Abstract

We simulate apertureless near-field optical imaging and obtain phase and amplitude scans of structured substrates for elastic scattering. The solution of the three-dimensional Maxwell equations does not involve approximations and we include large tips and substrates, strong interaction, interferometric detection and demodulation at higher harmonics. Such modeling represents a significant step towards quantitative simulations and offers the attractive possibility to study the individual influence of each relevant experimental parameter. We typically obtain highly localized signatures of the interaction of the tip with gold inclusions, superposed on a slowly varying background signal. The relative importance of both contributions and the achievable lateral resolution are strongly dependent on the geometry and scanning conditions. The simulations show sensitivity mostly to the first nanometers of the sample and underline the importance of scanning near the sample and being careful with mechanical anharmonicities on the tip oscillation. They also help to determine the influence of oscillation amplitude and demodulation harmonic.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  53. J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, R. Hillenbrand, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 1529–1545 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, K. Kern, “Direct Near-Field Optical Imaging of Higher Order Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vogelgesang, R. Esteban, K. Kern, “Beyond Lock-in Analysis for Volumetric Imaging in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, R. Hillenbrand, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Tip-Substrate Interaction in Optical Near Field Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Far-field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (8)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limit Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3, 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope with sub-10nm Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ma, J. M. Gerton, L. A. Wade, S. R. Quake, “Fluorescence Near-Field Microscopy of DNA at sub-10nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Simulation of Optical Near and Far Fields of Dielectric Apertureless Scanning Probes,” Nanotechnology 17, 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M. Adams, R. M. Osgood, C. C. Neacsu, M. B. Raschke, “Resonant-plasmon field enhancement from asymmetrically illuminated conical metallic-probe tips,” Opt. Express 14, 2921–2931 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, G. C. Walker, “Field Localization in Very Small Aperture Lasers Studied by Apertureless Near-Field Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6192–6197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Infrared Spectroscopic Mapping of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses at Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Anderson, P. Anger, A. Hartschuh, L. Novotny, “Subsurface Raman Imaging with Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 744–749 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 8893–8899 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-Scale Optical Imaging of Epitaxially Grown GaN and InN Islands Using Apertureless Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Optical Nonlinearity versus Mechanical Anharmonicity Contrast in Dynamic Mode Apertureless Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 163115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (6)

J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, D. Barchiesi, P. Royer, “Definition of a Simple Resolution Criterion in an Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (A-SNOM): Contribution of the Tip Vibration and Lock-in Detection,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 45–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Numerical Modeling of the Lock-in Detection,” Opt. Commun. 232, 15–23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, P. Royer, “Probing Photonic and Optoelectronic Structures by Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy.” Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441–452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Frazin, D. G. Fischer, P. S. Carney, “Information Content of the Near Field: Two-Dimensional Samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1050–1057 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Renger, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, V. Deckert, “Evanescent Wave Scattering and Local Electric Field Enhancement at Ellipsoidal Silver Particles in the Vicinity of a Glass Surface.” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1362–1367 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Ocelic, R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-Scale Tailoring of Surface Phonon Polaritons by Focused Ion-Beam Implantation,” Nat. Materials 3, 606–609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (9)

