Abstract

We develop a versatile, compact, and sensitive fiber-based optical Fabry-Pérot (FP) gas sensor. The sensor probe is composed of a silver layer and a vapor-sensitive polymer layer that are sequentially deposited on the cleaved fiber endface, thus forming an FP cavity. The interference spectrum resulting from the reflected light at the silver-polymer and polymer-air interfaces changes when the polymer is exposed to gas analytes. This structure enables using any polymer regardless of the polymer refractive index (RI), which significantly enhances the sensor versatility. In experiments, we use polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 (RI=1.465-1.469) and Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA) 81 (RI=1.53-1.56) as the gas sensing polymer and show drastically different sensor response to hexanol, methanol, and acetone. The estimated sensitivity for methanol vapor is 3.5 pm/ppm and 0.1 pm/ppm for PEG 400 and NOA 81, respectively, with a detection limit on the order of 1–10 ppm. Gas sensing for the analytes delivered in both continuous flow mode and pulsed mode is demonstrated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (8)

S.-S. Yun, K.-W. Jo, and J.-H. Lee, "Inline fiber optic chemical sensor using a self-aligned epoxy microbridge with a metal layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 381-385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, Z. Opilski, and M. Bednorz, "Optical interferometric structures for application in gas sensors," Opt. Appl. 37, 187-194 (2007).

Z. L. Ran, Y. J. Rao, H. Y. Deng, and X. Liao, "Miniature in-line photonic crystal fiber etalon fabricated by 157 nm laser micromachining," Opt. Lett. 32, 3071-3073 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Rao, M. Deng, D. W. Duan, X. C. Yang, T. Zhu, and G. H. Cheng, "Micro Fabry-Perot interferometers in silica fibers machined by femtosecond laser," Opt. Express 15, 14123-14128 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Lowder, J. D. Gordon, S. M. Schultz, and R. H. Selfridge, "Volatile organic compound sensing using a surface-relief D-shaped fiber Bragg grating and a polydimethylsiloxane layer," Opt. Lett. 32, 2523-2525 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. D. Leonardis, "Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators," Sensors 7, 2741-2749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, "Microgap Multicavity Fabry-Pérot Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1797-1804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, M. Luo, H. Xiao, and J. Dong, "Interferometric study on the adsorption-dependent refractive index of silicatlite thin films grown on optical fibers," Chem. Mater. 18, 4-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Xiao, J. Deng, G. Pickrell, R. G. May, and A. Wang, "Single-Crystal Sapphire Fiber-Based Strain Sensor for High-Temperature Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2276-2283 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber gas sensors based on hydrophobic alumina thin films formed by the electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 56-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (3)

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, "Pd-coated elastooptic fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for multiplexed hydrogen sensing," Sens. Actuators B 60, 27-34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry-Perot formed by the ionic self-assembly method," Sens. Actuators B 59, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Cheng, and K. L. Yeung, "Palladium-silver composite membranes by electroless plating technique," J. Mem. Sci. 158, 127-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129-134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. Valis, D. Hogg, and R. M. Measures, "Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 227-228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer and its sensor applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 82, 1612-1621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adnet, A.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arregui, F. J.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber gas sensors based on hydrophobic alumina thin films formed by the electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 56-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry-Perot formed by the ionic self-assembly method," Sens. Actuators B 59, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bednorz, M.

T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, Z. Opilski, and M. Bednorz, "Optical interferometric structures for application in gas sensors," Opt. Appl. 37, 187-194 (2007).

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, V.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bucholtz, F.

Cai, H.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Cheng, G. H.

Cheng, Y. S.

Y. S. Cheng, and K. L. Yeung, "Palladium-silver composite membranes by electroless plating technique," J. Mem. Sci. 158, 127-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, K. S.

Chu, F.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Claus, R. O.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber gas sensors based on hydrophobic alumina thin films formed by the electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 56-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry-Perot formed by the ionic self-assembly method," Sens. Actuators B 59, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Contessa, L.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K. L.

Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, "Microgap Multicavity Fabry-Pérot Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1797-1804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dancil, K.-P. S.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dell’Olio, F.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. D. Leonardis, "Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators," Sensors 7, 2741-2749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H. Y.

Deng, J.

Deng, M.

Dobb, H.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

J. Zhang, M. Luo, H. Xiao, and J. Dong, "Interferometric study on the adsorption-dependent refractive index of silicatlite thin films grown on optical fibers," Chem. Mater. 18, 4-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duan, D. W.

Earthgrowl, T.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, "Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development," Opt. Express 16, 10254-10268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, "Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 33, 788-790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franke, H.

Frye-Mason, G.

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, "Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 33, 788-790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, J.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghadiri, M. R.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillooly, A.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. D.

Grace, J. L.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grover, C. P.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guerra, G.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Han, Y.

