Abstract

Dye doped hybrid polymer lasers are implemented as label free evanescent field biosensors for detection of cells. It is demonstrated that although the coverage is irregular and the cells extend over several lattice constants, the emission wavelength depends linearly on the fraction of the surface covered by the HeLa cells used as model system. Design parameters relating to photonic crystal sensing of large objects are identified and discussed. The lasers are chemically modified to bind cells and molecules with flexible UV activated linker molecules.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (7)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Nanoscale optofluidic sensor arrays," Opt. Express 16, 1623-1631 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, "Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, "Integration of active and passive polymer optics," Opt. Express 15, 3931-3939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, "Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection," Opt. Express 15, 4530-4535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Skivesen, A. Tetu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor," Opt. Express 15, 3169-3176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106 - 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen and S. Xiao, "Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, "Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

S. Petronis, M. Stangegaard, C. B. V. Christensen, and M. Dufva, "Transparent polymeric cell culture chip with integrated temperature control and uniform media perfusion," Biotechniques 40, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Lue, G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, K. Badizadegan, and M. S. Feld, "Live cell refractometry using microfluidic devices," Opt. Lett. 31, 2759-2761 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

X. Cheng and L. J. Guo, "One-step lithography for various size patterns with a hybrid mask-mold," Microelectron. Eng. 71, 288-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 - 4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. R. Masters, "HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly," Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 315-319 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Andresen, L. O.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arango, F. B.

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, "Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Blagoi, G.

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, U.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boisen, A.

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

X. Cheng and L. J. Guo, "One-step lithography for various size patterns with a hybrid mask-mold," Microelectron. Eng. 71, 288-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christensen, C. B. V.

S. Petronis, M. Stangegaard, C. B. V. Christensen, and M. Dufva, "Transparent polymeric cell culture chip with integrated temperature control and uniform media perfusion," Biotechniques 40, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christiansen, M. B.

M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, "Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, "Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, "Integration of active and passive polymer optics," Opt. Express 15, 3931-3939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, B. T.

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

Domachuk, P.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106 - 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

Dufva, M.

S. Petronis, M. Stangegaard, C. B. V. Christensen, and M. Dufva, "Transparent polymeric cell culture chip with integrated temperature control and uniform media perfusion," Biotechniques 40, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A.

Eden, J. G.

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106 - 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fauchet, P. M.

Feld, M. S.

Fenger, M.

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fensholdt, J.

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gersborg-Hansen, M.

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, "Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

X. Cheng and L. J. Guo, "One-step lithography for various size patterns with a hybrid mask-mold," Microelectron. Eng. 71, 288-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heegaard, P. M.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horvath, R.

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Irfan, U.

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, N.

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jakobsen, M. H.

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jauho, E. S.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jay Guo, L.

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, T.

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, A.

M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, "Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, "Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, "Integration of active and passive polymer optics," Opt. Express 15, 3931-3939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, N. B.

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. R.

Loncar, M.

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 - 4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lue, N.

Mandal, S.

Masters, J. R.

J. R. Masters, "HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly," Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 315-319 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monat, C.

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106 - 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, "Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen and S. Xiao, "Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, B.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, H. C.

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J.

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Persson, F.

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petronis, S.

S. Petronis, M. Stangegaard, C. B. V. Christensen, and M. Dufva, "Transparent polymeric cell culture chip with integrated temperature control and uniform media perfusion," Biotechniques 40, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popescu, G.

Qiu, Y.

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 - 4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Scherer, A.

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 - 4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schøler, M.

Shopoua, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skivesen, N.

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Skivesen, A. Tetu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, "Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor," Opt. Express 15, 3169-3176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stangegaard, M.

S. Petronis, M. Stangegaard, C. B. V. Christensen, and M. Dufva, "Transparent polymeric cell culture chip with integrated temperature control and uniform media perfusion," Biotechniques 40, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thinggaard, S.

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, C. J.

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiuff, C.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wredstrom, K.

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, "Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen and S. Xiao, "Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopoua, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, "Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review," Anal. Chim. Acta 620, 8-26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

M. B. Christiansen, A. Kristensen, S. Xiao, and N. A. Mortensen, "Photonic integration in k-space: Enhancing the performance of photonic crystal dye lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Mortensen and S. Xiao, "Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 141108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Loncar, A. Scherer, and Y. Qiu, "Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4648 - 4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. B. Arango, M. B. Christiansen, M. Gersborg-Hansen, and A. Kristensen, "Optofluidic tuning of photonic crystal band edge lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 223503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. Choi, C. J. Wagner, J. G. Eden, and B. T. Cunningham, "Label free biosensor incorporating a replicamolded, vertically emitting distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Lu, S. S. Choi, U. Irfan, and B. T. Cunningham, "Plastic distributed feedback laser biosensor," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 111113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bioconjugate Chem. (1)