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Performance of Visible and Mid-Infrared Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopes,” J. Microsc. 210, 311–314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, “Optical Antennas: Resonators for Local Field Enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, H. P. Lu, “Finite Element Method Simulation of the Field Distribution for AFM Tip-Enhanced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scanning Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, T. López-Ríos, “Resonance Shift Effects in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sanchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-Resolution Near-Field Raman Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hell, “Toward fluorescence nanoscopy,” Nat. Biotech. 21, 1347–1355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, “Coherent Imaging of Nanoscale Plasmon Patterns with a Carbon Nanotube Optical Probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, “Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Tip-Sample Coupling in Elastic Light Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Stark, W. M. Heck, “Higher harmonics imaging in tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 74, 5111–5114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. Moreno, D. Erni, C. Hafner, R. Vahldieck, “Multiple Multipole Method with Automatic Multipole Setting Applied to the Simulation of Surface Plasmons in Metallic Nanostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 101–111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Krug, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Design of Near-Field Optical Probes with Optimal Field Enhancement by Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 10895–10901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Pure Optical Contrast in Scattering-Type Scanning Nearfield Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202, 77–83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Akhremitchev, S. Pollack, G. C. Walker, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscopy of a Rough Polymeric Surface,” Langmuir 17, 2774–2781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, M. Allegrini, “Artifact-Free Near-Field Optical Imaging by Apertureless Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Adam, J. L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, P. Royer, “Analysis of the Influence of the Tip Vibration in the Formation of Images in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, “Evanescent Wave Scattering by Aggregates of Clusters – Application to Optical Near-Field Microscopy,” App. Phys. B 70, 579–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Near-Field Probing of Vibrational Absorption for Chemical Microscopy,” Nature 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, H. Fuchs, “Material Contrast in Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy at 1-10 Nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 7977–7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Giessibl, “Forces and frequency shifts in atomic-resolution dynamic-force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 16010–16015 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Burnham, O. P. Behrend, F. Oulevey, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, D. Gourdon, E. Dupas, A. J. Kulik, H. M. Pollock, G. A. D. Briggs, “How does a tip tap?” Nanotechnology 8, 67–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “Exact Calculation of Maxwell Equations for a Tip-Metallic Interface Configuration:Application to Atomic Resolution by Photon Emission,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 3654–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Imaging with Reflection Near-Field Optical Microscope: Contributions of Middle and Far Fields,” Opt. Commun. 130, 337–347 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of Dielectric Contrast and Topography on the Near Field Scattered by an Inhomogenous Surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution,” Science 269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optial Spectroscopy of a Surface at the Nanometer Scale: A Theoretical Study in Real Space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical Stethoscopy: Image Recording with Resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P. M.

J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, D. Barchiesi, P. Royer, “Definition of a Simple Resolution Criterion in an Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (A-SNOM): Contribution of the Tip Vibration and Lock-in Detection,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 45–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Adam, J. L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, P. Royer, “Analysis of the Influence of the Tip Vibration in the Formation of Images in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adams, M. M.

Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, R. Hillenbrand, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, “Coherent Imaging of Nanoscale Plasmon Patterns with a Carbon Nanotube Optical Probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Akhremitchev, B. B.

B. B. Akhremitchev, S. Pollack, G. C. Walker, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscopy of a Rough Polymeric Surface,” Langmuir 17, 2774–2781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Allegrini, M.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, M. Allegrini, “Artifact-Free Near-Field Optical Imaging by Apertureless Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Osgood, R. M.

Oulevey, F.

N. A. Burnham, O. P. Behrend, F. Oulevey, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, D. Gourdon, E. Dupas, A. J. Kulik, H. M. Pollock, G. A. D. Briggs, “How does a tip tap?” Nanotechnology 8, 67–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Panoiu, N. C.

Patanè, S.

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, M. Allegrini, “Artifact-Free Near-Field Optical Imaging by Apertureless Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical Stethoscopy: Image Recording with Resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, S.

B. B. Akhremitchev, S. Pollack, G. C. Walker, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscopy of a Rough Polymeric Surface,” Langmuir 17, 2774–2781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pollock, H. M.

N. A. Burnham, O. P. Behrend, F. Oulevey, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, D. Gourdon, E. Dupas, A. J. Kulik, H. M. Pollock, G. A. D. Briggs, “How does a tip tap?” Nanotechnology 8, 67–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Porto, J. A.

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, T. López-Ríos, “Resonance Shift Effects in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Quake, S. R.

Z. Ma, J. M. Gerton, L. A. Wade, S. R. Quake, “Fluorescence Near-Field Microscopy of DNA at sub-10nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Quate, C. F.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, “Optical Antennas: Resonators for Local Field Enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quinten, M.

M. Quinten, “Evanescent Wave Scattering by Aggregates of Clusters – Application to Optical Near-Field Microscopy,” App. Phys. B 70, 579–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, M. B.

R. M. Roth, N. C. Panoiu, M. M. Adams, R. M. Osgood, C. C. Neacsu, M. B. Raschke, “Resonant-plasmon field enhancement from asymmetrically illuminated conical metallic-probe tips,” Opt. Express 14, 2921–2931 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, “Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Tip-Sample Coupling in Elastic Light Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

Rockstuhl, C.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, K. Kern, “Direct Near-Field Optical Imaging of Higher Order Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, R. M.

