Abstract

Lasing in dye solution-embedded inverse silica opal structures was investigated. The opal films were prepared by sedimentation of polystyrene microspheres on a cover glass. The polystyrene structures were inverted using sol-gel infiltration of silica and subsequent removal of polystyrene. Photoluminescence of rhodamine (rhodamine B, 6G and sulfo-rhodamine 101) dye solutions embedded into the inverse silica opal structures exhibited clear signatures of the lasing via a distributed feedback (DFB) and gain modulation. The refractive index contrast between the dye and the inverse opal was small enough (~ 0.03%) for the formation of refractive index coupling between the lasing modes. The lasing spectrum exhibited a highly regular periodic structure of modal peaks, rather than the chaotic superposition of peaks reported in previous studies. Lasing modes having a spectral width of about 0.25 nm and a free spectral range of about 0.75 nm appeared at the position of the maximum gain (the maximum fluorescence of the dye).

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, "Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals," Adv. Mater. 13, 760-764 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Polson and Z. Vardeny, "Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Yokoyama and S. Mashiko, "Tuning of laser frequency in random media of dye-doped polymer and glass particle hybride," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L970 - L973 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (2)

R. Polson and Z. Vardeny, "Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Datsyuk, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, "Properties of a laser based on evanescent-wave amplification," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1471 - 1478 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Yokoyama and S. Mashiko, "Tuning of laser frequency in random media of dye-doped polymer and glass particle hybride," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L970 - L973 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Juodkazis, K. Fujiwara, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Morphology-dependent resonant laser emission of dye-doped ellipsoidal microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 916-921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, "Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals," Adv. Mater. 13, 760-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson. and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis," Opt. Express 8, 173-190 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Lasing of a microsphere in dye solution," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5101 - 5104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. Wiersma, M. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Coherent backscattering of light from an amplifying medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739 - 1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436 - 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692 - 2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 - 840 (1968).

1958 (1)

P. Anderson, "Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 - 1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P.

P. Anderson, "Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 - 1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436 - 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R.

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baughman, R. H.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

R. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, "Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals," Adv. Mater. 13, 760-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Datsyuk, V. V.

DeLong, M. C.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S.

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Lasing of a microsphere in dye solution," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5101 - 5104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Fujiwara, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Morphology-dependent resonant laser emission of dye-doped ellipsoidal microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 916-921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436 - 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Juodkazis, S.

Kawagishi, Y.

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

D. Wiersma, M. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Coherent backscattering of light from an amplifying medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739 - 1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692 - 2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436 - 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 - 840 (1968).

Maeda, K.

Masashi, M.

Mashiko, S.

S. Yokoyama and S. Mashiko, "Tuning of laser frequency in random media of dye-doped polymer and glass particle hybride," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L970 - L973 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Fujiwara, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Morphology-dependent resonant laser emission of dye-doped ellipsoidal microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 916-921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

Mitsuru, M.

Mizeikis, V.

Nishijima, Y.

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R.

R. Polson and Z. Vardeny, "Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, "Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals," Adv. Mater. 13, 760-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raikh, M. E.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Lasing of a microsphere in dye solution," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5101 - 5104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436 - 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shkunov, M. N.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Fujiwara, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Morphology-dependent resonant laser emission of dye-doped ellipsoidal microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 916-921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanimura, T.

Tatsuhara, S.

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ueno, K.

van Albada, M.

D. Wiersma, M. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Coherent backscattering of light from an amplifying medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739 - 1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Albada, M. P.

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692 - 2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z.

R. Polson and Z. Vardeny, "Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, "Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals," Adv. Mater. 13, 760-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

D. Wiersma, M. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Coherent backscattering of light from an amplifying medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739 - 1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama and S. Mashiko, "Tuning of laser frequency in random media of dye-doped polymer and glass particle hybride," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L970 - L973 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. Vardeny, "Random lasing in π−conjugated films and infiltrated opals," Adv. Mater. 13, 760-764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Yoshino, S. Tatsuhara, Y. Kawagishi, M. Ozaki, A. A. Zakhidov, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Amplified spontaneous emission and lasing in conducting polymers and fluorescent dyes in opals as photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2590 - 2592 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Juodkazis, K. Fujiwara, T. Takahashi, S. Matsuo, and H. Misawa, "Morphology-dependent resonant laser emission of dye-doped ellipsoidal microcavity," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 916-921 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Yokoyama and S. Mashiko, "Tuning of laser frequency in random media of dye-doped polymer and glass particle hybride," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L970 - L973 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Microspherical lasing of an erbium-ion-doped glass particle," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L46-L48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Fujiwara and K. Sasaki, "Lasing of a microsphere in dye solution," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38, 5101 - 5104 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368, 436 - 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, "High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal," Nature 425, 944-947 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Frolov, Z. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. Baughman, "Laser-like emission in opal photonic crystals," Opt. Commun. 162, 241-246 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. Anderson, "Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices," Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 - 1505 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

R. Polson and Z. Vardeny, "Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime," Phys. Rev. B 71, 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. P. van Albada and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2692 - 2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wiersma, M. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, "Coherent backscattering of light from an amplifying medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739 - 1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. S. Letokhov, "Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835 - 840 (1968).

Synth. Met. (2)

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Shkunov, M. C. DeLong, M. E. Raikh, Z. V. Vardeny, A. A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Photonic versus random lasing in opal single crystals," Synth. Met. 116, 485 - 491 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed., (Oxford University Press, New York, 1997).

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, and H. Cao, "Lasing with resonant feedback in weakly scattering random systems," Phys. Rev. Lett.  98, 143902/1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images of inverse opal structures formed by spheres with diameter of 300 nm showing the crystallographic (111) plane.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The gain and refractive index modulation coupled DFB lasing at single-mode conditions observed in zirconia [18]. (b) The gain-DFB modulation lasing. Simulated spectra of the DFB laser (eqn. 1); Δβ is the departure of the propagation constant from the Bragg conditions Δβ = 0. The inset in (b) shows spectral gain- DFB modulation for different periods Λ = 0.3,0.8,1.0 μm (note the log-scale in the inset).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectra of rhodamine B absorption, fluorescence, and lasing lines measured from a silica inverse opal film at a pump irradiance of 157 GW/cm2 per pulse. (b) Lasing modes from inverse opal film infiltrated by different dyes. The mode of spectral spacing is approximately the same.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity dependence of the lasing maximum peak from the inverse silica film doped by rhodamine B dye. The inset shows the power dependence of the spectral narrowing of the emission modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Lasing of rhodamine B in inverse opal structures templated from polystyrene beads of different diameters.

Equations (3)

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r 1,2 ( L 1,2 ) = κ sinh S L 1,2 ( γ i Δ β ) sinh S L 1,2 S cosh S L 1,2 ,
n ( z ) = n 0 + n 1 cos 2 π Λ z ,
γ ( z ) = γ 0 + γ 1 cos 2 π Λ z ,

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