Abstract

This study proposed and experimentally demonstrated a cost-efficient scheme that can deliver 60 GHz millimeter-wave (mm-wave) multi-gigabit wireless services over 125 km long-reach passive optical networks (PONs) without any dispersion compensation. By introducing a remote local exchange (LE) stage with robust signal regeneration and all-optical upconversion functionalities, the proposed long-reach optical-wireless access network can easily accommodate over 128 users with 2.5 Gb/s shared bandwidth as well as shifting the capital expenditure of multiple hybrid optical network units (ONUs) toward single LE headend. Experimental verification shows that the power penalties for wireless and wired services are 1.8 dB and 0.4 dB at 10-9 BER after 125 km optical fiber transmission.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3999 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, "Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon," Phys. Lett. A 339, 387-392 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).
  8. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).
  12. P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).
  13. A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).
  14. E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).
  15. R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).
  16. C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).
  17. S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys.Rev. B 72,165112 (2005).
  18. C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).
  19. P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).
  20. Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).
  21. M. Notomi, "Negative refraction in photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).
  22. G. Boedecker and C. Henkel, "All-frequency effective medium theory of a photonic crystal," Opt. Express 11, 1590 (2003).
  23. R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).
  24. J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).
  25. R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, "Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers," Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).
  26. L. Pavesi,"Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).
  27. W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, "Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces," Opt. Commun. 281, 3081-3086 (2008).
  28. S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

2008

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, "Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces," Opt. Commun. 281, 3081-3086 (2008).

2007

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

2005

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys.Rev. B 72,165112 (2005).

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, "Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon," Phys. Lett. A 339, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

2004

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

2003

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).

G. Boedecker and C. Henkel, "All-frequency effective medium theory of a photonic crystal," Opt. Express 11, 1590 (2003).

2002

M. Notomi, "Negative refraction in photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).

2000

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

1997

L. Pavesi,"Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).

1996

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1968

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Agranovich, V. M.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Aydin, K.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Baughman, R. H.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Berrier, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Boedecker, G.

Cheng, B.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de la Mora, M. B.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, "Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers," Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

del Río, J. A.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, "Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers," Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Derov, J. S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

Fainman, Y.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Fang, L. C.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

Feng, Z.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

Foteinopoulou, S.

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys.Rev. B 72,165112 (2005).

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

Guven, K.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

Henkel, C.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).

Kavokin, A. V.

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, "Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon," Phys. Lett. A 339, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Kawashima, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Kosaka, H.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

Liu, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Liu, Z.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Long, S. J.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

Lu, W. T.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).

Luo, C.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).

Malpuech, G.

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, "Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon," Phys. Lett. A 339, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H. Z.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

Moussa, R.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

Mulot, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Nava, R.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, "Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers," Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, "Negative refraction in photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Ojha, S.P.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).

Ozbay, E.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Parimi, P. V.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).

Park, W.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Pati, S.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi,"Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).

Pendry, J. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals," Opt. Express 11, 746 (2003).

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Sato, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Schonbrun, E.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Shelykh, I.

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, "Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon," Phys. Lett. A 339, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sickmiller, M. E.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sievenpiper, D. F.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sokolo, J.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys.Rev. B 72,165112 (2005).

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

Soukoulis, S.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, S.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).

Srivastava, R.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).

Stacy, A. M.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Summers, C. J.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Sun, C.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Swillo, M.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Tagüeña-Martínez, J.

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, "Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers," Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Talneau, A.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Tamamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Tamura, T.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thapa, B. K.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).

Thylén, L.

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

Tomita, A.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

Tuttle, G.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vodo, P.

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).

Wang, Q.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

Wang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

Wing, R.

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

Wu, Q.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Yablonovitch, E.

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

Yang, F.

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, "Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces," Opt. Commun. 281, 3081-3086 (2008).

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Yuan Yuan, C.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

Zakhidov, A. A.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. Z.

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

Zhang, L.

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

Zhang, W. Q.

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, "Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces," Opt. Commun. 281, 3081-3086 (2008).

Zhang, X.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Self-collimating phenomensa in photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Schonbrun, Q. Wu, W. Park, T. Yamashita, C. J. Summers, M. Abashin, and Y. Fainman, "Wave front evolution of negatively refracted waves in a photonic crystal," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 041113 (2007).

P. Vodo, P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and R. Wing, "Microwave photonic crystal with tailor made negative refractive index," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1858 (2004).

