Abstract

We report the development and evaluation of a simple compact probe that incorporates multiple beveled fibers for depth sensitive detection of spectroscopic signals in vivo. We evaluated three probes with bevel angles 35, 40, and 45 degrees for their collection efficiency and depth resolution using a thin highly scattering white substrate and found that a 40 degree bevel provides the best characteristics for depth-resolved spectroscopy. The depth sensitivity of the probe with 40 degree beveled fibers was then evaluated using multilayer phantoms with scattering properties mimicking precancerous tissue and in vivo on normal human oral mucosa. The results demonstrate that the use of multiple beveled fibers has the capability to simultaneously collect scattering spectra from a range of depths within epithelial tissue that has the potential to provide further significant improvement of detection and monitoring of epithelial precancers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (4)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe," Appl. Opt. 47, 825-834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. W. Huang, "Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 937-951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma," Biophys. J. 92, 3260-3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ramachandran, T. M. Powers, S. Carpenter, A. Garcia-Lopez, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, "Light scattering and microarchitectural differences between tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell models of tissue," Opt. Express 15, 4039-4053 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, "Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (8)

P. Zigrino, S. Loffek, and C. Mauch, "Tumor-stroma interactions: their role in the control of tumor cell invasion," Biochimie 87, 321-328 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Carmeliet, "VEGF as a key mediator of angiogenesis in cancer," Oncology 69, 4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, "Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue," Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma," Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, "Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 43, 1308-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Friedl, "Dynamic imaging of cellular interactions with extracellular matrix," Histochem. Cell Biol. 122, 183-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (8)

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Changfang, L. Quan, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, L. S. Matchette, A. M. Ross, and M. N. Ediger, "Selective detection of fluorophore layers in turbid media: the role of fiber-optic probe design," Opt. Lett. 28, 120-122 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (5)

T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Multiple-fiber probe design for fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue," Appl. Opt. 41, 4712-4721 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, "Relationship between depth of a target in a turbid medium and fluorescence measured by a variable-aperture method," Opt. Lett. 27, 104-106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology," Opt. Express 5, 302-317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, A. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603-632 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

I. J. Bigio and J. R. Mourant, "Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 803-814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Heppner, L. M. Matrisian, R. A. Jensen, and W. H. Rodgers, "Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response," Am. J. Pathol. 149, 273-282 (1996).
[PubMed]

1994 (1)

1988 (1)

R. K. Jain, "Determinants of tumor blood flow: a review," Cancer Res. 48, 2641-2658 (1988).
[PubMed]

1959 (1)

B. Chance and B. Thorell, "Localization and kinetics of reduced pyridine nucleotide in living cells by microfluorometry," J. Biol. Chem. 234, 3044-3050 (1959).
[PubMed]

Aaron, J.

Aerts, J. G. J. V.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agrawal, A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, "Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alizadeh-Naderi, R.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amelink, A.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arendt, J. T.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma," Biophys. J. 92, 3260-3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma," Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue," Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Backman, V.

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, "Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bard, M. P. L.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bender, J. E.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

I. J. Bigio and J. R. Mourant, "Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 803-814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boiko, I.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Brocker, C.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brookner, C.

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canpolat, M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmeliet, P.

P. Carmeliet, "VEGF as a key mediator of angiogenesis in cancer," Oncology 69, 4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carpenter, S.

Carraro, A.

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carr-Locke, D. L.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chance, B.

B. Chance and B. Thorell, "Localization and kinetics of reduced pyridine nucleotide in living cells by microfluorometry," J. Biol. Chem. 234, 3044-3050 (1959).
[PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma," Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue," Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Changfang, Z.

Z. Changfang, L. Quan, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clark, A. L.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collier, T.

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, J. M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Crum, C. P.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Daye, D.

Drezek, R.

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology," Opt. Express 5, 302-317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, "Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duin, R. P. W.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ediger, M. N.

Eick, A. A.

El-Naggar, A. K.

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esponda-Ramos, O.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freyer, J. P.

Friedl, P.

P. Friedl, "Dynamic imaging of cellular interactions with extracellular matrix," Histochem. Cell Biol. 122, 183-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuentes, C.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

Gao, W.

