Abstract

We describe a method for characterizing focused x-ray beams using phase retrieval, with diversity achieved by transversely translating a phase-shifting or absorbing structure close to the beam focus. The required measurements can be taken with an experimental setup that is similar to that already used for fluorescent scan testing. The far-field intensity pattern is measured for each position of the translating structure, and the collected measurements are jointly used to estimate the beam profile by using a nonlinear optimization gradient search algorithm. The capability to re-construct 1D and 2D beam foci is demonstrated through numerical simulations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009

2008

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman and J. R. Fienup, "Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms," Opt. Lett. 33, 156-158 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval with Fourier-weighted projections," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25, 701-709 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity: a nonlinear optimization approach," Opt. Express 16, 7264-7278 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, "Direct image reconstruction from a Fourier intensity pattern using HERALDO," Opt. Lett. 33, 2668-2670 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Stein, K. Evans-Lutterodt, N. Bozovic and A. Taylor, "Fabrication of silicon kinoform lenses for hard x-ray focusing by electron beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 122-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Podorov, K. M. Pavlov and D. M. Paganin, "A non-iterative reconstruction method for direct and unambiguous coherent diffractive imaging," Opt. Express 15, 9954-9962 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, "Holography with extended reference by autocorrelation linear differential operation," Opt. Express 15, 17592-17612 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, "Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, "A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795-4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

W. Leitenberger, T. Weitkamp, M. Drakopoulos, I. Snigireva and A. Snigirev, "Microscopic imaging and holography with hard X-rays using Fresnel zone-plates," Opt. Commun. 180, 233-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1992

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988

1987

1982

R. A. Gonsalves, "Phase retrieval and diversity in adaptive optics," Opt. Eng. 21, 829-832 (1982).

J. R. Fienup, "Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison," Appl. Opt. 21, 2758-2769 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Childlaw, "Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 207, 32-39 (1979).

1978

Abbey, B.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bajt, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, J.

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beetz, T.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, M. J.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boutet, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bozovic, N.

A. Stein, K. Evans-Lutterodt, N. Bozovic and A. Taylor, "Fabrication of silicon kinoform lenses for hard x-ray focusing by electron beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 122-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brady, G. R.

Bunk, O.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Z.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cederquist, J. N.

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Charalambous, P.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Childlaw, R.

R. A. Gonsalves and R. Childlaw, "Wavefront sensing by phase retrieval," Proc. SPIE 207, 32-39 (1979).

Clark, J. N.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Conley, R.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cui, C.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Jonge, M.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, M.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drakopoulos, M.

W. Leitenberger, T. Weitkamp, M. Drakopoulos, I. Snigireva and A. Snigirev, "Microscopic imaging and holography with hard X-rays using Fresnel zone-plates," Opt. Commun. 180, 233-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eberhardt, W.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eisebitt, S.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elser, V.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Engelhardt, M.

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans-Lutterodt, K.

A. Stein, K. Evans-Lutterodt, N. Bozovic and A. Taylor, "Fabrication of silicon kinoform lenses for hard x-ray focusing by electron beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 122-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, H. M. L.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, "Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, "A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795-4797 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
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S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
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He, H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
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Howells, M.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
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Howells, M. R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
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H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
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D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
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I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
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Johnson, I.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
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Kang, H. C.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
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Kern, D. P.

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
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Kimura, T.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
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Kirz, J.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
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Kottler, C.

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kynde, S.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenberger, W.

W. Leitenberger, T. Weitkamp, M. Drakopoulos, I. Snigireva and A. Snigirev, "Microscopic imaging and holography with hard X-rays using Fresnel zone-plates," Opt. Commun. 180, 233-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lima, E.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorgen, M.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luning, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macrander, A. T.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marron, J. C.

Marti, O.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maser, J.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, S.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. McNulty, J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, E. H. Anderson, M. R. Howells and D. P. Kern, "High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography," Science 256, 1009-1012 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, A.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miao, H.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miao, J.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mimura, H.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishino, Y.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noy, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, S. Marchesini, A. Noy, S. P. Hau-Riege, C. Cui, M. R. Howells et al., "High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1179-1200 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
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H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
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Paganin, D. M.