Royer, P.

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, P. Royer, “Probing Photonic and Optoelectronic Structures by Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy.” Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441–452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, D. Barchiesi, P. Royer, “Definition of a Simple Resolution Criterion in an Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (A-SNOM): Contribution of the Tip Vibration and Lock-in Detection,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 45–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Adam, J. L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, P. Royer, “Analysis of the Influence of the Tip Vibration in the Formation of Images in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limit Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3, 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, E. J.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sanchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-Resolution Near-Field Raman Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, E. J.

J. T. Krug, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Design of Near-Field Optical Probes with Optimal Field Enhancement by Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 10895–10901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlesinger, T. E.

Stark, R. W.

R. W. Stark, W. M. Heck, “Higher harmonics imaging in tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 74, 5111–5114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stashkevich, A.

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stebounova, L.

Studna, A. A.

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Suh, Y. D.

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, H. P. Lu, “Finite Element Method Simulation of the Field Distribution for AFM Tip-Enhanced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scanning Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Far-field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, “Optical Antennas: Resonators for Local Field Enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, D. S.

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, “Coherent Imaging of Nanoscale Plasmon Patterns with a Carbon Nanotube Optical Probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taubner, T.

J. Aizpurua, T. Taubner, F. J. García de Abajo, M. Brehm, R. Hillenbrand, “Substrate-enhanced infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16, 1529–1545 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Infrared Spectroscopic Mapping of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses at Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 13, 8893–8899 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Performance of Visible and Mid-Infrared Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopes,” J. Microsc. 210, 311–314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vahldieck, R.

Viardot, G.

P. M. Adam, J. L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, P. Royer, “Analysis of the Influence of the Tip Vibration in the Formation of Images in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, K. Kern, “Direct Near-Field Optical Imaging of Higher Order Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vogelgesang, R. Esteban, K. Kern, “Beyond Lock-in Analysis for Volumetric Imaging in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Tip-Substrate Interaction in Optical Near Field Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Simulation of Optical Near and Far Fields of Dielectric Apertureless Scanning Probes,” Nanotechnology 17, 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope with sub-10nm Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Optical Nonlinearity versus Mechanical Anharmonicity Contrast in Dynamic Mode Apertureless Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 163115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wade, L. A.

Z. Ma, J. M. Gerton, L. A. Wade, S. R. Quake, “Fluorescence Near-Field Microscopy of DNA at sub-10nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walford, J. N.

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. C.

L. Stebounova, F. Chen, J. Bain, T. E. Schlesinger, S. Ip, G. C. Walker, “Field Localization in Very Small Aperture Lasers Studied by Apertureless Near-Field Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6192–6197 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Akhremitchev, S. Pollack, G. C. Walker, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscopy of a Rough Polymeric Surface,” Langmuir 17, 2774–2781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution,” Science 269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Imaging with Reflection Near-Field Optical Microscope: Contributions of Middle and Far Fields,” Opt. Commun. 130, 337–347 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. S.

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sanchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-Resolution Near-Field Raman Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Krug, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Design of Near-Field Optical Probes with Optimal Field Enhancement by Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 10895–10901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Far-field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zenhausern, F.

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution,” Science 269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Far-field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limit Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3, 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

App. Phys. B (1)

M. Quinten, “Evanescent Wave Scattering by Aggregates of Clusters – Application to Optical Near-Field Microscopy,” App. Phys. B 70, 579–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, J. Aizpurua, “Coherent Imaging of Nanoscale Plasmon Patterns with a Carbon Nanotube Optical Probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 368–370 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Labardi, S. Patanè, M. Allegrini, “Artifact-Free Near-Field Optical Imaging by Apertureless Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 621–623 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Pohl, W. Denk, M. Lanz, “Optical Stethoscopy: Image Recording with Resolution λ/20,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 651–653 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, “Apertureless Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Tip-Sample Coupling in Elastic Light Scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 5089–5091 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Optical Nonlinearity versus Mechanical Anharmonicity Contrast in Dynamic Mode Apertureless Scanning Nearfield Optical Microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 163115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. L. Bijeon, P. M. Adam, D. Barchiesi, P. Royer, “Definition of a Simple Resolution Criterion in an Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (A-SNOM): Contribution of the Tip Vibration and Lock-in Detection,” Eur. Phys. J. Appl. Phys. 26, 45–52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, C. F. Quate, “Optical Antennas: Resonators for Local Field Enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 4632–4642 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Walford, J. A. Porto, R. Carminati, J.-J. Greffet, P. M. Adam, S. Hudlet, J.-L. Bijeon, A. Stashkevich, P. Royer, “Influence of Tip Modulation on Image Formation in Scanning Near-Field optical Microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 5159–5169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. T. Krug, E. J. Sánchez, X. S. Xie, “Design of Near-Field Optical Probes with Optimal Field Enhancement by Finite Difference Time Domain Electromagnetic Simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 116, 10895–10901 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (3)