Garcia-Lopez, A.

Gardecki, J. A.

Georgakoudi, I.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A.

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma," Biophys. J. 92, 3260-3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

Gossage, K.

Guillaud, M.

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hamano, T.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hegt, V. N.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heppner, K. J.

K. J. Heppner, L. M. Matrisian, R. A. Jensen, and W. H. Rodgers, "Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response," Am. J. Pathol. 149, 273-282 (1996).
[PubMed]

Hielscher, A. H.

Hoogsteden, H. C.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. W.

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. W. Huang, "Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 937-951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Hussain, I. A.

Itzkan, I.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B. C.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jaillon, F.

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. W. Huang, "Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 937-951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

R. K. Jain, "Determinants of tumor blood flow: a review," Cancer Res. 48, 2641-2658 (1988).
[PubMed]

Jensen, R. A.

K. J. Heppner, L. M. Matrisian, R. A. Jensen, and W. H. Rodgers, "Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response," Am. J. Pathol. 149, 273-282 (1996).
[PubMed]

Johnson, T. M.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, A. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kabani, S.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kan, C.-W.

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaspers, O. P.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
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Kim, Y. L.

Knight, B.

Kramer, J. R.

Lam, S.

Laver, N.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q.

Loffek, S.

P. Zigrino, S. Loffek, and C. Mauch, "Tumor-stroma interactions: their role in the control of tumor cell invasion," Biochimie 87, 321-328 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lotan, R.

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAulay, C.

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Qu, C. Macaulay, S. Lam, and B. Palcic, "Optical-Properties of Normal and Carcinomatous Bronchial Tissue," Appl. Opt. 33, 7397-7405 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, V.

Malpica, A.

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marin, N.

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markey, M. K.

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matanock, A.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matchette, L. S.

Matrisian, L. M.

K. J. Heppner, L. M. Matrisian, R. A. Jensen, and W. H. Rodgers, "Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response," Am. J. Pathol. 149, 273-282 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mauch, C.

P. Zigrino, S. Loffek, and C. Mauch, "Tumor-stroma interactions: their role in the control of tumor cell invasion," Biochimie 87, 321-328 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

Mourant, J. R.

J. Ramachandran, T. M. Powers, S. Carpenter, A. Garcia-Lopez, J. P. Freyer, and J. R. Mourant, "Light scattering and microarchitectural differences between tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cell models of tissue," Opt. Express 15, 4039-4053 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, A. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Bigio and J. R. Mourant, "Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 803-814 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, M. G.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Myakov, A.

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, "Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 43, 1308-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, L.

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, "Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 43, 1308-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieman, L. T.

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishioka, N. S.

Nusrat, A.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Palcic, B.

Pavlova, I.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma," Biophys. J. 92, 3260-3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue," Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pfefer, J.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

Powers, T. M.

Qu, J. N.

Quan, L.

Z. Changfang, L. Quan, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, J.

Ramanujam, N.

Z. Changfang, L. Quan, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Liu and N. Ramanujam, "Relationship between depth of a target in a turbid medium and fluorescence measured by a variable-aperture method," Opt. Lett. 27, 104-106 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe," Appl. Opt. 47, 825-834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma," Biophys. J. 92, 3260-3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma," Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, D. Arifler, S. K. Chang, I. Pavlova, I. A. Hussain, V. Mack, B. Knight, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Ball lens coupled fiber-optic probe for depth-resolved spectroscopy of epithelial tissue," Opt. Lett. 30, 1159-1161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology," Opt. Express 5, 302-317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodgers, W. H.

K. J. Heppner, L. M. Matrisian, R. A. Jensen, and W. H. Rodgers, "Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response," Am. J. Pathol. 149, 273-282 (1996).
[PubMed]

Roodenburg, J. L. N.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ross, A. M.

Roy, H. K.

Schomacker, K. T.

Schwarz, R. A.

Seiler, M.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sevick-Muraca, E.

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shapshay, S. M.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheets, E. E.

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Shen, A.

Shields, S.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S. J.

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegel, M. P.

Skurichina, M.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolov, K.

