Abstract

Nanoimprint lithography is gaining rapid acceptance in fields as diverse as microelectronics and microfluidics due to its simplicity high resolution and low cost. These properties are critically important for the fabrication of photonic devices, where cost is often the major inhibiting deployment factor for high volume applications. We report here on the use of nanoimprint technology to fabricate low loss broadband high index contrast waveguides in a Polysiloxane polymer system for the first time.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Kopetz, D. K. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, "PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical-optical circuit boards," AEU-Int.J. Electron. Commun. 61, 163-167 (2007).

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, and A. Neyer, "Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer integrated in printed circuit board," Electron. Lett. 40, 668-669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

2002 (1)

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and Devices," Adv. Materials 14, 1339-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, G.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bae, B. S.

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baugher, A.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Beguin, A.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bellman, R. A.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergmair, I.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blum, R.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Bourdon, G.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, D. K.

S. Kopetz, D. K. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, "PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical-optical circuit boards," AEU-Int.J. Electron. Commun. 61, 163-167 (2007).

Cappuzzo, M. A.

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and Devices," Adv. Materials 14, 1339-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeGroot, J. V.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Dodabalapur, A.

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Glinsner, T.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grutzner, G.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guiot, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guiziou, L.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayashida, S.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, S. Hayashida, T. Kurihara, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric Optical Waveguide Circuits Formed Using Silicone Resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1049-1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hikita, M.

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Imamura, S.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, S. Hayashida, T. Kurihara, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric Optical Waveguide Circuits Formed Using Silicone Resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1049-1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and Devices," Adv. Materials 14, 1339-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, A.

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kang, W. J.

S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, and A. Neyer, "Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer integrated in printed circuit board," Electron. Lett. 40, 668-669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. S.

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopetz, S.

S. Kopetz, D. K. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, "PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical-optical circuit boards," AEU-Int.J. Electron. Commun. 61, 163-167 (2007).

S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, and A. Neyer, "Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer integrated in printed circuit board," Electron. Lett. 40, 668-669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Kurihara, T.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, S. Hayashida, T. Kurihara, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric Optical Waveguide Circuits Formed Using Silicone Resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1049-1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

LeGuen, E.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lehuede, P.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and Devices," Adv. Materials 14, 1339-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meier, M.

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muhlberger, M.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

S. Kopetz, D. K. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, "PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical-optical circuit boards," AEU-Int.J. Electron. Commun. 61, 163-167 (2007).

S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, and A. Neyer, "Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer integrated in printed circuit board," Electron. Lett. 40, 668-669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Norris, A. W.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Ogawa, T.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Ooba, N.

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, S. Hayashida, T. Kurihara, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric Optical Waveguide Circuits Formed Using Silicone Resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1049-1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paloczi, G. T.

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, E.

S. Kopetz, D. K. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, "PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical-optical circuit boards," AEU-Int.J. Electron. Commun. 61, 163-167 (2007).

S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, and A. Neyer, "Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer integrated in printed circuit board," Electron. Lett. 40, 668-669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, L. A.

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. Y.

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, L. B.

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, S.

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Usui, M.

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogler, M.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, S. Hayashida, T. Kurihara, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric Optical Waveguide Circuits Formed Using Silicone Resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1049-1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia, G. M. Whitesides, "Soft Lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wiedenberg, S.

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, G. M. Whitesides, "Soft Lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Materials (1)

H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, "Polymer-based optical waveguides: Materials, processing, and Devices," Adv. Materials 14, 1339-1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Xia, G. M. Whitesides, "Soft Lithography," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28, 153-84 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. A.  Rogers, M.  Meier, A.  Dodabalapur, E. J.  Laskowski, and M. A.  Cappuzzo, "Distributed feedback ridge waveguide lasers fabricated by nanoscale printing and molding on nonplanar substrates," Appl. Phys. Lett.  74, 3257-3259 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. T.  Paloczi, Y.  Huang, A.  Yariv, J.  Luo and A. K. Y.  Jen, "Replica-molded electro-optic polymer Mach-Zehnder modulator," Appl. Phys. Lett.  85, 1662-1664 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, and A. Neyer, "Polysiloxane optical waveguide layer integrated in printed circuit board," Electron. Lett. 40, 668-669 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe, Y. Inoue, A. Kaneko, N. Ooba, and T. Kurihara, "Polymeric arrayed-waveguide grating multiplexer with a wide tuning range," Electron. Lett. 33, 1547-1548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. S. Kim, J. H. Lee, S. Y. Shin, B. S. Bae, and Y. C. Kim, "Fabrication of ridge waveguides by UV embossing and stamping of sol-gel hybrid materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1888-1890 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

R. A. Bellman, G. Bourdon, G. Alibert, A. Beguin, E. Guiot, L. B. Simpson, P. Lehuede, L. Guiziou, and E. LeGuen, "Ultralow Loss High Delta Silica Germania Planar Waveguides," J. Electrochem. Soc. 151, G541-G547 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Commun. (1)

S. Kopetz, D. K. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, "PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical-optical circuit boards," AEU-Int.J. Electron. Commun. 61, 163-167 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. Watanabe, N. Ooba, S. Hayashida, T. Kurihara, and S. Imamura, "Polymeric Optical Waveguide Circuits Formed Using Silicone Resin," J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1049-1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Usui, M. Hikita, T. Watanabe, M. Amano, S. Sugawara, S. Hayashida, and S. Imamura, "Low-loss passive polymer optical waveguides with high environmental stability," J. Lightwave Technol. 14,2338-2343 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Y.  Huang, G. T.  Paloczi, A.  Yariv, C.  Zhang, L. R.  Dalton, "Fabrication and replication of polymer integrated optical devices using electron-beam lithography and soft lithography," J. Phys. Chem. B  108, 8606-8613 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. Vogler, S. Wiedenberg, M. Muhlberger, I. Bergmair, T. Glinsner, H. Schmidt, E. Kley, and G. Grutzner, "Development of a novel, low-viscosity UV-curable polymer system for UV-nanoimprint lithography," Microelectron. Eng. 84, 984-988 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. W. Norris, J. V. DeGroot, T. Ogawa, T. Watanabe, T. C. Kowalczyk, A. Baugher, and R. Blum, "High reliability of silicone materials for use as polymer waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5212, 76-82 (2003).

Other (6)

e.g. see www.gemfire.com and T. C. Kowalczyk and R. Blum, "Polymer variable optical attenuator arrays: pathway from material platform to qualified telecom product," Proc. SPIE 5517, 50-61 (2004).

R. Charters, Redfern Polymer Optics Pty. Ltd., (personal communication, 2007).

S. Madden, M. Zhang, B. Luther-Davies, and R. Charters, "Patterning of inorganic polymer glass waveguiding films by dry etching," Proc. SPIE 6801, 680107-1:7 (2008).

D. Kim, W. Chin, S. Lee, S. Ahn, and K. Lee, "Tunable polymeric Bragg grating filter using nanoimprint technique", Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 071120-1:3 (2006).

R. Buestrich, F. Kahlenberg And M. Popall, P. Dannberg, R. Muller-Fiedler and O. Rosch, "ORMOCERs for Optical Interconnection Technology," J. Sol-Gel Sci. and Tech.  20,181-186 (2001).

A. Neyer, S. Kopetz, E. Rabe, W. J. Kang, S. Tombrink, "ElectricalOptical Circuit Board using Polysiloxane Optical Waveguide Layer," Electronic Components and Technology Conference, 2005. Proceedings. 55th. 2005

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