Hogg, D.

T. Valis, D. Hogg, and R. M. Measures, "Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 227-228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Homer, M. L.

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer and its sensor applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 82, 1612-1621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ja, S.-j.

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jadamiec, M.

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Jo, K.-W.

S.-S. Yun, K.-W. Jo, and J.-H. Lee, "Inline fiber optic chemical sensor using a self-aligned epoxy microbridge with a metal layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 381-385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. E.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kazemi, A.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, "Pd-coated elastooptic fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for multiplexed hydrogen sensing," Sens. Actuators B 60, 27-34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kersey, A. D.

Ksendzov, A.

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurosawa, K.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer and its sensor applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 82, 1612-1621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129-134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

S.-S. Yun, K.-W. Jo, and J.-H. Lee, "Inline fiber optic chemical sensor using a self-aligned epoxy microbridge with a metal layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 381-385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leonardis, F. D.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. D. Leonardis, "Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators," Sensors 7, 2741-2749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liao, X.

Lin, V. S.-Y.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, W. J.

Liu, Y.

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry-Perot formed by the ionic self-assembly method," Sens. Actuators B 59, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lowder, T. L.

Luo, M.

J. Zhang, M. Luo, H. Xiao, and J. Dong, "Interferometric study on the adsorption-dependent refractive index of silicatlite thin films grown on optical fibers," Chem. Mater. 18, 4-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maciak, E.

T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, Z. Opilski, and M. Bednorz, "Optical interferometric structures for application in gas sensors," Opt. Appl. 37, 187-194 (2007).

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Manfreda, A. M.

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matias, I. R.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber gas sensors based on hydrophobic alumina thin films formed by the electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 56-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry-Perot formed by the ionic self-assembly method," Sens. Actuators B 59, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

May, R. G.

Measures, R. M.

T. Valis, D. Hogg, and R. M. Measures, "Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 227-228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motesharei, K.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, K. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opilski, Z.

T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, Z. Opilski, and M. Bednorz, "Optical interferometric structures for application in gas sensors," Opt. Appl. 37, 187-194 (2007).

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Ose, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer and its sensor applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 82, 1612-1621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Pang, F.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Passaro, V. M. N.

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. D. Leonardis, "Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators," Sensors 7, 2741-2749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, H. J.

Pickrell, G.

Pilla, P.

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Podgorsek, R. P.

Pustelny, T.

T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, Z. Opilski, and M. Bednorz, "Optical interferometric structures for application in gas sensors," Opt. Appl. 37, 187-194 (2007).

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Qu, R.

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Z. L.

Rao, Y. J.

Ruan, H.

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S. M.

Selfridge, R. H.

Shopova, S. I.

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, "Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 33, 788-790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolarczyk, A.

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Sun, F. G.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and X. Fan, "Analysis of ring resonators for chemical vapor sensor development," Opt. Express 16, 10254-10268 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, S. I. Shopova, G. Frye-Mason, and X. Fan, "Rapid chemical-vapor sensing using optofluidic ring resonators," Opt. Lett. 33, 788-790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sutapun, B.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, "Pd-coated elastooptic fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for multiplexed hydrogen sensing," Sens. Actuators B 60, 27-34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tabib-Azar, M.

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, "Pd-coated elastooptic fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for multiplexed hydrogen sensing," Sens. Actuators B 60, 27-34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

C. E. Lee and H. F. Taylor, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot temperature sensor using a low-coherence light source," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 129-134 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tran, T. A.

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H.-L.

Tu, Z.

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Valis, T.

T. Valis, D. Hogg, and R. M. Measures, "Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 227-228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, "Microgap Multicavity Fabry-Pérot Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1797-1804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

White, I. M.

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, G. Z.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Xu, J.

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. C.

Yeung, K. L.

Y. S. Cheng, and K. L. Yeung, "Palladium-silver composite membranes by electroless plating technique," J. Mem. Sci. 158, 127-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer and its sensor applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 82, 1612-1621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S.-S.

S.-S. Yun, K.-W. Jo, and J.-H. Lee, "Inline fiber optic chemical sensor using a self-aligned epoxy microbridge with a metal layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 381-385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, M. Luo, H. Xiao, and J. Dong, "Interferometric study on the adsorption-dependent refractive index of silicatlite thin films grown on optical fibers," Chem. Mater. 18, 4-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, X. Chen, Y. Wang, K. L. Cooper, and A. Wang, "Microgap Multicavity Fabry-Pérot Biosensor," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 1797-1804 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Y.

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, T.

