Abstract

High-quality whispering-gallery-mode resonators made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) are fabricated by simple mechanical turning and polishing according to a technique used by Ilchenko et al. to produce crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonators with high quality factors (Q-factors). The high-Q PMMA resonators are investigated in two wavelength regimes: in the near infrared between the wavelengths 1470 and 1580 nm and at the wavelength 635 nm. The Q-factor in the infrared regime is limited by material absorption to 3×105. At 635 nm the Q-factor is limited by surface scattering only and reaches 4 × 107, which is a new record for polymers.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008 (2)

2007 (2)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical resonators with ten million finesse," Opt. Express 15, 6768-6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering-gallery modes," Proceedings of the SPIE 4969, 195-206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, "Ring microlasers from conducting polymers," Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363-R4366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

R. Sastre and A. Costela, "Polymeric solid-state dye lasers," Adv. Mater. 7, 198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1989 (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes," Phys. Lett. A 137, 393-397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Armani, D. K.

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braginsky, V. B.

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes," Phys. Lett. A 137, 393-397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Costela, A.

R. Sastre and A. Costela, "Polymeric solid-state dye lasers," Adv. Mater. 7, 198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

Dodabalapur, A.

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, "Ring microlasers from conducting polymers," Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363-R4366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R.

Garito, A.

Gorodetsky, M. L.

Grudinin, I. S.

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806-1-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical resonators with ten million finesse," Opt. Express 15, 6768-6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering-gallery modes," Proceedings of the SPIE 4969, 195-206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1051-1057 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Gorodetsky and V. S. Ilchenko, "Optical microsphere resonators: optimal coupling to high-Q whisperinggallery modes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 147-154 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes," Phys. Lett. A 137, 393-397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806-1-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ioppolo, T.

Jordan, R. H.

Katz, H. E.

Kozhevnikov, M.

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical resonators with ten million finesse," Opt. Express 15, 6768-6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering-gallery modes," Proceedings of the SPIE 4969, 195-206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806-1-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, L. M.

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical resonators with ten million finesse," Opt. Express 15, 6768-6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering-gallery modes," Proceedings of the SPIE 4969, 195-206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, S.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Rabiei, P.

Sastre, R.

R. Sastre and A. Costela, "Polymeric solid-state dye lasers," Adv. Mater. 7, 198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Optical resonators with ten million finesse," Opt. Express 15, 6768-6773 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering-gallery modes," Proceedings of the SPIE 4969, 195-206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

Shkunov, M.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, "Ring microlasers from conducting polymers," Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363-R4366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slusher, R. E.

Steier, W. H.

Stepaniuk, V.

Strekalov, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, K.

Vahala, K. J.

Vardeny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, "Ring microlasers from conducting polymers," Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363-R4366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Yeniay, A.

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, "Ring microlasers from conducting polymers," Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363-R4366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. Sastre and A. Costela, "Polymeric solid-state dye lasers," Adv. Mater. 7, 198-202 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature Methods (1)

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, "Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules," Nature Methods 5, 591-596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, D. Strekalov, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Photorefractive damage in whispering gallery resonators," Opt. Commun. 272, 257-262 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

V. B. Braginsky, M. L. Gorodetsky, and V. S. Ilchenko, "Quality-factor and nonlinear properties of optical whispering-gallery modes," Phys. Lett. A 137, 393-397 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. V. Frolov, M. Shkunov, Z. V. Vardeny, and K. Yoshino, "Ring microlasers from conducting polymers," Phys. Rev. B 56, R4363-R4366 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the SPIE (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, "Tunability and synthetic lineshapes in high-Q optical whispering-gallery modes," Proceedings of the SPIE 4969, 195-206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. S. Grudinin, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, "Ultrahigh optical Q factors of crystalline resonators in the linear regime," Phys. Rev. A 74, 063806-1-9 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

WGM-resonator made of PMMA with a standard turning lathe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic sketch of the setup used for the determination of the Q-factors. At 635 nm a conventional lens is used instead of the GRIN lens employed in the infrared wavelength regime. The material of the prism is SF11 glass.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Typical mode spectrum around 1550 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of the calculated absorption-limited Q-factor Q abs (solid line) with the measured Q-factor Q for PMMA resonators P5 and P6 (solid and open circles).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q abs = 2 πn αλ and Q ss = λ 3 r 8 n π 2 B 2 σ 2 ,
Q 1 = Q abs 1 + Q ss 1 + Q coupl 1
Q 1 = λ Δ λ FWHM ,
Δ λ FSR = λ 2 2 πnr and = Δ λ FSR Δ λ FWHM .
α = ln ( T 2 / T 1 ) d 1 d 2 .

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