Abstract

We report nonlinear measurements on 80μm silicon photonic crystal waveguides that are designed to support dispersionless slow light with group velocities between c/20 and c/50. By launching picosecond pulses into the waveguides and comparing their output spectral signatures, we show how self phase modulation induced spectral broadening is enhanced due to slow light. Comparison of the measurements and numerical simulations of the pulse propagation elucidates the contribution of the various effects that determine the output pulse shape and the waveguide transfer function. In particular, both experimental and simulated results highlight the significant role of two photon absorption and free carriers in the silicon waveguides and their reinforcement in the slow light regime.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 465-473 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Soljacic, S. G. Johnson, S. H. Fan, M. Ibanescu, E. and J. D. Joannopoulos, "Photonic-crystal slow-light enhancement of nonlinear phase sensitivity," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 2052-2059 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T.F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?" Nat. Photonics 2, 448-449 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. F. Krauss, "Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 40, 2666-2670 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. Settle, R. J. P. Engelen, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, L. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, "Flatband slow light in photonic crystals featuring spatial pulse compression and terahertz bandwidth," Opt. Express 15, 219-226 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, "Light-matter interaction in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3528-3539 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. J. P. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, J. P. Korterik, N. Ikeda, N. F. van Hulst, K. Asakawa, and L. Kuipers, "The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1658-1672 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Kubo. D. Mori, and T. Baba, "Low-group-velocity and low-dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2981-2983 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Li, T. P. White, L. O. Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 6227-6232 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. H. Yin and G. P. Agrawal "Impact of two-photon absorption on self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2031-2033 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. N. A. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 0566041 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. J. P. Engelen, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, "Two regimes of slow light losses revealed by adiabatic reduction of group velocity" Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103901 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  28. W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, "Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 16, 3310-3319 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 465-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?" Nat. Photonics 2, 448-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O. Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 6227-6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. P. Engelen, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, "Two regimes of slow light losses revealed by adiabatic reduction of group velocity" Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, "Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 16, 3310-3319 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Hugonin, P. Lalanne, T. P. White, and T. E. Krauss, "Coupling into slow-mode photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2638-2640 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Yin and G. P. Agrawal "Impact of two-photon absorption on self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2031-2033 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kubo. D. Mori, and T. Baba, "Low-group-velocity and low-dispersion slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Lett. 32, 2981-2983 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, "Light-matter interaction in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3528-3539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Krauss, "Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 40, 2666-2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Settle, R. J. P. Engelen, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, L. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, "Flatband slow light in photonic crystals featuring spatial pulse compression and terahertz bandwidth," Opt. Express 15, 219-226 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. J. P. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, J. P. Korterik, N. Ikeda, N. F. van Hulst, K. Asakawa, and L. Kuipers, "The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1658-1672 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. A. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 0566041 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Andreani, L. C.

L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, "Light-matter interaction in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3528-3539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. P. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, J. P. Korterik, N. Ikeda, N. F. van Hulst, K. Asakawa, and L. Kuipers, "The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1658-1672 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 465-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. P. Engelen, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, "Two regimes of slow light losses revealed by adiabatic reduction of group velocity" Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benton, C.

Bhat, N. A. R.

N. A. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 0566041 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassagne, D.

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, "Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 16, 3310-3319 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, W.

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drouard, E.

d'Yerville, M. L.

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engelen, R. J. P.

Fage-Pedersen, J.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S. H.

Faolain, L. O.

Frandsen, L. H.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Frandsen, A. V. Lavrinenko, J. Fage-Pedersen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic crystal waveguides with semi-slow light and tailored dispersion properties," Opt. Express 14, 9444-9450 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerace, D.

L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, "Light-matter interaction in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3528-3539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, "Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 16, 3310-3319 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomez-Iglesias, A.

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O. Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 6227-6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorbach, A. V.

Grillet, C.

E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamann, H. F.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hattori, H.

Houdré, R.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J. P.

Ibanescu, M.

Ikeda, N.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. P. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, J. P. Korterik, N. Ikeda, N. F. van Hulst, K. Asakawa, and L. Kuipers, "The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1658-1672 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, K.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, H.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

Jouanin, C.

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, A.

Knight, J. C.

Korterik, J. P.

Krauss, T. E.

Krauss, T. F.

J. Li, T. P. White, L. O. Faolain, A. Gomez-Iglesias, and T. F. Krauss, "Systematic design of flat band slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 16, 6227-6232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Settle, R. J. P. Engelen, M. Salib, A. Michaeli, L. Kuipers, and T. F. Krauss, "Flatband slow light in photonic crystals featuring spatial pulse compression and terahertz bandwidth," Opt. Express 15, 219-226 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Krauss, "Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 40, 2666-2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.F.

T.F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?" Nat. Photonics 2, 448-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, S.

Kuipers, L.

Lalanne, P.

Lavrinenko, A.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A. V.

Le Thomas, N.

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Littler, I. C. M.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D. S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, D.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaeli, A.

Miller, A.

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mori, D.

R. J. P. Engelen, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, "Two regimes of slow light losses revealed by adiabatic reduction of group velocity" Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, D. J.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O'Boyle, M.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O'Brien, D.

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oda, H.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O'Faolain, L.

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramunno, L.

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rojo-Romeo, P.

E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salib, M.

Seassal, C.

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Settle, M. D.

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shokooh-Saremi, M.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 0566041 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

Soljacic, M.

Sorel, M.

