. Mello, I. F. da Costa, C. R. A. Lima, and L. Cescato, "Developed profile of holographically exposed photoresist gratings," Appl. Opt. 34, 597-603 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. 11. R. C. Rumpf and E. G. Johnson, "Fully three-dimensional modeling of the fabrication and behavior of photonic crystals formed by holographic lithography," J. Opt. Am. Soc. A 21, 1703-1713 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. 12. N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, W. P. Liang, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, "Precisely introducing defects into periodic structures by using a double-step laser scanning technique," Appl. Opt. 45, 5777-5782 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. 13. S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, "Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173133 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. 14. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. 15. F. Qi, Y. Li, D. Tan, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Polymerized nanotips via two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Express 15, 971-976 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-971.
    [CrossRef]
  17. 16. D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, "Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071106 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. 17. W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3426.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. 18. Y. Li, H. Cui, F. Qi, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Uniform suspended nanorods fabricated by directional scanning via two-photon photopolymerization," Nanotechnology 19, 375304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. 19. M. Qiu and S. He, "Optimal design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal of square lattice with a large complete two-dimensional bandgap," J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 17, 1027-1030 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. 20. L. Z. Cai, C. S. Feng, M. Z. He, X. L. Yang, X. F. Meng, G. Y. Dong, and X. Q. Yu, "Holographic design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal of square lattice with pincushion columns and large complete band gaps," Opt. Express 13, 4325-4330 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4325.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. 21. H. K. Fu, Y. F. Chen, R. L. Chern, and C. C. Chang, "Connected hexagonal photonic crystals with largest full band gap," Opt. Express 13, 7854-7860 (2005),
  23. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-7854.

Other

1. E. Yablonovitch, "Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059-2062 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2. S. John, "Strong localization of photons in certain disordered dielectric superlattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2486-2489 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

3. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonics Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton 1995).

4. C. Y. Wu, N. D. Lai, and C. C. Hsu, "Rapidly self-assembling three-dimensional opal photonic crystals," J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52, 1585-1588 (2008).
[CrossRef]

5. V. Berger, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, and E. Costard, "Photonic band gaps and holography," J. Appl. Phys. 82, 60-64 (1997).
[CrossRef]

6. M. Campbell, D. N. Sharp, M. T. Harrison, R. G. Denning, and A. J. Turberfield, "Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography," Nature 404, 53-56 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

7. N. D. Lai, W. P. Liang, J. H. Lin, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, "Fabrication of two- and three-dimensional periodic structures by multi-exposure of two-beam interference technique," Opt. Express 13, 9605-9610 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-23-9605.
[CrossRef]

8. M. Straub and M. Gu, "Near-infrared photonic crystals with higher-order bandgaps generated by two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Lett. 27, 1824-1826 (2002).
[CrossRef]

9. M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nature Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef]

10. B. de A. Mello, I. F. da Costa, C. R. A. Lima, and L. Cescato, "Developed profile of holographically exposed photoresist gratings," Appl. Opt. 34, 597-603 (1995).
[CrossRef]

11. R. C. Rumpf and E. G. Johnson, "Fully three-dimensional modeling of the fabrication and behavior of photonic crystals formed by holographic lithography," J. Opt. Am. Soc. A 21, 1703-1713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

12. N. D. Lai, J. H. Lin, W. P. Liang, C. C. Hsu, and C. H. Lin, "Precisely introducing defects into periodic structures by using a double-step laser scanning technique," Appl. Opt. 45, 5777-5782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

13. S. H. Park, T. W. Lim, D. Y. Yang, N. C. Cho, and K. S. Lee, "Fabrication of a bunch of sub-30-nm nanofibers inside microchannels using photopolymerization via a long exposure technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 173133 (2006).
[CrossRef]

14. S. Juodkazis, V. Mizeikis, K. K. Seet, M. Miwa, and H. Misawa, "Two-photon lithography of nanorods in SU-8 photoresist," Nanotechnology 16, 846-849 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

15. F. Qi, Y. Li, D. Tan, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Polymerized nanotips via two-photon photopolymerization," Opt. Express 15, 971-976 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-971.
[CrossRef]

