Abstract

Tunneling electrons from a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) induce luminescence from C60 and C70 molecules forming fullerene nanocrystals grown on ultrathin NaCl films on Au(111). Intramolecular fluorescence and phosphorescence associated with the transitions between the lowest electronic excited state and ground state of C70 molecules are identified, leading to unambiguous chemical recognition on the nanoscale. Moreover we demonstrate that the molecular luminescence is selectively enhanced by localized surface plasmons in the STM tip-sample gap.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. X. H. Qiu, G. V. Nazin, and W. Ho, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision," Science 299, 542-546 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Cavar, M.-C. Blum, M. Pivetta, F. Patthey, M. Chergui, and W.-D. Schneider, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence from individual C60 molecules excited by local electron tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,196102 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45,661-699 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R Berndt and J. K. Gimzewski, "Isochromat spectroscopy of photons emitted from metal surfaces in an STM," Ann. Physik 2, 133-140 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. M. Argentine, K. T. Kotz, and A. H. Francis, "Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C70 - assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet-states," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11762-11767 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Sassara, G. Zerza, and M. Chergui, "Assignment of the lowest excited states of C70 and evidence for fluorescence from the S-2 state," J. Phys. Chem. 102, 3072-3077 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. H. Rice, J. P. Galaup, and S. Leach, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy of C70 in toluene at 5 K: site dependent low lying excited states," Chem. Phys. 279, 23-41 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Kazaoui and N. Minami, "Intermolecular charge transfer excitons in C70 as compared with C60 films," Synth. Met. 86, 2345-2346 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. V. Capozzi and G. Perna, "Role of the deposition parameters and aging on the optical and photoluminescence properties of C70 films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7247-7252 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence," Plasmonics 2, 15-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Capozzi and G. Perna, "Role of the deposition parameters and aging on the optical and photoluminescence properties of C70 films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7247-7252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cavar, M.-C. Blum, M. Pivetta, F. Patthey, M. Chergui, and W.-D. Schneider, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence from individual C60 molecules excited by local electron tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,196102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. H. Qiu, G. V. Nazin, and W. Ho, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision," Science 299, 542-546 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. H. Rice, J. P. Galaup, and S. Leach, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy of C70 in toluene at 5 K: site dependent low lying excited states," Chem. Phys. 279, 23-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, and M. Chergui, "Assignment of the lowest excited states of C70 and evidence for fluorescence from the S-2 state," J. Phys. Chem. 102, 3072-3077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45,661-699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kazaoui and N. Minami, "Intermolecular charge transfer excitons in C70 as compared with C60 films," Synth. Met. 86, 2345-2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Argentine, K. T. Kotz, and A. H. Francis, "Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C70 - assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet-states," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11762-11767 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (3)

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R Berndt and J. K. Gimzewski, "Isochromat spectroscopy of photons emitted from metal surfaces in an STM," Ann. Physik 2, 133-140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Electromagnetic-interactions of metallic objects in nanometer proximity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3493-3496 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3796-3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akai-Kasaya, M.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aono, M.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Argentine, S. M.

S. M. Argentine, K. T. Kotz, and A. H. Francis, "Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C70 - assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet-states," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11762-11767 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aso, Y.

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45,661-699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, R

R Berndt and J. K. Gimzewski, "Isochromat spectroscopy of photons emitted from metal surfaces in an STM," Ann. Physik 2, 133-140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, R.

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Electromagnetic-interactions of metallic objects in nanometer proximity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3493-3496 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3796-3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campion, A.

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Capozzi, V.

V. Capozzi and G. Perna, "Role of the deposition parameters and aging on the optical and photoluminescence properties of C70 films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7247-7252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Casamassima, G.

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chan, I. Y.

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chergui, M.

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, and M. Chergui, "Assignment of the lowest excited states of C70 and evidence for fluorescence from the S-2 state," J. Phys. Chem. 102, 3072-3077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z.-C.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dorozhkin, P. S.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, G.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eastwood, D. L.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eisler, H. J.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eklund, P. C.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francis, A. H.

S. M. Argentine, K. T. Kotz, and A. H. Francis, "Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C70 - assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet-states," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11762-11767 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Furumoto, M.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaisch, R.

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galaup, J. P.

J. H. Rice, J. P. Galaup, and S. Leach, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy of C70 in toluene at 5 K: site dependent low lying excited states," Chem. Phys. 279, 23-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J. K.

R Berndt and J. K. Gimzewski, "Isochromat spectroscopy of photons emitted from metal surfaces in an STM," Ann. Physik 2, 133-140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Electromagnetic-interactions of metallic objects in nanometer proximity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3493-3496 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3796-3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gobel, E. O.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gresillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Groenen, E. J. J.

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.-L.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guss, W.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haussler, P.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, C. D.

W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ho, W.

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, J. M.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hung, W. C.

W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ichida, M.

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ie, Y.

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, P.

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Electromagnetic-interactions of metallic objects in nanometer proximity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3493-3496 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3796-3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kambhampati, P.

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kazaoui, S.