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, "Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 43, 1308-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology," Opt. Express 5, 302-317 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603-632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stetter, K.

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorell, B.

B. Chance and B. Thorell, "Localization and kinetics of reduced pyridine nucleotide in living cells by microfluorometry," J. Biol. Chem. 234, 3044-3050 (1959).
[PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valdez, T. A.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

van der Wal, J. E.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagnieres, G. A.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603-632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Wali, R. K.

Wallace, M.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, M. B.

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, A. M. J.

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wicky, L.

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

Wilson, B. C.

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603-632 (1998).
[PubMed]

Witjes, M. J. H.

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Zhang, Q. G.

Zheng, W.

F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. W. Huang, "Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 937-951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zigrino, P.

P. Zigrino, S. Loffek, and C. Mauch, "Tumor-stroma interactions: their role in the control of tumor cell invasion," Biochimie 87, 321-328 (2005).
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Zonios, G.

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

I. Georgakoudi, E. E. Sheets, M. G. Muller, V. Backman, C. P. Crum, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Trimodal spectroscopy for the detection and characterization of cervical precancers in vivo," Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 186,374-382 (2002).
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Am. J. Pathol. (1)

K. J. Heppner, L. M. Matrisian, R. A. Jensen, and W. H. Rodgers, "Expression of most matrix metalloproteinase family members in breast cancer represents a tumor-induced host response," Am. J. Pathol. 149, 273-282 (1996).
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Annu. Rev. Chem. (1)

R. Richards-Kortum and E. Sevick-Muraca, "Quantitative optical spectroscopy for tissue diagnosis," Annu. Rev. Chem. 47, 555-606 (1996).
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Appl. Opt. (10)

J. N. Qu, C. Macaulay, S. Lam, and B. Palcic, "Optical-Properties of Normal and Carcinomatous Bronchial Tissue," Appl. Opt. 33, 7397-7405 (1994).
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J. R. Mourant, J. P. Freyer, A. H. Hielscher, A. A. Eick, A. Shen, and T. M. Johnson, "Mechanisms of light scattering from biological cells relevant to noninvasive optical-tissue diagnostics," Appl. Opt. 37, 3586-3593 (1998).
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M. G. Muller, I. Georgakoudi, Q. G. Zhang, J. Wu, and M. S. Feld, "Intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy in turbid media: disentangling effects of scattering and absorption," Appl. Opt. 40, 4633-4646 (2001).
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T. J. Pfefer, K. T. Schomacker, M. N. Ediger, and N. S. Nishioka, "Multiple-fiber probe design for fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue," Appl. Opt. 41, 4712-4721 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, "Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 542-554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, "Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms," Appl. Opt. 43, 1308-1319 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Amelink and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 43, 3048-3054 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, R. A. Schwarz, S. K. Chang, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Reflectance spectroscopy for diagnosis of epithelial precancer: model-based analysis of fiber-optic probe designs to resolve spectral information from epithelium and stroma," Appl. Opt. 44, 4291-4305 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, "Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 335-342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, "Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe," Appl. Opt. 47, 825-834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochimie (1)

P. Zigrino, S. Loffek, and C. Mauch, "Tumor-stroma interactions: their role in the control of tumor cell invasion," Biochimie 87, 321-328 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from collagen fiber networks: micro-optical properties of normal and neoplastic stroma," Biophys. J. 92, 3260-3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

M. G. Muller, T. A. Valdez, I. Georgakoudi, V. Backman, C. Fuentes, S. Kabani, N. Laver, Z. Wang, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, S. M. Shapshay, and M. S. Feld, "Spectroscopic detection and evaluation of morphologic and biochemical changes in early human oral carcinoma," Cancer 97, 1681-1692 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. K. Jain, "Determinants of tumor blood flow: a review," Cancer Res. 48, 2641-2658 (1988).
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I. Georgakoudi, B. C. Jacobson, M. G. Muller, E. E. Sheets, K. Badizadegan, D. L. Carr-Locke, C. P. Crum, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "NAD(P)H and collagen as in vivo quantitative fluorescent biomarkers of epithelial precancerous changes," Cancer Res. 62, 682-687 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chest (1)