Chin. Phys.

C. Yuan Yuan, H. Z. Ming, S. J. Long, L. C. Fang, and Q. Wang, "Frequency bands of negative refraction in finite one-dimensional photonic crystals," Chin. Phys. 16, 173 (2007).

La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento

L. Pavesi,"Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities," La Rivista del Nuovo Cimento 20, 1 (1997).

Nature

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, S. Foteinopoulou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction by photonic crystals," Nature 423, 604 (2003).

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, and S. Sridhar, "Photonic crystals: Imaging by flat lens using negative refraction," Nature 426, 404 (2003).

Opt. Commun.

W. Q. Zhang and F. Yang, "Negative refraction at various crystal interfaces," Opt. Commun. 281, 3081-3086 (2008).

Opt. Express

Opt. Quantum Electron.

M. Notomi, "Negative refraction in photonic crystals," Opt. Quantum Electron. 34, 133 (2002).

Phys. Lett. A

A. V. Kavokin, G. Malpuech, and I. Shelykh, "Negative refraction of light in Bragg mirrors made of porous silicon," Phys. Lett. A 339, 387-392 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov,"Linear and non linear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Kosaka, T. Kawashima, A. Tomita, M. Notomi, T. Tamamura, T. Sato, and S. Kawakami, "Superprism phenomena in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 58, R10096 (1998).

R. Moussa, S. Foteinopoulou, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, K. Guven, E. Ozbay, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Negative refraction and superlens behavior in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, " Phys. Rev. B 71085106 (2005).

Phys. Rev. B.

C. Luo, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, and J. B. Pendry,"Subwavelength imaging in photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 045115 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

E. Cubukcu, K. Aydin, E. Ozbay, and S. Soukoulis, "Subwavelength Resolution in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal-Based Superlens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 207401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Parimi, W. T. Lu, P. Vodo, J. Sokolo, J. S. Derov, and S. Sridhar, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 127401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966-3999 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Sievenpiper, M. E. Sickmiller, and E. Yablonovitch, "3D wire mesh photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2480-2483 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Feng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Y. Li, B. Cheng, and D. Z. Zhang, "Negative Refraction and Imaging Using 12-fold-Symmetry Quasicrystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 247402 (2005).

A. Berrier, M. Mulot, M. Swillo, M. Qiu, L. Thylén, A. Talneau, and S. Anand, "Negative Refraction at Infrared Wavelengths in a Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 073902 (2004).

S. Foteinopoulou, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Refraction in Media with a Negative Refractive Index," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 107402 (2003).

Phys. Status Solidi A

R. Nava, M. B. de la Mora, J. Tagüeña-Martínez, and J. A. del Río, "Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers," Phys. Status Solidi A (To be published).

Phys.Rev. B

S. Foteinopoulou and C. M. Soukoulis, "Electromagnetic wave propagation in two-dimensional photonic crystals: A study of anomalous refractive effects," Phys.Rev. B 72,165112 (2005).

Science

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu,Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, "Optical Negative Refraction in Bulk Metamaterials of Nanowires," Science 321, 930 (2008).

Solid State Commun.

R. Srivastava, B. K. Thapa, S. Pati, and S.P. Ojha, "Negative refraction in 1D photonic crystals," Solid State Commun. 147, 157-160 (2008).

Sov. Phys. USPEKHI

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of permittivity and permeability," Sov. Phys. USPEKHI 10, 509 (1968).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Network architecture of the proposed long-reach and conventional short-reach 60 GHz mm-wave hybrid optical-wireless access networks.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Proof-of-concept experimental setup for the proposed long-reach 60 GHz mm-wave hybrid optical-wireless access network with remote upconverter.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optical spectra of (a) the lightwave with 30 GHz DSB modulation before and after an OL and (b) two independent downstream channels carrying 2.5 Gb/s baseband signal and 60 GHz optical mm-wave, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Waveforms of 60 GHz optical mm-wave before and after 125 km transmission, and eye diagrams of 2.5 Gb/s signals carried by 60 GHz optical mm-wave measured at different transmission distances by using conventional and proposed approaches, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured eye disgram of an upconverted 10 Gb/s baseband signal on 60 GHz band at an LE which is 50 km away from the CO.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BER performance and corresponding eye diagrams for (a) wireless and (b) wired services, respectively.

Metrics