Paterson, D.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, K. M.

Paxman, R. G.

Peele, A. G.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, M. A.

B. Abbey, K. A. Nugent, G. J. Williams, J. N. Clark, A. G. Peele, M. A. Pfeifer, M. de Jonge and I. McNulty, "Keyhole coherent diffractive imaging," Nat. Phys. 4, 394-398 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

O. Bunk, M. Dierolf, S. Kynde, I. Johnson, O. Marti, F. Pfeiffer, "Influence of the overlap parameter on the convergence of the ptychographical iterative engine," Ultramicroscopy 108, 481-487 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Podorov, S. G.

Quiney, H. M.

H. M. Quiney, A. G. Peele, Z. Cai, D. Paterson and K. A. Nugent, "Diffractive imaging of highly focused x-ray fields," Nat. Phys. 2, 101-104 (2006).
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Rodenburg, J. M.

H. M. L. Faulkner and J. M. Rodenburg, "Movable aperture lensless transmission microscopy: a novel phase retrieval algorithm," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 023903 (2004).
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J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, "A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795-4797 (2004).
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Sakdinawat, A. E.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sano, Y.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sayre, D.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz and D. Sayre, "Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens," Nature 400, 342-344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schlotter, W. F.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, M.

M. Engelhardt, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk and C. David, "Inspection of refractive x-ray lenses using high-resolution differential phase contrast imaging with a microfocus x-ray source," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 093707 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, D.

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

W. Leitenberger, T. Weitkamp, M. Drakopoulos, I. Snigireva and A. Snigirev, "Microscopic imaging and holography with hard X-rays using Fresnel zone-plates," Opt. Commun. 180, 233-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

W. Leitenberger, T. Weitkamp, M. Drakopoulos, I. Snigireva and A. Snigirev, "Microscopic imaging and holography with hard X-rays using Fresnel zone-plates," Opt. Commun. 180, 233-238 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stein, A.

A. Stein, K. Evans-Lutterodt, N. Bozovic and A. Taylor, "Fabrication of silicon kinoform lenses for hard x-ray focusing by electron beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 122-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, G. B.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stohr, J.

S. Eisebitt, J. Luning, W. F. Schlotter, M. Lorgen, O. Hellwig, W. Eberhardt and J. Stohr, "Lensless imaging of magnetic nanostructures by x-ray spectro-holography," Nature 432, 885-888 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-riege, A. Szoke, C. Cui et al., "Massively parallel x-ray holography," Nat. Photonics 2, 560-563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamasaku, K.

H. Mimura, H. Yumoto, S. Matsuyama, S. Handa, T. Kimura, Y. Sano, M. Yabashi, Y. Nishino, K. Tamasaku, T. Ishikawa et al., "Direct determination of the wave field of an x-ray nanobeam," Phys. Rev. A 77, 015812 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

A. Stein, K. Evans-Lutterodt, N. Bozovic and A. Taylor, "Fabrication of silicon kinoform lenses for hard x-ray focusing by electron beam lithography and deep reactive ion etching," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 122-127 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, P.

P. Thibault, M. Dierolf, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, C. David and F. Pfeiffer, "High-resolution scanning x-ray diffraction microscopy," Science 321, 379-382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Shapiro, P. Thibault, T. Beetz, V. Elser, M. Howells, C. Jacobsen, J. Kirz, E. Lima, H. Miao et al., "Biological imaging by soft x-ray diffraction microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102, 15343-15346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thurman, S. T.

Vogt, S.

H. C. Kang, J. Maser, G. B. Stephenson, C. Liu, R. Conley, A. T. Macrander and S. Vogt, "Nanometer linear focusing of hard x rays by a multilayer Laue lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weierstall, U.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall and J. C. H. Spence, "X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone," Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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