S. Kazaoui and N. Minami, "Intermolecular charge transfer excitons in C70 as compared with C60 films," Synth. Met. 86, 2345-2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, K.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kotz, K. T.

S. M. Argentine, K. T. Kotz, and A. H. Francis, "Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C70 - assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet-states," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11762-11767 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuwahara, Y.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leach, S.

J. H. Rice, J. P. Galaup, and S. Leach, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy of C70 in toluene at 5 K: site dependent low lying excited states," Chem. Phys. 279, 23-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. P.

W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lideberg, R. L.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. P.

W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. W.

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lorusso, G. F.

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M¨uhlschlegel, P.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B. D.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence," Plasmonics 2, 15-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashiko, S.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, M.

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McDonagh, C.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence," Plasmonics 2, 15-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, G.

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miki, K.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Minafra, A.

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minami, N.

S. Kazaoui and N. Minami, "Intermolecular charge transfer excitons in C70 as compared with C60 films," Synth. Met. 86, 2345-2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mohn, H.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, W.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, A.

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, T.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nazin, G. V.

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Qiu, G. V. Nazin, and W. Ho, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision," Science 299, 542-546 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negri, F.

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishitani, R.

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nooney, R.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence," Plasmonics 2, 15-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orlandi, G.

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

Perna, G.

V. Capozzi and G. Perna, "Role of the deposition parameters and aging on the optical and photoluminescence properties of C70 films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7247-7252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piccolo, R.

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, X. H.

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Qiu, G. V. Nazin, and W. Ho, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision," Science 299, 542-546 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, A. M.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reihl, B.

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, J. H.

J. H. Rice, J. P. Galaup, and S. Leach, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy of C70 in toluene at 5 K: site dependent low lying excited states," Chem. Phys. 279, 23-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salto, A.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sassara, A.

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, and M. Chergui, "Assignment of the lowest excited states of C70 and evidence for fluorescence from the S-2 state," J. Phys. Chem. 102, 3072-3077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

Schlittler, R. R.

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J.

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, W.-D.

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shinohara, H.

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stranik, O.

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence," Plasmonics 2, 15-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ter Meer, H.-U.

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trifonov, A. S.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Trovato, T.

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tschudy, M.

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uemura, T.

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valentini, A.

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van den Heuvel, D. J.

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Venkateswaran, U. D.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. W.

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yajima, T.

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zerza, G.

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, and M. Chergui, "Assignment of the lowest excited states of C70 and evidence for fluorescence from the S-2 state," J. Phys. Chem. 102, 3072-3077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Physik (1)

R Berndt and J. K. Gimzewski, "Isochromat spectroscopy of photons emitted from metal surfaces in an STM," Ann. Physik 2, 133-140 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

J. H. Rice, J. P. Galaup, and S. Leach, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence spectroscopy of C70 in toluene at 5 K: site dependent low lying excited states," Chem. Phys. 279, 23-41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (3)

D. J. van den Heuvel, I. Y. Chan, E. J. J. Groenen, M. Matsushita, J. Schmidt, and G. Meijer, "On the fluorescence of crystalline C60 at 1.2 K," Chem. Phys. Lett. 233, 284-290 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichida, M. Sakai, T. Yajima, A. Nakamura, and H. Shinohara, "Luminescence due to intraand inter-molecular transition in C70 single crystals," Chem. Phys. Lett. 271, 27-32 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Uemura, M. Furumoto, T. Nakano, M. Akai-Kasaya, A. Salto, M. Aono, and Y. Kuwahara, "Local-plasmon-enhanced up-conversion fluorescence from copper phthalocyanine," Chem. Phys. Lett. 448, 232-236 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

A. Campion and P. Kambhampati, "Surface-enhanced Raman scattering," Chem. Soc. Rev. 27, 241-250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. M. Argentine, K. T. Kotz, and A. H. Francis, "Temperature and solvent effects on the luminescence spectrum of C70 - assignment of the lowest singlet and triplet-states," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 11762-11767 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, M. Chergui, F. Negri, and G. Orlandi, "The visible emission and absorption spectrum of C60," J. Chem. Phys. 107, 8731-8741(1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. L. Barnes, "Fluorescence near interfaces: the role of photonic mode density," J. Mod. Opt. 45,661-699 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