16. D. Tan, Y. Li, F. Qi, H. Yang, Q. Gong, X. Dong, and X. Duan, "Reduction in feature size of two-photon polymerization using SCR500," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 071106 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

17. W. Haske, V. W. Chen, J. M. Hales, W. Dong, S. Barlow, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "65 nm feature sizes using visible wavelength 3-D multiphoton lithography," Opt. Express 15, 3426-3436 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3426.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

18. Y. Li, H. Cui, F. Qi, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, "Uniform suspended nanorods fabricated by directional scanning via two-photon photopolymerization," Nanotechnology 19, 375304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

19. M. Qiu and S. He, "Optimal design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal of square lattice with a large complete two-dimensional bandgap," J. Opt. Am. Soc. B 17, 1027-1030 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

20. L. Z. Cai, C. S. Feng, M. Z. He, X. L. Yang, X. F. Meng, G. Y. Dong, and X. Q. Yu, "Holographic design of a two-dimensional photonic crystal of square lattice with pincushion columns and large complete band gaps," Opt. Express 13, 4325-4330 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4325.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

21. H. K. Fu, Y. F. Chen, R. L. Chern, and C. C. Chang, "Connected hexagonal photonic crystals with largest full band gap," Opt. Express 13, 7854-7860 (2005),

http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-7854.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Creation of 1D periodic structures containing with nanoline connections. (a) Illustration of the fabrication process: a double-exposure two-beam interference was used to fabricate such structures. The first exposure was realized with a larger exposure dosage to fabricate a solid and large size 1D main frame structure, while the second exposure dosage was lower to form nanoline connections. (b)-(d) show the experimental results obtained by fixing the first exposure dosage = 1910mJ/cm2 and setting the second dosages for: 168.2mJ/cm2 (b); 477.4 mJ/cm2 (c); 795.8mJ/cm2 (d). The distance between lines is 3μm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Iso-intensity distribution of the two-beam interference pattern, obtained with a double-exposure at 0° and 90°. The iso-intensity values are varied from 0.4 to 1.6 (minimal and maximal intensities are 0 and 2, respectively), corresponding to the change from high to low dosage exposure. (b)-(d) show the experimental results obtained by increasing the exposure dosage from 0.92 to 2.76mJ/cm2. Cylinder structures in (b) were obtained after exposed with 0.92mJ/cm2 ° 0.92mJ/cm2 and air-hole structures in (d) were obtained after exposed with 2.76 mJ/cm2 ° 2.76mJ/cm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of 2D periodic square lattice structures obtained with a double-exposure of a two-beam interference pattern at 0° and 90° into a pure SU8 negative photoresist with low photoinitiator concentration. The exposure source used was an Argon laser emitting at 514nm. The exposure dosage was fixed at 1273.2mJ/cm2 for each exposure, while the concentration of the HNu470 photoinitiator was changed. 2D square structure with nanovein connections was obtained with a concentration of 0.575wt.%.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SEM images of 2D periodic square structures obtained with a double-exposure at 0° and 90° of a two-beam interference pattern into a pure SU8 negative photoresist with low photoinitiator concentration. The concentration of the HNu470 photoinitiator was fixed at 0.6wt.% while the exposure dosage for each exposure was changed from 526 to 1314 mJ/cm2. 2D square structure with nanovein connections was obtained when the dosage of each exposure was about 1314mJ/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SEM images of 2D periodic square structures obtained with a double-exposure at 0° and 90° of a two-beam interference pattern into a SU8/S1818 (ratio=2/1) mixed photoresist. The exposure source is a He-Cd laser emitting 325nm, and the exposure dosage for each exposure from (a) to (f) are 5.66, 7.06, 7.78, 4.24, 8.48, and 9.90 mJ/cm2, respectively. Square rods are connected with narrow veins, when the exposure dosage of one exposure is about 7.78 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

SEM images of 2D periodic hexagonal structures obtained with a double-exposure at 0° and 60° of a two-beam interference pattern into a SU8/S1818 (ratio=2/1) mixed photoresist. From (a) to (c), the exposure dosages for each exposure are 10.76, 12.44, and 13.58mJ/cm2, respectively.

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