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. I. Shopova, I. M. White, Y. Sun, H. Zhu, X. Fan, G. Frye-Mason, A. Thompson, and S.-j. Ja, "On-column micro gas chromatography detection with capillary-based optical ring resonators," Anal. Chem. 80, 2232-2238 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Cusano, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, and G. Guerra, "High-sensitivity optical chemosensor based on coated long-period gratings for sub-ppm chemical detection in water," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 234105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, K. L. Cooper, A. Wang, J. Xu, Z. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Tu, "Label-free DNA sequence detection using oligonucleotide functionalized optical fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 163901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical (1)

Z. Opilski, T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, M. Bednorz, A. Stolarczyk, and M. Jadamiec, "Investigations of optical interferometric structures applied in toxic gas sensors," B. Pol. Acad. Sci. Technical 53, 151-156 (2005).

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. Zhang, M. Luo, H. Xiao, and J. Dong, "Interferometric study on the adsorption-dependent refractive index of silicatlite thin films grown on optical fibers," Chem. Mater. 18, 4-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Ksendzov, M. L. Homer, and A. M. Manfreda, "Integrated optics ring-resonator chemical sensor with polymer transduction layer," Electron. Lett. 40, 63-65 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S.-S. Yun, K.-W. Jo, and J.-H. Lee, "Inline fiber optic chemical sensor using a self-aligned epoxy microbridge with a metal layer," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 381-385 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. Valis, D. Hogg, and R. M. Measures, "Fiber optic Fabry-Perot strain gauge," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 227-228 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber gas sensors based on hydrophobic alumina thin films formed by the electrostatic self-assembly monolayer process," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 56-61 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

T. Yoshino, K. Kurosawa, K. Itoh, and T. Ose, "Fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer and its sensor applications," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 82, 1612-1621 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Mem. Sci. (1)

Y. S. Cheng, and K. L. Yeung, "Palladium-silver composite membranes by electroless plating technique," J. Mem. Sci. 158, 127-141 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

Y. Kang, H. Ruan, Y. Wang, F. J. Arregui, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Nanostructured optical fiber sensors for breathing airflow monitoring," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 1207-1210 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Bhatia, K. A. Murphy, R. O. Claus, M. E. Jones, J. L. Grace, T. A. Tran, and J. A. Greene, "Optical fiber based absolute extrinsic Fabry - Perot interferometric sensing system," Meas. Sci. Technol. 7, 58-61 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl. (1)

T. Pustelny, E. Maciak, Z. Opilski, and M. Bednorz, "Optical interferometric structures for application in gas sensors," Opt. Appl. 37, 187-194 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Allsop, H. Dobb, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl, A. Gillooly, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, "The spectral sensitivity of long period gratings fabricated in elliptical core D-shaped optical fibre," Opt. Commun. 259, 537-544 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Science (1)

V. S.-Y. Lin, K. Motesharei, K.-P. S. Dancil, M. J. Sailor, and M. R. Ghadiri, "A porous silicon-based optical interferometric biosensor," Science 278, 840-843 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators A. (1)

G. Z. Xiao, A. Adnet, Z. Y. Zhang, F. G. Sun, and C. P. Grover, "Monitoring changes in the refractive index of gases by means of a fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer sensor," Sens. Actuators A. 118, 177-182 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (3)

F. J. Arregui, Y. Liu, I. R. Matias, and R. O. Claus, "Optical fiber humidity sensor using a nano Fabry-Perot formed by the ionic self-assembly method," Sens. Actuators B 59, 54-59 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Sutapun, M. Tabib-Azar, and A. Kazemi, "Pd-coated elastooptic fiber optic Bragg grating sensors for multiplexed hydrogen sensing," Sens. Actuators B 60, 27-34 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Pang, X. Han, F. Chu, J. Geng, H. Cai, R. Qu, and Z. Fang, "Sensitivity to alcohols of a planar waveguide ring resonator fabricated by a sol-gel method," Sens. Actuators B 120, 610-614 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell’Olio, and F. D. Leonardis, "Ammonia Optical Sensing by Microring Resonators," Sensors 7, 2741-2749 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reflection spectrum of the FP gas sensor coated with PEG 400 (A) and Norland Optical Adhesive 81 (B). Reflection spectrum of a bare fiber in absence of the silver layer coated with PEG 400 (C) and Norland Optical Adhesive 81 (D).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sensorgrams obtained by monitoring the interference spectral shift in real time when sensor probe is exposed to 3410 ppm of methanol (A) and 75500 ppm of acetone (B) vapor. Sensor is coated with PEG 400 (A) and NOA 81 (B).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sensor response to various concentrations of hexanol, methanol, and acetone vapor. The sensor is coated with PEG 400 (A) and NOA 81 (B).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Detection of methanol vapor pulses with various SPME sampling times when the analyte is injected in a pulsed mode. Polymer (PEG 400) thickness is 18.6 μm (A) and 31.5 μm (B), respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Wavelength shift (A) and peak area (B) vs. SPME extraction time for two different PEG 400 coating thicknesses in Fig. 5.

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