Abstract

The multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation of Au nanorings with symmetry broken were analyzed by using DDA and FDTD methods. Based on the multipolar plasmon resonance and propagation, we proposed ring-nanosensors with high sensitivities and optical ring-nanoantennas with large local field enhancements. We revealed that the refractive index sensitivities of split nanorings are about 100% larger than those of perfect nanorings with same size; the local field intensity enhancement of split nanoring with three gaps has increased by 37% than that of dipole antennas.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

H. M. Gong, L. Zhou, X. R. Su, S. Xiao, S. D. Liu, and Q. Q. Wang, "Lighting up dark plasmons of Bi-crystal silver ring-nanoantenna to enhance exciton-plasmon interactions," Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 298 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (18)

X. Peng and I. Kamiya, "Two methods to prepare nanorings/nanoholes for the fabrication of vertical nanotransistors," Nanotechnology 19, 315303 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Liu, C. W. Wang, J. P. Wu, Y. I. Lee, and J. Hao, "Gold and silver nanorings formed at the air/water interface," Colloid Surf. A-Physicochem.Eng. Asp. 312, 203 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Yuan, W. Zhou, Y. Q. Duan, and L. J. Bie, "A simple approach for large-area fabrication of Ag nanorings," Nanotechnology 19, 075608 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured plasmonic sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Gorodetski, A. Niv, V. Kleiner, and E. Hasman, "Observation of the spin-based plasmonic effect in nanoscale structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, "Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength," Nano Lett. 8, 2171 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hao, Y. Sonnefraud, P. V. Dorpe, S. A. Maier, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "Symmetry breaking in plasmonic nanocavities: Subradiant LSPR sensing and a tunable Fano resonance," Nano Lett. 8, 3983 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Larsson, F. Hao, L. Eurenius, E. Olsson, P. Nordlander, and D. S. Sutherland, "Plasmon hybridization in stacked double gold nanorings with reduced symmetry," Small 4, 1630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, "Lasing spaser," Nat. Photonics 2, 351 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Li, L. Clime, L. Tay, B. Cui, M. Geissler, and T. Veres, "Multiple surface plasmon resonances and near-infrared field enhancement of gold nanowells," Anal. Chem. 80, 4945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, "Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings," Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 262 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect," Nano Lett. 8, 3893 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Dutta, T. A. Ali, D. W. Brandl, T. H. Park, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmonic properties of a metallic torus," J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, C. Genet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Miniature plasmonic wave plates," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 043902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Liu, M. T. Cheng, Z. J. Yang, and Q. Q. Wang, "Surface plasmon propagation in a pair of metal nanowires coupled to a nanosized optical emitter," Opt. Lett. 33, 851 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-8-851.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zou, "Light-driven circular plasmon current in a silver nanoring," Opt. Lett. 33, 2113 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-33-18-2113.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (16)

K. Y. Jung, F. L. Teixeira, and R. M. Reano, "Au/SiO2 nanoring plasmon waveguides at optical communication band," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 2757 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mary, D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Bouhelier, and A. Dereux, "Optical absorption of torus-shaped metal nanoparticles in the visible range," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245422 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Multiple plasmon resonances from gold nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 143105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Tuneable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonantors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093109 (2007).
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A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Fabrication and tuning of nanoscale metallic ring and split-ring arrays," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2628 (2007).
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V. A. Fedotov, M. Rose, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and N. I. Zheludev, "Sharp trapped-mode resonances in planar metamaterials with a broken structural symmetry," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 147401 (2007).
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T. Grosjean, A. Fahys, M. Suarez, D. Charraut, R. Salut, and D. Courjon, "Annular nanoantenna on fibre micro-axicon," J. Microsc. 229, 354 (2007).
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M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, "Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications," Opt. Commun. 270, 447 (2007).
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E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
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W. S. Liao, X. Chen, J. Chen, and P. S. Cremer, "Templating water stains for nanolithography," Nano Lett. 7, 2452 (2007).
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H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, "Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles," New J. Phys. 9, 53 (2007).
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Y. Lei, W. Cai, and G. Wilde, "Highly ordered nanostructures with tunable size shape and properties: A new way to surface nano-patterning using ultra-thin alumina masks," Prog. Mater. Sci. 52, 465 (2007).
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S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271 (2007).
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S. Wang, D. F. P. Pile, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Nanopin plasmonic resonator array and its optical properties," Nano Lett. 7, 1076 (2007).
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F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Enhanced tenability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245417 (2007).
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2006 (16)