R. Hillenbrand, B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Pure Optical Contrast in Scattering-Type Scanning Nearfield Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 202, 77–83 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Performance of Visible and Mid-Infrared Scattering-Type Near-Field Optical Microscopes,” J. Microsc. 210, 311–314 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Vogelgesang, R. Esteban, K. Kern, “Beyond Lock-in Analysis for Volumetric Imaging in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 365–370 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

M. Micic, N. Klymyshyn, Y. D. Suh, H. P. Lu, “Finite Element Method Simulation of the Field Distribution for AFM Tip-Enhanced Surface-Enhanced Raman Scanning Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 1574–1584 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. H. Kim, B. Liu, S. R. Leone, “Nanometer-Scale Optical Imaging of Epitaxially Grown GaN and InN Islands Using Apertureless Near-Field Microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 8503–8508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

B. B. Akhremitchev, S. Pollack, G. C. Walker, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscopy of a Rough Polymeric Surface,” Langmuir 17, 2774–2781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Res. Tech. (1)

R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Blaize, S. Aubert, A. Bruyant, P. Royer, “Probing Photonic and Optoelectronic Structures by Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy.” Microsc. Res. Tech. 64, 441–452 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett (1)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, J. Dorfmüller, A. Dmitriev, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, K. Kern, “Direct Near-Field Optical Imaging of Higher Order Plasmonic Resonances,” Nano Lett 8, 3155–3159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Brehm, T. Taubner, R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Infrared Spectroscopic Mapping of Single Nanoparticles and Viruses at Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 1307–1310 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Anderson, P. Anger, A. Hartschuh, L. Novotny, “Subsurface Raman Imaging with Nanoscale Resolution,” Nano Lett. 6, 744–749 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

N. A. Burnham, O. P. Behrend, F. Oulevey, G. Gremaud, P.-J. Gallo, D. Gourdon, E. Dupas, A. J. Kulik, H. M. Pollock, G. A. D. Briggs, “How does a tip tap?” Nanotechnology 8, 67–75 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Simulation of Optical Near and Far Fields of Dielectric Apertureless Scanning Probes,” Nanotechnology 17, 475–482 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotech. (1)

S. Hell, “Toward fluorescence nanoscopy,” Nat. Biotech. 21, 1347–1355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Materials (1)

N. Ocelic, R. Hillenbrand, “Subwavelength-Scale Tailoring of Surface Phonon Polaritons by Focused Ion-Beam Implantation,” Nat. Materials 3, 606–609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, X. Zhuang, “Sub-Diffraction-Limit Imaging by Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3, 793–795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

B. Knoll, F. Keilmann, “Near-Field Probing of Vibrational Absorption for Chemical Microscopy,” Nature 399, 134–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

P. M. Adam, J. L. Bijeon, G. Viardot, P. Royer, “Analysis of the Influence of the Tip Vibration in the Formation of Images in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 174, 91–98 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Xiao, S. Bozhevolnyi, “Imaging with Reflection Near-Field Optical Microscope: Contributions of Middle and Far Fields,” Opt. Commun. 130, 337–347 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fikri, T. Grosges, D. Barchiesi, “Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy: Numerical Modeling of the Lock-in Detection,” Opt. Commun. 232, 15–23 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (8)

