Abstract

Insulating spacer layers of MgO were used to identify the enhancement mechanisms of the ZnO band-edge and visible luminescence in ZnO-MgO-Ag and ZnO-MgO-Au multilayers. Purcell enhancement of the ZnO band-edge emission by both Ag and Au surface plasmon polaritons is confirmed by demonstrating that the exponential decay of this emission as a function of increasing MgO thickness is consistent with the Ag and Au SPP evanescent decay lengths. Local surface plasmons excited in Ag and Au nanoparticles and rough films are also shown to enhance the ZnO visible donor-acceptor-pair photoluminescence by dipole-dipole scattering, again with an appropriate dependence on the thickness of the MgO spacer layer. We also confirm that both Ag and Au nanoparticles enhance the ZnO band-edge emission by charge transfer when the MgO spacer layer is absent.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).
  4. X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, "Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission," Opt. Express. 16, 8896-8901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y. Sung, "Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

S. A. Studenikin and M. Cocivera, "Time-resolved luminescence and photoconductivity of polycrystalline ZnO films," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5060-5065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, "The Kinetics of the Radiative and Nonradiative Porcesses in Nanocrystalline ZnO Particles upon Photoexcitation," J. Phys Chem B. 104, 1715-1723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1998

S. B. Zhang, S. Wei, and A. Zunger, "A phenomenological model for systematization and prediction of doping limits in II-VI and I-III-VI2 compounds," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3192-3196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1984

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic Interactions of Molecules with Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

An, J.

C. W. Lai, J. An, and H. C. Ong, "Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aoyama, M.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asher, S. E.

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

Boroditsky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Cheng, C. L.

Cheng, P.

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, "Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission," Opt. Express. 16, 8896-8901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, Y. Y.

Cocivera, M.

S. A. Studenikin and M. Cocivera, "Time-resolved luminescence and photoconductivity of polycrystalline ZnO films," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5060-5065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, T. J.

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

DenBaars, S. P.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic Interactions of Molecules with Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C. L.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Heo, Y. W.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horie, M.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L. L.

Igasaki, Y.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ino, Ch.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ip, K.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Keyes, B. M.

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

Kim, T. G.

M. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y. Sung, "Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.

M. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y. Sung, "Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, T.

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. W.

C. W. Lai, J. An, and H. C. Ong, "Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y. Sung, "Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, "Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission," Opt. Express. 16, 8896-8901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li and H.C. Ong, "Temperature dependence of surface plasmon mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121107-1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

Lin, H. Y.

Luther, J.

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

Meijerink, A.

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, "The Kinetics of the Radiative and Nonradiative Porcesses in Nanocrystalline ZnO Particles upon Photoexcitation," J. Phys Chem B. 104, 1715-1723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meulenkamp, E. A.

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, "The Kinetics of the Radiative and Nonradiative Porcesses in Nanocrystalline ZnO Particles upon Photoexcitation," J. Phys Chem B. 104, 1715-1723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U.K.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Moutinho, H. R.

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

Neogi, A.

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norton, D. P.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Lai, J. An, and H. C. Ong, "Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H.C.

J. Li and H.C. Ong, "Temperature dependence of surface plasmon mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121107-1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Postava, K.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siu, G. G.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, T.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Studenikin, S. A.

S. A. Studenikin and M. Cocivera, "Time-resolved luminescence and photoconductivity of polycrystalline ZnO films," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5060-5065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sueki, H.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y.

M. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y. Sung, "Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tackeuchi, A.

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Dijken, A.

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, "The Kinetics of the Radiative and Nonradiative Porcesses in Nanocrystalline ZnO Particles upon Photoexcitation," J. Phys Chem B. 104, 1715-1723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, "The Kinetics of the Radiative and Nonradiative Porcesses in Nanocrystalline ZnO Particles upon Photoexcitation," J. Phys Chem B. 104, 1715-1723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic Interactions of Molecules with Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S.

S. B. Zhang, S. Wei, and A. Zunger, "A phenomenological model for systematization and prediction of doping limits in II-VI and I-III-VI2 compounds," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3192-3196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, T.