W. C. Hung, C. D. Ho, C. P. Liu, and Y. P. Lee, "Laser-induced fluorescence and phosphorescence of C60 isolated in solid Ne," J. Phys. Chem. 100, 3927-3932 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Sassara, G. Zerza, and M. Chergui, "Assignment of the lowest excited states of C70 and evidence for fluorescence from the S-2 state," J. Phys. Chem. 102, 3072-3077 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Fort and S. Gresillon, "Surface enhanced fluorescence," J. Phys. D 41, 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. W. Liu, Y. Ie, R. Nishitani, Y. Aso, and H. Iwasaki, "Bias dependence of tunneling-electroninduced molecular fluorescence from porphyrin films on noble-metal substrates," Phys. Rev. B 75, 115429 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. M. Holden, A. M. Rao, P. C. Eklund, U. D. Venkateswaran, D. L. Eastwood, R. L. Lideberg, G. Dresselhaus, and M. S. Dresselhaus, "Optical-absorption and photoluminescence in pristine and photopolymerized C60 solid films," Phys. Rev. B 51, 4547-4556 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S. W. Wu, G. V. Nazin, X. Chen, X. H. Qiu, and W. Ho, "Control of relative tunneling rates in single molecule bipolar electron transport," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 236802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3796-3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, "Electromagnetic-interactions of metallic objects in nanometer proximity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3493-3496 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cavar, M.-C. Blum, M. Pivetta, F. Patthey, M. Chergui, and W.-D. Schneider, "Fluorescence and phosphorescence from individual C60 molecules excited by local electron tunneling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95,196102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-C. Dong, X.-L. Guo, A. S. Trifonov, P. S. Dorozhkin, K. Miki, K. Kimura, S. Yokoyama, and S. Mashiko, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence from organic molecules near metal surfaces in a scanning tunneling microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 1992, 086801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Guss, J. Feldmann, E. O. Gobel, C. Taliani, H. Mohn, W. Muller, P. Haussler, and H.-U. ter Meer, "Fluorescence from X traps in C60 single-crystals," Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2644-2647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

O. Stranik, R. Nooney, C. McDonagh, and B. D. MacCraith, "Optimization of nanoparticle size for plasmonic enhancement of fluorescence," Plasmonics 2, 15-22 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

P. Muhlschlegel, H. J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, "Resonant optical antennas," Science 308,1607-1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H. Qiu, G. V. Nazin, and W. Ho, "Vibrationally resolved fluorescence excited with submolecular precision," Science 299, 542-546 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Berndt, R. Gaisch, J. K. Gimzewski, B. Reihl, R. R. Schlittler, W.-D. Schneider, and M. Tschudy, "Photon-emission at molecular resolution induced by a scanning tunneling microscope," Science 262, 1425-1427 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Comm. (1)

V. Capozzi, G. Casamassima, G. F. Lorusso, A. Minafra, R. Piccolo, T. Trovato, and A. Valentini, "Optical spectra and photoluminescence of C60 thin films," Solid State Comm. 98, 853-858 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met. (1)

S. Kazaoui and N. Minami, "Intermolecular charge transfer excitons in C70 as compared with C60 films," Synth. Met. 86, 2345-2346 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

V. Capozzi and G. Perna, "Role of the deposition parameters and aging on the optical and photoluminescence properties of C70 films," Thin Solid Films 515, 7247-7252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B. Pettinger, "Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS)," in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering- Physics and Applications, Top. Appl. Phys. 103, K. Kneipp, M. Moskovits, H. Kneipp, eds. (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2006), pp. 217-242.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

STM topographic images of a C60 (a) and C70 (b) nanocrystal formed on a thin NaCl film grown on Au(111) (V = -3 V, I= 0.02 nA). (A) fullerene molecules on Au(111). (B) fullerene molecules on NaCl/Au(111). (C) NaCl/Au(111). (D) Au(111).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Plasmon-emission spectra acquired on Au(111), NaCl/Au(111) and C70/Au(111) (I= 4 nA, V = -3 V, t= 60 s). Spectra are vertically shifted for clarity. (b) Bias dependance of STM-LE intensity for bare Au(111) and NaCl/Au(111). Spectra have been smoothed and are vertically shifted for clarity.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

STM-LE spectra for two different experimental runs (1 and 2). (a) Spectra acquired over C60 nanocrystals grown on NaCl/Au(111). Spectra 1 (V = -3 V, I= 2 nA, t= 300 s) and 2 (V = -3 V, I= 3 nA, t= 300 s) are vertically shifted for clarity. (b) Spectra acquired on NaCl at the same conditions as in (a). (c) Molecular spectra from (a), divided by the corresponding smoothed plasmon-mediated spectra from (b) and normalized to fit the same scale. Spectra are vertically shifted for clarity.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) STM-LE spectra acquired over a C60 nanocrystal (spectrum 2, V= -3 V, I= 4 nA, t= 60 s) and over the underlying NaCl film (spectrum 1, V = -3 V, I= 2 nA, t= 60 s). (b) STM-LE spectra acquired over a C70 nanocrystal (spectra 2 and 3) and over the NaCl film (spectrum 1), (V= -3 V, I= 1 nA, t= 60 s). Spectra are vertically shifted for clarity. The wavelength corresponding to the pure electronic (0-0) transitions is indicated.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Schematic energy diagram of a double-barrier tunnel junction at negative bias voltage, corresponding to the conditions for luminescence. The simultaneous population and depopulation of the LUMO and HOMO by tunneling electrons creates an electronically and vibrationally excited state of the molecule. (b) Fluorescence channel: the molecule relaxes to the ground vibrational state of the lowest electronic excited singlet state S 1 followed by a radiative transition to the singlet ground state S 0. Phosphorescence channel: a radiationless transition occurs between the singlet state S 1 and triplet state T 1 with subsequent radiative molecular transition to the ground state S 0.

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