R. Esteban, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Tip-Substrate Interaction in Optical Near Field Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 75, 195410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Porto, P. Johansson, S. P. Apell, T. López-Ríos, “Resonance Shift Effects in Apertureless Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67, 085409 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Koglin, U. C. Fischer, H. Fuchs, “Material Contrast in Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy at 1-10 Nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 7977–7984 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Madrazo, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, N. García, “Exact Calculation of Maxwell Equations for a Tip-Metallic Interface Configuration:Application to Atomic Resolution by Photon Emission,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 3654–3657 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical Constants of the Noble Metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, A. A. Studna, “Dielectric Functions and Optical Parameters of Si, Ge, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, and InSb from 1.5 to 6.0 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 985–1009 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, “Optial Spectroscopy of a Surface at the Nanometer Scale: A Theoretical Study in Real Space,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 11344–11351 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Giessibl, “Forces and frequency shifts in atomic-resolution dynamic-force microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 16010–16015 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Hillenbrand, F. Keilmann, “Complex Optical Constants on a Subwavelength Scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Ma, J. M. Gerton, L. A. Wade, S. R. Quake, “Fluorescence Near-Field Microscopy of DNA at sub-10nm Resolution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 260801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, E. J. Sanchez, X. S. Xie, L. Novotny, “High-Resolution Near-Field Raman Microscopy of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 095503 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Inst. (1)

R. W. Stark, W. M. Heck, “Higher harmonics imaging in tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Inst. 74, 5111–5114 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, “Apertureless Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope with sub-10nm Resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, X. Zhang, “Far-field Optical Hyperlens Magnifying Sub-Diffraction-Limited Objects,” Science 315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zenhausern, Y. Martin, H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scanning Interferometric Apertureless Microscopy: Optical Imaging at 10 Angstrom Resolution,” Science 269, 1083–1085 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. Esteban, “Apertureless SNOM : Realistic Modeling of the Imaging Process and Measurements of Resonant Plasmonic Nanostructures.” Ph.D. thesis, EPFL (2007).

C. Hafner, Post-modern Electromagnetics: Using Intelligent MaXwell Solvers (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, 1999).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the geometry used. The illumination is modeled as a planar wave, and for collection an aplanatic lens situated at 1mm distance is considered. A reference beam is used for amplified, interferometric detection. The upper point of the glass substrate serves as the origin of the coordinate system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Example of the field distribution of the average scattered electric field in the proximity of the tip apex, for 500nm long tip and d (ts) = d (i) = 1nm. The colors indicate values between 0 and 15, where the excitation field strength is 1. The insert indicates the normalized value of the near field maximum in the proximity of the apex (continuous blue) and the normalized amplitude of the interferometric term of the signal before demodulation (dashed red), for 1nm distance to the substrate. (b,c) Examples of the obtained amplitude (b) and phase (c) for one-dimensional scans of the samples, for the first (circles), second (dashed) and third (continuous) harmonics, the geometry described in (a), dmin = 1nm and A = 10nm. For better visibility, the first harmonic amplitude is scaled by 1/5.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Amplitude of the signal for one-dimensional scans of the sample when a small spherical tip is considered, for the first (circles), second (dashed) and third (continuous) harmonics. d(i) = 1nm, dmin = 1nm and A = 10nm. The radius of the spherical tip is 10nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Influence of the depth of the inclusion, for the third harmonic, on the amplitude of the signal for 1-dimensional scans. 500nm long tip, oscillation amplitude 10nm and dmin = 1nm are considered.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Influence of the oscillation amplitude on the obtained signal amplitude for the second (a) and third (b) harmonics using 500nm long tips. d (i) = 1nm and dmin = 1nm. The insert in (b) shows the influence of the oscillation amplitude on the FWHM of the central maximum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Influence of dmin on the signal amplitude for 1-dimensional scans using 500nm long tips at the second (a) and third (b) harmonics. d (i) = 1nm and the oscillation amplitude is 10nm. The insert in (a) shows the dependence of the signal on dmin for x = 0 and x = −25nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Influence on 1-dimensional scans of the presence of anharmonicities (described by b) in the movement of a 500nm long tip. The traces correspond to the amplitude of the third harmonic signal, for d (i) = 1nm, dmin = 1nm and 10nm oscillation amplitude.

Equations (1)

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H n e i ϕ li 2 T 0 T e in Ω t S det * ( r , x , d ( ts ) ( t ) ) d 2 rdt

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