G. Laurent, N. Félidj, J. Grand, J. Aubard, and G. Lévi, "Raman scattering images and spectra of gold ring arrays," Phys. Rev. B 73, 245417 (2006).
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H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, "Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
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G. Shen, and D. Chen, "Self-coiling of Ag2V4O11 nanobelts into perfect nanorings and microloops," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11762 (2006).
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Y. B. Zheng, S. J. Wang, A. C. H. Huan, and Y. H. Wang, "Fabrication of large area ordered metal nanoring arrays for nanoscale optical sensors," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352, 2532 (2006).
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F. Sun, J. C. Yu, and X. Wang, "Construction of size-controllable hierarchical nanoporous TiO2 ring arrays and their modifications," Chem. Mater. 18, 3774 (2006).
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S. Zhao, H. Roberge, A. Yelon, and T. Veres, "New application of AAO template: A mold for nanoring and nanocone arrays," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 12352 (2006).
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G. Duan, W. Cai, Y. Luo, Z. Li, and Y. Lei, "Hierarchical structured Ni nanorings and hollow sphere arrays by morphology inheritance based on ordered through-pore template and electrodeposition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 15729 (2006).
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S. Wang, G. J. Yu, J. L. Gong, Q. T. Liu, H. J. Xu, D. Z. Zhu, and Z. Y. Zhu, "Large-area fabrication of periodic Fe nanorings with controllable aspect ratios in porous alumina templates," Nanotechnology 17, 1594 (2006).
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S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, "Patterned arrays of Au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance," Langmuir 22, 7109 (2006).
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H. Wang, Y. Wu, B. Lassiter, C. L. Nehl, J. H. Hafner, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, "Symmetry breaking in individual plasmonic nanoparticles," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 103, 10856 (2006).
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A. Mary, A. Dereux, and T. L. Ferrell, "Localized surface plasmons on a torus in the nonretarded approximation," Phys. Rev. B 72, 155426 (2006).
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B. Wang, and G. P. Wang, "Plasmonic waveguide ring resonator at terahertz frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 133106 (2006).
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S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508 (2006).
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J. M. Steele, Z. Liu, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, "Resonant and non-resonant generation and focusing of surface plasmons with circular gratings," Opt. Express 14, 5664 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-14-12-5664.
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Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, H. Lee, and X. Zhang, "Tuning the focus of a plasmonic lens by the incident angle," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 171108 (2006).
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2005 (6)

P. Mühlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308, 1607 (2005).
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Z. Liu, J. M. Steele, W. Srituravanich, Y. Pikus, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, "Focusing surface plasmons with a plasmonic lens," Nano Lett. 5, 1726 (2005).
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G. L. Liu, Y. Lu, J. Kim, J. C. Doll, and L. P. Lee, "Magnetic nanocrescents as controllable surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes for biomolecular imaging," Adv. Mater. 17, 2683 (2005).
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Y. Lu, G. L. Liu, J. Kim, Y. X. Mejia, and L. P. Lee, "Nanophotonic crescent moon structures with sharp edge for ultrasensitive biomolecular detection by local electromagnetic field enhancement effect," Nano Lett. 5, 119 (2005).
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D. Marczewski and W. A. Goedel, "The preparation of submicrometer-sized rings by embedding and selective etching of spherical silica particles," Nano Lett. 5, 295 (2005).
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X. W. Zhang, N. F. Chen, and F. Yan, "Heteroepitaxial gold (111) rings on mica substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203102 (2005).
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2004 (7)

X. Y. Kong, Y. Ding, R. Yang, and Z. L. Wang, "Single-crystal nanorings formed by epitaxial self-coiling of polar nanobelts," Science 303, 1348 (2004).
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C. R. L. P. N. Jeukens, M. C. Lensen, F. J. P. Wijnen, J. A. A. W. Elemans, P. C. M. Christianen, A. E. Rowan, J. W. Gerritsen, R. J. M. Nolte, and J. C. Maan, "Polarized absorption and emission of ordered self-assembled porphyrin rings," Nano Lett. 4, 1401 (2004).
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J. M. McLellan, M. Geissler, and Y. Xia, "Edge spreading lithography and its application to the fabrication of mesoscopic gold and silver rings," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 10830 (2004).
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K. L. Hobbs, P. R. Larson, G. D. Lian, J. C. Keay, and M. B. Johnson, "Fabrication of nanoring arrays by sputter redeposition using porous alumina templates," Nano Lett. 4, 167 (2004).
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F. Yan and W. A. Goedel, "Preparation of mesoscopic gold rings using particle imprinted templates," Nano Lett. 4, 1193 (2004).
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S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Magnetic response of metamaterials at 100 Terahertz," Science 306, 1351 (2004).
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J. Aizpurua, L. Blanco, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Light scattering in gold nanorings," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 89, 11 (2004).
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2003 (6)