T. Koch, N. Jacobsen, J. Fensholdt, U. Boas, M. Fenger, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical immobilization of anthraquinone conjugated oligonucleotides and PCR amplicons on solid surfaces," Bioconjugate Chem. 11, 474-483 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

N. Skivesen, R. Horvath, S. Thinggaard, N. B. Larsen, and H. C. Pedersen, "Deep-probe metal-clad waveguide biosensors," Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 1282 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biotechniques (1)

S. Petronis, M. Stangegaard, C. B. V. Christensen, and M. Dufva, "Transparent polymeric cell culture chip with integrated temperature control and uniform media perfusion," Biotechniques 40, 368-376 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Yang and L. Jay Guo, "Optical sensors based on active microcavities," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 143-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Immunol. Methods (1)

E. S. Jauho, U. Boas, C. Wiuff, K. Wredstrom, B. Pedersen, L. O. Andresen, P. M. Heegaard, and M. H. Jakobsen, "New technology for regiospecific covalent coupling of polysaccharide antigens in ELISA for serological detection," J. Immunol. Methods 242, 133-143 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langmuir (1)

G. Blagoi, S. Keller, F. Persson, A. Boisen, and M. H. Jakobsen, "Photochemical Modification and Patterning of SU-8 Using Anthraquinone Photolinkers," Langmuir 24, 9929 - 9932 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

X. Cheng and L. J. Guo, "One-step lithography for various size patterns with a hybrid mask-mold," Microelectron. Eng. 71, 288-293 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanofluid. (1)

N. A. Mortensen, S. Xiao, and J. Pedersen, "Liquid-infiltrated photonic crystals: enhanced light-matter interactions for lab-on-a-chip applications," Microfluid.Nanofluid. 4, 117-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Monat, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, "Integrated optofluidics: A new river of light," Nat. Photonics 1, 106 - 114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Rev. Cancer (1)

J. R. Masters, "HeLa cells 50 years on: the good, the bad and the ugly," Nat. Rev. Cancer 2, 315-319 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

Exiqon A/S, Vedbaek, Denmark, www.exiqon.dk.

M. H. Jakobsen and T. Koch, "Method of Photochemical Immobilization of Ligands using Quinones," US Patent Number 6033784 (2000).

B.-W. Chang, C.-H. Chen, S.-J. Ding, D. Chan-Hen Chen, and H.-C. Chang, "Impedimetric monitoring of cell attachment on interdigitated microelectrodes," Sens. Actuators B 105, 159 (2005).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1995).

K. Sakoda, Optical Properties of Photonic Crystals (Springer, 2001).

D. Erickson, C. Yang, and D. Psaltis, "Optofluidics emerges from the laboratory," Photonics Spectra 42, 74+ (2008).

ORMOCER is a registered trademark of Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Forderung der angewandten Forschung e.V., Germany.

Micro resist technology GmbH, Berlin, Germany, www.microresist.de.

Pyrromethene 597, CAS Nr. 137829-79-9, acquired from Exciton Inc., www.exciton.com.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Drawing showing a band-edge laser with an inset AFM image of the surface. The laser is made of Ormocore hybrid polymer doped with the laser dye Pyrromethene 597. It is fabricated on a glass substrate. The lasers are pumped optically from above, and emit in the chip plane. The rectangular PhC lattice increases pump absorption and provides laser feedback.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fluorescence signals from the lasers treated with AQ-Link, biotine-amine, and Cy5 marked streptavidin. The excitation color is indicated in the bottom left of each image. (a) Signal from all lasers under green excitation. The five upper lasers were treated with biotin concentrations decreasing from the top. The last device was untreated. All lasers are visible because the PM597 dye is fluorescing. (b) Same as (a), but with red excitation. It is clear how the Cy5-Streptavidin signal decrease with the spotted biotin concentration. (c) and (d) Closer images of third device (62.5 μg/ml of biotin-amine) excited with green and red light, respectively. Note that the biotin spot is visible, but the Cy5 signal is stronger on the laser itself. (e) and (f) Closer images of the untreated device, again excited with green and red, respectively. The PM597 signal is visible, while no Cy5 streptavidin signal is present, as expected.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Laser devices after HeLa cell attachment procedure and drying in air. (a) Laser treated with AQ-NH2 and 2×105 cells in suspension. (b) Laser treated with AQ-NH2 and 5×104 cells in suspension. (c) Laser treated with AQ-NH2 and 1×104 cells in suspension. (d) Laser treated with 2×105 cells in suspension, but no AQ-NH2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured data and linear fit for the wavelength change in PMS as a function of cell surface density. 500 cells per mm2 corresponds to a dense film in growth medium, but in PBS the cells contract. Note that the data has been normalized to intercept the origin.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Cell density and wavelength shift for lasers. The wavelength change is measured in PBS before and after cell growth.

Equations (1)

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Δ λ Δ n = λ n f c ,

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