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, "Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission," Opt. Express. 16, 8896-8901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. B.

S. B. Zhang, S. Wei, and A. Zunger, "A phenomenological model for systematization and prediction of doping limits in II-VI and I-III-VI2 compounds," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3192-3196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zunger, A.

S. B. Zhang, S. Wei, and A. Zunger, "A phenomenological model for systematization and prediction of doping limits in II-VI and I-III-VI2 compounds," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3192-3196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. L. Wu, G. G. Siu, C. L. Fu, and H. C. Ong, "Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence studies of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 2285-2287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. B. Zhang, S. Wei, and A. Zunger, "A phenomenological model for systematization and prediction of doping limits in II-VI and I-III-VI2 compounds," J. Appl. Phys. 83, 3192-3196 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Studenikin and M. Cocivera, "Time-resolved luminescence and photoconductivity of polycrystalline ZnO films," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 5060-5065 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Postava, H. Sueki, M. Aoyama, T. Yamaguchi, Ch. Ino, Y. Igasaki, and M. Horie, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry of epitaxial ZnO layer on sapphire substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7820-7824 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys Chem B.

A. van Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, "The Kinetics of the Radiative and Nonradiative Porcesses in Nanocrystalline ZnO Particles upon Photoexcitation," J. Phys Chem B. 104, 1715-1723 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

M. Lee, T. G. Kim, W. Kim, and Y. Sung, "Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) electron and energy transfer in noble metal-zinc oxide composite nanocrystals," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 10079-10082 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Express.

P. Cheng, D. Li, and D. Yang, "Influence of substrates in ZnO devices on the surface plasmon enhanced light emission," Opt. Express. 16, 8896-8901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rep.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, "Electromagnetic Interactions of Molecules with Metal Surfaces," Phys. Rep. 113, 195-287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U.K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, "Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. B 60, 11564-11567 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Prog. Mater. Sci.

S. J. Pearton, D. P. Norton, K. Ip, Y. W. Heo, and T. Steiner, "Recent progress in processing and properties of ZnO," Prog. Mater. Sci. 50, 293-340 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

X. Li, S. E. Asher, B. M. Keyes, H. R. Moutinho, J. Luther, and T. J. Coutts, "p-type ZnO thin films grown by MOCVD," 7pp., NREL report No. CP-520-37378 (2005).

C. W. Lai, J. An, and H. C. Ong, "Surface-plasmon-mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 251105-1-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

\. P. Cheng D. Li, Z. Yuan, P. Chen, and D. Yang. "Enhancement of ZnO light emission via coupling with localized surface plasmon of Ag island film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041119-1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Neogi, C. Lee, H. O. Everitt, T. Kuroda, A. Tackeuchi, and E. Yablonovitch, "Enhancement of spontaneous recombination rate in a quantum well by resonant surface plasmon coupling," Phys. Rev. B 66, 153305-1-4 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Li and H.C. Ong, "Temperature dependence of surface plasmon mediated emission from metal-capped ZnO films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 121107-1-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SEM images for (a) 10nm Ag film, (b) 10nm Au film, (c) 30nm Ag film, (d) 30nm Au film, and (e) a schematic of the deposited films.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

ZnO photoluminescence for 70 nm ZnO thin films in contact (a) with 10 nm metal particulate films, and separated (b) by a 10 nm MgO spacer layer. (c) Ratio of Ag/ZnO visible emission to ZnO visible emission for metal thicknesses of 10 nm to 40 nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Average ratio of ZnO emission with metal to ZnO emission without metal for gold (a,b) and silver (c,d) and silver (c,d) as a function of MgO spacer thickness. Error bars are the standard deviation from three separate samples.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Band edge (a) and visible emission (b) enhancement as a function of insulating spacer thickness.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Dispersion relationship for SPPs in metal dielectric bilayers.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Fit parameters for data of Fig. 4(a) and 4(b)

Equations (1)

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Γ = 2 π ħ f H ̂ int g 2 ρ ( ħω )

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