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. J. Halas, and P. Nordlander, "Ahybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures," Science 302, 419 (2003).
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S. O. Demokritov, A. A. Serga, V. E. Demidov, B. Hillebrands, M. P. Kostylev, and B. A. Kalinikos, "Experimental observation of symmetry-breaking nonlinear modes in an active ring," Nature 426, 159 (2003).
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N. Jiang, G. G. Hembree, J. C. H. Spence, and J. Qiu, "Nanoring formation by direct-write inorganic electron-beam lithography," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 551 (2003).
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D. Granados, and J. M. Garcia, "In(Ga)As self-assembled quantum ring formation by molecular beam epitaxy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2401 (2003).
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T. Raz, D. Ritter, and G. Bahir, "Formation of InAs self-assembled quantum rings on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1706 (2003).
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2002 (1)

K. A. Matveev, A. I. Larkin, and L. I. Glazman, "Persistent current in superconducting nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 096802 (2002).
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2001 (3)

S. P. Li, D. Peyrade, M. Natali, A. Lebib, and Y. Chen, "Flux closure structures in cobalt rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1102 (2001).
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E. M. O. Jariwala, P. Mohanty, M. B. Ketchen, and R. A. Webb, "Diamagnetic persistent current in diffusive normal-metal rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1594 (2001).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 (2001).
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2000 (1)

A. Lorke, R. J. Luyken, A. O. Govorov, and J. P. Kotthaus, "Spectroscopy of nanoscopic semiconductor rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2223 (2000).
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1997 (1)

J. M. Garcia, G. Medeiros-Ribeiro, K. Schmidt, T. Ngo, J. L. Feng, A. Lorke, J. Kottaus, and P. M. Petroff, "Intermixing and shape changes during the formation of InAs self-assembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2014 (1997).
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1994 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
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Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, L. Blanco, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Light scattering in gold nanorings," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 89, 11 (2004).
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J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors," Nano Lett. 7, 1256 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ali, T. A.

C. M. Dutta, T. A. Ali, D. W. Brandl, T. H. Park, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmonic properties of a metallic torus," J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084706 (2008).
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F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, "Shedding light on dark plasmons in gold nanorings," Chem. Phys. Lett. 458, 262 (2008).
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Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured plasmonic sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494 (2008).
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Aubard, J.

G. Laurent, N. Félidj, J. Grand, J. Aubard, and G. Lévi, "Raman scattering images and spectra of gold ring arrays," Phys. Rev. B 73, 245417 (2006).
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Bahir, G.

T. Raz, D. Ritter, and G. Bahir, "Formation of InAs self-assembled quantum rings on InP," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1706 (2003).
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Bie, L. J.

Z. H. Yuan, W. Zhou, Y. Q. Duan, and L. J. Bie, "A simple approach for large-area fabrication of Ag nanorings," Nanotechnology 19, 075608 (2008).
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Blanco, L.

J. Aizpurua, L. Blanco, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Light scattering in gold nanorings," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 89, 11 (2004).
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Bocchio, N.

H. Rochholz, N. Bocchio, and M. Kreiter, "Tuning resonances on crescent-shaped noble-metal nanoparticles," New J. Phys. 9, 53 (2007).
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Bouhelier, A.

A. Mary, D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. Bouhelier, and A. Dereux, "Optical absorption of torus-shaped metal nanoparticles in the visible range," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245422 (2007).
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Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators," Nature 440, 508 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brandl, D. W.

C. M. Dutta, T. A. Ali, D. W. Brandl, T. H. Park, and P. Nordlander, "Plasmonic properties of a metallic torus," J. Chem. Phys. 129, 084706 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, G. W.

J. Aizpurua, L. Blanco, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Light scattering in gold nanorings," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 89, 11 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. G. de Abajo, "Optical properties of gold nanorings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 057401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. T.