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorel, and R. M. De La Rue, "Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Express 16, 3310-3319 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. J. P. Engelen, Y. Sugimoto, Y. Watanabe, J. P. Korterik, N. Ikeda, N. F. van Hulst, K. Asakawa, and L. Kuipers, "The effect of higher-order dispersion on slow light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 1658-1672 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ta'eed, V. G.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

Viktorovitch, P.

E. Drouard, H. Hattori, C. Grillet, A. Kazmierczak, X. Letartre, P. Rojo-Romeo, and P. Viktorovitch, "Directional channel-drop filter based on a slow Bloch mode photonic crystal waveguide section," Opt. Express 13, 3037-3048 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Watanabe, Y.

White, T. P.

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, A.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L. H.

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Oda, K. Inoue, Y. Tanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, H. Ishikawa, and K. Asakawa, "Self-phase modulation in photonic-crystal-slab line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 231102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Oda, K. Inoue, A. Yamanaka, N. Ikeda, Y. Sugimoto, and K. Asakawa, "Light amplification by stimulated Raman scattering in AlGaAs-based photonic-crystal line-defect waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 051114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Letartre, C. Seassal, C. Grillet, P. Rojo-Romeo, P. Viktorovitch, M. L. d'Yerville, D. Cassagne, and C. Jouanin, "Group velocity and propagation losses measurement in a single-line photonic-crystal waveguide on InP membranes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2312-2314 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Gomez-Iglesias, D. O'Brien, L. O'Faolain, A. Miller, and T. F. Krauss, "Direct measurement of the group index of photonic crystal waveguides via Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 261107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, "Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954-2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett.

L. O'Faolain, X. Yuan, D. McIntyre, S. Thoms, H. Chong, R. M. De la Rue, and T. F. Krauss, "Low-loss propagation in photonic crystal waveguides," Electron Lett. 42,1454-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, "Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsequioxane electron-beam resist," Electron. Lett. 44, 115-116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Shokooh-Saremi, L. Fu, I. C. M. Littler, D. J. Moss, M. Rochette, B. J. Eggleton, Y. Ruan, and B. Luther-Davies, "Self-phase modulation-based integrated optical regeneration in chalcogenide waveguides," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 360-370 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys.

T. F. Krauss, "Slow light in photonic crystal waveguides," J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 40, 2666-2670 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

T. Baba, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photonics 2, 465-473 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?" Nat. Photonics 2, 448-449 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438,65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

N. Le Thomas, R. Houdré, L. H. Frandsen, J. Fage-Pedersen, A. Lavrinenko, and P. I. Borel, "Grating-assisted superresolution of slow waves in Fourier space," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E

N. A. R. Bhat, and J. E. Sipe, "Optical pulse propagation in nonlinear photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. E 64, 0566041 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. J. P. Engelen, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, "Two regimes of slow light losses revealed by adiabatic reduction of group velocity" Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 103901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 2539021-2539024 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes, L. Ramunno, J. F. Young, and J. E. Sipe, "Extrinsic optical scattering loss in photonic crystal waveguides: role of fabrication disorder and photon group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 0339031-0339034 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B

L. C. Andreani, and D. Gerace, "Light-matter interaction in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Status Solidi B 244, 3528-3539 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic of the silicon waveguide with the 80μm PhC waveguide in the middle. (b) Scanning electron microscope image of a silicon PhC waveguide connected to the tapered ridge access waveguide. (c) Measured group index dispersion of the four engineered PhC waveguides (see Table 1). The inset shows the principle of the engineered PhC waveguide design where the two first rows of holes are shifted toward or away from the waveguide axis.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Output spectra at different coupled powers of 1.2ps pulses propagating through the reference ridge waveguide (a), the reference 80 μm long nanowire (b) and the slow waveguides with group indices between 20 and 50 (c–f).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

2D plots showing the output pulse spectra versus coupled peak power for 3 slow light waveguides with a group index of 30 (a,d), 40 (b,e) and 50 (c,f) as measured experimentally (a–c) and calculated using the SSFM (d–f).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Spectral shift of the averaged wavelength of the output pulses versus group index (including the reference nanowire) for a coupled peak power of 15W, from both experiments (red stars) and simulations (dotted red line). The blue dotted line represents the calculated shift in the absence of free carriers. (b) Average output power versus coupled peak power for the different waveguides as derived from the measurements (dots) and the simulations (dotted lines).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Averaged spectral broadening Δλ=<|λ-λ0|> of the output pulse versus coupled peak power as measured experimentally for the series of waveguides on Fig 2. The values are normalized to the spectral broadening of the pulse at low power. (b) Equivalent figures from the calculations. (c) Normalized averaged spectral broadening <|λ-λ0|> versus group index from both experiments (red stars) and the simulations (dotted lines) in the presence of both TPA and FCs (red line), only TPA (blue line) and no TPA nor FCs (brown line).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the parameters of the four dispersion engineered PhC waveguides that are optimized for displaying a dispersionless slow light propagation window. The positive and negative shifts indicated correspond to a displacement perpendicular to the waveguide direction, away from the waveguide axis and toward it, respectively.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of the parameters used in Equations (1) and (2) for silicon around 1550nm, mostly from [21] and [23].

Equations (2)

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A z + α 2 A + i β 2 2 2 A T 2 β 3 6 3 A T 3 = ( A 2 A ) β TPA 2 A eff A 2 A N c ( σ 2 + 2 k c λ 0 ) A
N c ( t ) t = β TPA 2 h v 0 A eff 2 A 4 N c τ recomb

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