Abstract

Repetition rate fluctuation is one of the main drawbacks of the low-threshold stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) Q-switched fiber laser. A method to stabilize the repetition rate is proposed in this paper by injecting a square-wave modulated light. It is measured experimentally that variance of the repetition rate can be improved from ~20% to ~1% of the period. It is also found that effectiveness of the method depends on modulation frequency and duty cycle of the injection. Its working mechanism is analyzed qualitatively.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Zayhowski, "Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications," Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841-846 (1998).
  3. P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. V. Chernikov, Y. Zhu, and J. R. Taylor, "Supercontinuum self-Q-switched ytterbium fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 22, 298-300 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. X. Fan, F. Y. Lu, S. L. Hu, K. C. Lu, H. J. Wang, and G. Y. Zhang, "Narrow-linewidth widely tunable hybrid Q-switched double-clad fiber laser," Opt. Lett. 28, 537-539 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, "Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 454-456 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. A. Fotiadi, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, "Dynamics of a self-Q-switched fiber laser with a Rayleigh-stimulated Brillouin scattering ring mirror," Opt. Lett. 29, 1078-1080 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2001

N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. J. Zayhowski, "Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications," Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841-846 (1998).

Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, "Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 454-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Aït-Ameur, K.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blondel, M.

Bretenaker, F.

N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, M.

N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. J.

Chernikov, S.

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S. V.

Deparis, O.

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dhanjal, S.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

Floch, A. L.

N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fotiadi, A. A.

A. A. Fotiadi, P. Mégret, and M. Blondel, "Dynamics of a self-Q-switched fiber laser with a Rayleigh-stimulated Brillouin scattering ring mirror," Opt. Lett. 29, 1078-1080 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilles, H.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grudinin, A. B.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. J. Chen, A. B. Grudinin, J. Porta, and J. D. Minelly, "Enhanced Q switching in double-clad fiber lasers," Opt. Lett. 23, 454-456 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. L.

Ikiades, A.

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiyan, R.

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kong, F.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, N. D.

N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laroche, M.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, F. Y.

Lu, K. C.

Mégret, P.

Minelly, J. D.

Nilsson, J.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Offerhaus, H. L.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Passilly, N.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porta, J.

Renaud, C. C.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, C.

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Selvas-Aguilar, R. J.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

Turner, P. W.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. J.

Zayhowski, J. J.

J. J. Zayhowski, "Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications," Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841-846 (1998).

Zhang, G. Y.

Zheludev, N. I.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Petropoulos, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, S. Dhanjal and N. I. Zheludev, "Passive Q-switching of fiber lasers using a broadband liquefying gallium mirror," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3619-3621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Kong, L. Liu, C. Sanders, Y. C. Chen, and K. K. Lee, "Phase locking of nanosecond pulses in a passively Q-switched two-element fiber laser array," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Lai, M. Brunel, F. Bretenaker, and A. L. Floch, "Stabilization of the repetition rate of passively Q-switched diode-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1073-1075 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Laroche, H. Gilles, S. Girard, N. Passilly, and K. Aït-Ameur, "Nanosecond Pulse Generation in a Passively Q-Switched Yb-Doped Fiber Laser by Cr4+ : YAG Saturable Absorber," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 764-766 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

C. C. Renaud, R. J. Selvas-Aguilar, J. Nilsson, P. W. Turner, and A. B. Grudinin, "Compact high-energy Q-switched cladding-pumped fiber laser with a tuning range over 40 nm," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 11, 976-978 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

A. A. Fotiadi, O. Deparis, R. Kiyan, S. Chernikov, A. Ikiades, "Dynamics of passive Q-switching in SBS/Er fiber laser at low pump power," Proc. SPIE 4354, 125-134 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Laser Eng.

J. J. Zayhowski, "Passively Q-switched microchip lasers and applications," Rev. Laser Eng. 26, 841-846 (1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic diagram of experimental set-up

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Numerically calculated results: (a) Cascaded SBS generation process in corresponding point A and C in Fig .(1); Population inversion dynamics in EDF without(b) and with(c) external injection; (d) Pulse period jittering with and without external injection. Model parameters: FBG’s reflectivity is 99.5% at central frequency with the bandwidth of 30GHz,

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Typical output of a solitary SBS Q-switched laser; (b) Profile of the generated pulse; (c) Output of the SBS Q-switched laser with external injection; (d) Spectrum of output light and FBG

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Two pulses in one modulation period; (b) Stabilization zone as function of modulation frequency and duty cycle

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Output of the externally injected SBS Q-switched laser with duty cycle of (a) 70% and (b) 80% and their respective spectrum in (c) and (d) when the injection wavelength is 1554.95nm

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n c E k ± t ± E k ± z = g SBS 2 S ( ρ k 1 * E k 1 ± ρ k ± E k + 1 ± ) + 1 2 ( σ e N 2 σ a N 1 ) E k ± + η k ± E k
T 2 ρ k ± t + ρ k ± = E k ± E k + 1 * + f k ± ( z , t ) ,
n c P p t + P p z = σ p N 1 P p ,
N 2 t = σ p Sh υ p N 1 P p ( σ e Sh υ k N 2 σ a Sh υ k N 1 ) [ k ( E k + E k + * + E k E k * ) + E inject E inject * ] N 2 τ ,
n c P inject t + P inject t = ( σ e N 2 σ a N 1 ) P inject

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