F. Hao, P. Nordlander, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Enhanced tenability and linewidth sharpening of plasmon resonances in hybridized metallic ring/disk nanocavities," Phys. Rev. B 76, 245417 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

Y. Lei, W. Cai, and G. Wilde, "Highly ordered nanostructures with tunable size shape and properties: A new way to surface nano-patterning using ultra-thin alumina masks," Prog. Mater. Sci. 52, 465 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Duan, W. Cai, Y. Luo, Z. Li, and Y. Lei, "Hierarchical structured Ni nanorings and hollow sphere arrays by morphology inheritance based on ordered through-pore template and electrodeposition," J. Phys. Chem. B 110, 15729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, "Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 76, 035420 (2007).
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Charraut, D.

M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, "Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications," Opt. Commun. 270, 447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Grosjean, A. Fahys, M. Suarez, D. Charraut, R. Salut, and D. Courjon, "Annular nanoantenna on fibre micro-axicon," J. Microsc. 229, 354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

G. Shen, and D. Chen, "Self-coiling of Ag2V4O11 nanobelts into perfect nanorings and microloops," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 11762 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

W. S. Liao, X. Chen, J. Chen, and P. S. Cremer, "Templating water stains for nanolithography," Nano Lett. 7, 2452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, N. F.

X. W. Zhang, N. F. Chen, and F. Yan, "Heteroepitaxial gold (111) rings on mica substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 203102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

A. Dmitriev, C. Hägglund, S. Chen, H. Fredriksson, T. Pakizeh, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, "Enhanced nanoplasmonic optical sensors with reduced substrate effect," Nano Lett. 8, 3893 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

W. S. Liao, X. Chen, J. Chen, and P. S. Cremer, "Templating water stains for nanolithography," Nano Lett. 7, 2452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. P. Li, D. Peyrade, M. Natali, A. Lebib, and Y. Chen, "Flux closure structures in cobalt rings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1102 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, M.

S. Seo, H. C. Kim, H. Ko, and M. Cheng, "Subwavelength proximity nanolithography using a plasmonic lens," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2271 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, M. T.

Choi, D. G.

S. Kim, J. M. Jung, D. G. Choi, H. T. Jung, and S. M. Yang, "Patterned arrays of Au rings for localized surface plasmon resonance," Langmuir 22, 7109 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, "Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength," Nano Lett. 8, 2171 (2008).
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Christianen, P. C. M.

C. R. L. P. N. Jeukens, M. C. Lensen, F. J. P. Wijnen, J. A. A. W. Elemans, P. C. M. Christianen, A. E. Rowan, J. W. Gerritsen, R. J. M. Nolte, and J. C. Maan, "Polarized absorption and emission of ordered self-assembled porphyrin rings," Nano Lett. 4, 1401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. W.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Multiple plasmon resonances from gold nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 143105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Fabrication and tuning of nanoscale metallic ring and split-ring arrays," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Tuneable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonantors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clime, L.

K. Li, L. Clime, L. Tay, B. Cui, M. Geissler, and T. Veres, "Multiple surface plasmon resonances and near-infrared field enhancement of gold nanowells," Anal. Chem. 80, 4945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. M.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Multiple plasmon resonances from gold nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 143105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Clark, A. K. Sheridan, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Tuneable visible resonances in crescent shaped nano-split-ring resonantors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Fabrication and tuning of nanoscale metallic ring and split-ring arrays," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 2628 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

M. A. Suarez, T. Grosjean, D. Charraut, and D. Courjon, "Nanoring as a magnetic or electric field sensitive nano-antenna for near-field optics applications," Opt. Commun. 270, 447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Grosjean, A. Fahys, M. Suarez, D. Charraut, R. Salut, and D. Courjon, "Annular nanoantenna on fibre micro-axicon," J. Microsc. 229, 354 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cremer, P. S.

W. S. Liao, X. Chen, J. Chen, and P. S. Cremer, "Templating water stains for nanolithography," Nano Lett. 7, 2452 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, B.

K. Li, L. Clime, L. Tay, B. Cui, M. Geissler, and T. Veres, "Multiple surface plasmon resonances and near-infrared field enhancement of gold nanowells," Anal. Chem. 80, 4945 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cumming, D. R. S.

A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, D. R. S. Cumming, and J. M. Cooper, "Nanophotonic split-ring resonators as dichroics for molecular spectroscopy," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023121 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Sheridan, A. W. Clark, A. Glidle, J. M. Cooper, and D. R. S. Cumming, "Multiple plasmon resonances from gold nanostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 143105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Zhu, D. Z.