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, V. N. Hegt, R. P. W. Duin, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, H. C. Hoogsteden, and J. G. J. V. Aerts, "Optical spectroscopy for the classification of malignant lesions of the bronchial tree," Chest 129, 995-1001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, M. Seiler, K. Badizadegan, S. J. Shields, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Endoscopic detection of dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus using light-scattering spectroscopy," Gastroenterology 119, 677-682 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Histochem. Cell Biol. (1)

P. Friedl, "Dynamic imaging of cellular interactions with extracellular matrix," Histochem. Cell Biol. 122, 183-190 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Collier, D. Arifler, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Determination of epithelial tissue scattering coefficient using confocal microscopy," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 307-313 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, "Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1019-1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Chem. (1)

B. Chance and B. Thorell, "Localization and kinetics of reduced pyridine nucleotide in living cells by microfluorometry," J. Biol. Chem. 234, 3044-3050 (1959).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (14)

D. Arifler, M. Guillaud, A. Carraro, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from normal and dysplastic cervical cells at different epithelial depths: finite-difference time-domain modeling with a perfectly matched layer boundary condition," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 484-494 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Drezek, M. Guillaud, T. Collier, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Light scattering from cervical cells throughout neoplastic progression: influence of nuclear morphology, DNA content, and chromatin texture," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 7-16 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, D. Arifler, R. Drezek, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Analytical model to describe fluorescence spectra of normal and preneoplastic epithelial tissue: comparison with Monte Carlo simulations and clinical measurements," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 511-522 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Collier, M. Follen, A. Malpica, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Sources of scattering in cervical tissue: determination of the scattering coefficient by confocal microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 44, 2072-2081 (2005).

U. Utzinger and R. R. Richards-Kortum, "Fiber optic probes for biomedical optical spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 121-147 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Changfang, L. Quan, and N. Ramanujam, "Effect of fiber optic probe geometry on depth-resolved fluorescence measurements from epithelial tissues: a Monte Carlo simulation," J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 237-247 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Pfefer, A. Agrawal, and R. A. Drezek, "Oblique-incidence illumination and collection for depth-selective fluorescence spectroscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44016-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. J. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, "Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017-44041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, "Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance," J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388-397 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. T. Nieman, C.-W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, "Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Chang, Y. N. Mirabal, E. N. Atkinson, D. Cox, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Combined reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical pre-cancer," J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Chang, N. Marin, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Model-based analysis of clinical fluorescence spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical intraepithelial dysplasia," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Clark, A. Gillenwater, R. Alizadeh-Naderi, A. K. El-Naggar, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Detection and diagnosis of oral neoplasia with an optical coherence microscope," J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1271-1280 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Mourant, M. Canpolat, C. Brocker, O. Esponda-Ramos, T. M. Johnson, A. Matanock, K. Stetter, and J. P. Freyer, "Light scattering from cells: the contribution of the nucleus and the effects of proliferative status," J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 131-137 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

V. Backman, M. B. Wallace, L. T. Perelman, J. T. Arendt, R. Gurjar, M. G. M√ºller, Q. Zhang, G. Zonios, E. Kline, J. A. McGilligan, S. Shapshay, T. Valdez, K. Badizadegan, J. M. Crawford, M. Fitzmaurice, S. Kabani, H. S. Levin, M. Seiler, R. R. Dasari, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, "Detection of preinvasive cancer cells," Nature 406, 35-36 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oncology (1)

P. Carmeliet, "VEGF as a key mediator of angiogenesis in cancer," Oncology 69, 4-10 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Oral Oncology (1)

A. Amelink, O. P. Kaspers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, J. E. van der Wal, J. L. N. Roodenburg, and M. J. H. Witjes, "Non-invasive measurement of the morphology and physiology of oral mucosa by use of optical spectroscopy," Oral Oncology 44, 65-71 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Photochem. Photobiol. (3)

R. Drezek, C. Brookner, I. Pavlova, I. Boiko, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Autofluorescence microscopy of fresh cervical-tissue sections reveals alterations in tissue biochemistry with dysplasia," Photochem. Photobiol. 73, 636-641 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Pavlova, K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, "Microanatomical and Biochemical Origins of Normal and Precancerous Cervical Autofluorescence Using Laser-scanning Fluorescence Confocal Microscopy," Photochem. Photobiol. 77, 550-555 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Wagnieres, W. M. Star, and B. C. Wilson, "In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging for oncological applications," Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 603-632 (1998).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

I. J. Bigio and J. R. Mourant, "Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopies for tissue diagnostics: fluorescence spectroscopy and elastic-scattering spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 803-814 (1997).
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F. Jaillon, W. Zheng, and Z. W. Huang, "Beveled fiber-optic probe couples a ball lens for improving depth-resolved fluorescence measurements of layered tissue: Monte Carlo simulations," Phys. Med. Biol. 53, 937-951 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. M. Crawford, and M. S. Feld, "Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627-630 (1998).
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A. J. Welch and M. J. C. V. Gemert, Optical-thermal response of laser-irradiated tissue (Plenum Press, New York and London, 1995).

R. L. P. v. Veen, A. Amelink, M. Menke-Pluymers, C. v. d. Pol, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, "Optical biopsy of breast tissue using differential path-length spectroscopy," Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 2573-2581 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cotran, V. Kumar, and S. Robbins, Pathologic basis of disease (W. B. Saunders Company, 1994).

E. W. Odell, and P. R. Morgan, Biopsy Pathology of the Oral Tissues (Chapman & Hall Medical, New York, 1998).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Fiber probe and spectroscopic system. (a) & (b) Illustration of probe design utilizing beveled fibers for sampling multiple tissue depths. C1 – the arrangement used to perform white substrate experiments. C2 – the arrangement used to perform phantom and in vivo measurements. Yellow color highlights the illumination fiber and illumination cone. (c) Picture of constructed probe in fluorescing medium with light channeled through the illumination fiber and three beveled fibers. (d) Picture of the final constructed probe. (e) Overall system schematic: 1 – probe, 2 – FC/APC connectors, 3 – light source, 4 – coupling probe, 5 – imaging spectrometer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Depth profiling curves. Total intensity of light scattered from a thin white substrate integrated over all wavelengths plotted as a function of distance from the probe tip for probe bevel angles: (a) 35 degrees, (b) 40 degrees, (c) 45 degrees. Abbreviations: FTF - flat-tipped fiber, BF - beveled fiber. Numeration of the beveled fibers corresponds to numbering shown in Fig. 1 (a).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of bevel angles. (a) Distance from probe tip that corresponds to the maximum signal intensity in the depth profiling curves shown in Fig. 2. (b) FWHM of depth profiling curves for each collection fiber. (c) Maximum signal intensity for each beveled fiber relative to the flat-tipped fiber (FTF - flat-tipped fiber, BF - beveled fiber).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Three-layer phantom. (a) 20x transmittance brightfield image of a transverse cross-section through three-layer bead phantom. (b) Scattering spectra of single layer bead phantoms corresponding to the top, middle, and bottom layer of the three-layer phantom plotted as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Primary frequency components of single layer phantoms. (a) Scattering spectra of single layer bead phantoms plotted as a function of wavenumber. (b) Fast Fourier Transform of single layer phantom spectra showing the characteristic frequencies associated with each layer in the three-layer phantom.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured spectra of three-layer phantom at zero probe-sample separation plotted as a function of wavenumber.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Depth resolution measurements of the three-layer phantom. (a) Plot of the amplitude of the primary frequency component for each layer as a function of distance from the probe tip. (b) Depth profiling of C2 configuration of collection fibers using a white substrate with schematic of the three-layer phantom shown above. The boundary between phantom layers are indicated by thick black lines.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

In vivo measurements of oral mucosa. (a) Representative spectra from inner lower lip and dorsal tongue of a normal volunteer. (b) Spectra normalized to one at 610 nm in order to compare spectral profiles. Hemoglobin absorption appears as dips in the spectra at 540 and 576 nm. (c) Ratio of intensity at 576 nm and 610 nm illustrating changes in relative hemoglobin contribution for the different collection fibers.

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