S. Wang, G. J. Yu, J. L. Gong, Q. T. Liu, H. J. Xu, D. Z. Zhu, and Z. Y. Zhu, "Large-area fabrication of periodic Fe nanorings with controllable aspect ratios in porous alumina templates," Nanotechnology 17, 1594 (2006).
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H. Liu, D. A. Genov, D. M. Wu, Y. M. Liu, J. M. Steele, C. Sun, S. N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, "Magnetic plasmon propagation along a chain of connected subwavelength resonators at infrared frequencies," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 243902 (2006).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3012 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Cross section structures of perfect and split Au NRs of circular, where R is ring radius, r is the rod radius, d = 30 nm is the gap width, and the light polarization is fixed along y-axis. (b). Extinction spectra for perfect NRs with different R, where the incident angle φ = 90°. (c). Extinction spectra for split NRs with different R, where φ = 0. (d). Field intensity I distributions for perfect Au NRs obtained at the cross section with R = 200 nm, where the excitation wavelengths are 1555, (e). 897, and (f). 666 nm, respectively. (g). I distributions for split Au NRs with R = 100nm, where the excitation wavelengths are 1626, and (h). 659 nm, respectively. The attached multimedia shows the time evolution processes of perfect NRs that under oblique incident excitations (Media 1).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Extinction spectra for perfect Au NRs of circular with different environmental refractive index n, where R = 100 nm, φ = 90°, and the thin solid line is the spectra for φ = 0 with n = 1.33. (b). Extinction spectra for the same sized split Au NRs of circular with different environmental n, where φ = 0°.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). λ RES shifts that related to the resonance position in n = 1.33 for different resonance modes. (b). λ SP versus excitation wavelength for a rod with r = 25 nm, and the average λ SP for different modes are labeled.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Cross section structures of perfect and split Au NRs of square, where R is ring radius, T is the thickness, H is the height, d and w are the widths of middle and side gaps, respectively, and θ is the angle between the two side gaps. (b). I distributions obtained at the cross section for perfect Au NRs of square with R = 92nm, (c). 170 nm, (d). 250 nm, (e). 330 nm, (f) 406 nm, and (g) 482 nm, where T = 45 nm, H = 30 nm, the excitation wavelength is 800 nm, φ = 85°, and the local field enhancement has reach the maximum for different modes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). I distributions for perfect NR with φ = 0. (b) 30° and (c) 90°, where the excitation wavelength is 800 nm, R = 250 nm, T = 45 nm, and H = 30 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). I distributions for perfect NR (type 1), (b) split NR with 2 gaps (type 2), (c) 1 gaps (type 3), and (d) 3 gaps (type 4). Where the excitation wavelength is 800 nm, φ = 85°, d = w = 30 nm, R = 250 nm for type 1 and 2, R = 275 nm for type 3 and 4, λ = 52° for type 2, and θ = 80° for type 4. (e) I distribution of dipole antennas, where the gap width is 30 nm, the length of a single rod is 142 nm, and the field enhancement has reached the maximum.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Local field intensity enhancement versus φ for different structures.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a). I distributions for split NRs of type 2 with θ = 48°, (b) 52°, and (c) 60°, where w = 30 nm, φ = 85°, and R =250 nm. (d) I distributions with θ = 52° for w = 10 nm, (e) 26 nm, and (f) 44 nm. (g) The relationship between local field enhancement I Int and θ when w = 30 nm (circle point), as well as the relationship between I Int and w when θ = 52° (square point).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a). I distributions for split NRs of type 4 with θ = 70°, (b) 80°, and (c) 96°, where w = 30 nm, φ = 85°, and R =275 nm. (d) I distributions with θ = 80° for w = 0, (e) 26 nm, and (f) 44 nm. (g) The relationship between local field enhancement I Int and θ when w = 30 nm (circle points), as well as the relationship between I Int and w when θ = 80° (square points).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The Resonance Wavelengths as Well as Their Corresponding λ SP that Shown in Fig. 1(b).

Tables Icon

Table 2. λ SP for Different Resonance Modes with Different Environmental Refractive Index n.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k 2 2 k 2 J 0 ' ( k 2 R ) J 0 ( k 2 R ) k 1 2 k 1 H 0 ' ( k 1 R ) H 0 ( k 1 R ) = 0
C N × λ SP / 2 ( N = 2,4,6 …… )
C M × λ SP / 2 ( M = 1,3,5 …… )

Metrics