Abstract

With two-photon absorption induced polymerization arbitrary three dimensional nano- and microstructures can be patterned directly into photoresists. We report on the fabrication of a low threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser using the technique of two-photon absorption induced polymerization. A surface grating with 400 nm periodicity and 40 nm height modulation was fabricated by two-photon absorption induced polymerization in the organic-inorganic hybrid material ORMOCER®. With structuring several stacked layers acting as a planar basis for the nanostructure microscopic substrate tilt can be compensated simply. This enabled us to uniformly nano-structure the surface grating over an area of 200×200 μm2.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. G¨artner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm and U. Lemmer, "Numerical Device Simulation of Double-Heterostructure Organic Laser Diodes Including Current-Induced Absorption Processes," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 43, 1006-1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, "Layer-by-layer three-dimensional chiral photonic crystals," Opt.Lett. 32, 2547-2549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ovsianikov, A. Doraiswamy, R. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization for fabrication ofbiomedical devices," Proc. SPIE 6465, 64650O (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, M. S. ler, and A. Kristensen, "Combined nano-imprint and photolithography (CNP) of integrated polymer optics," Proc. SPIE 6462, 64620O (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. Krauss, G. Turnbull, and I. Samuel, "Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend," Opt. Express 14, 9211-9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Houbertz, "Laser interaction in sol-gel based materials-3-D lithography for photonic applications," Appl. Surf.Sci. 247, 504-512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, H. Miki, and S. Mashiko, "Two-photon-induced polymerization in a laser gain medium for optical microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3221-3223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl.Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. A. Albota, C. Xu, and W. W. Webb, "Two-Photon Fluorescence Excitation Cross Sections of Biomolecular Probes from 690 to 960 nm," Appl. Opt. 37, 7352-7356 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

A. Mukherjee, "Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423-3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M. A.

Baldacchini, T.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, S.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bayindir, Z.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bilenberg, B.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruendel, M.

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, P. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Doraiswamy, R. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization for fabrication ofbiomedical devices," Proc. SPIE 6465, 64650O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

M. B. Christiansen, M. S. ler, and A. Kristensen, "Combined nano-imprint and photolithography (CNP) of integrated polymer optics," Proc. SPIE 6462, 64620O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Domann, G.

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doraiswamy, A.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Doraiswamy, R. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization for fabrication ofbiomedical devices," Proc. SPIE 6465, 64650O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebenhoch, B.

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fourkas, J. T.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fr¨ohlich, L.

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G¨artner, C.

C. G¨artner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm and U. Lemmer, "Numerical Device Simulation of Double-Heterostructure Organic Laser Diodes Including Current-Induced Absorption Processes," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 43, 1006-1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geschke, O.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Geyer, U.

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M. P.

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henzi, P.

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houbertz, R.

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Houbertz, "Laser interaction in sol-gel based materials-3-D lithography for photonic applications," Appl. Surf.Sci. 247, 504-512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jakopic, G.

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, H. H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jorgensen, A. M.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G¨artner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm and U. Lemmer, "Numerical Device Simulation of Double-Heterostructure Organic Laser Diodes Including Current-Induced Absorption Processes," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 43, 1006-1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl.Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Maruo, O. Nakamura, and S. Kawata, "Three-dimensional microfabrication with two-photon-absorbed photopolymerization,"Opt. Lett. 22, 132-134 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khalfin, V. B.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.-S.

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

Kristensen, A.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuna, L.

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kutter, J. P.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

LaFratta, C. N.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-S.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G¨artner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm and U. Lemmer, "Numerical Device Simulation of Double-Heterostructure Organic Laser Diodes Including Current-Induced Absorption Processes," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 43, 1006-1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maruo, S.

Mashiko, S.

S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, H. Miki, and S. Mashiko, "Two-photon-induced polymerization in a laser gain medium for optical microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3221-3223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miki, H.

S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, H. Miki, and S. Mashiko, "Two-photon-induced polymerization in a laser gain medium for optical microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3221-3223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mogensen, K. B.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Mozer, S.

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukherjee, A.

A. Mukherjee, "Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423-3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakahama, T.

S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, H. Miki, and S. Mashiko, "Two-photon-induced polymerization in a laser gain medium for optical microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3221-3223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, O.

Narayan, R.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Doraiswamy, R. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization for fabrication ofbiomedical devices," Proc. SPIE 6465, 64650O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, M. J.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nehls, B.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, D.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

O’ Faolain, L.

Olsowski, B.

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ovsianikov, A.

A. Ovsianikov, A. Doraiswamy, R. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization for fabrication ofbiomedical devices," Proc. SPIE 6465, 64650O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parthasarathy, G.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pflumm, C.

C. G¨artner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm and U. Lemmer, "Numerical Device Simulation of Double-Heterostructure Organic Laser Diodes Including Current-Induced Absorption Processes," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 43, 1006-1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Punke, M.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabus, D. G.

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ribierre, J.

Riedl, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saleh, B. E. A.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I.

Samuel, I. D. W.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Satzinger, V.

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, V.

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, J.

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Snakenborg, D.

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, J.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stroisch, M.

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl.Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takada, K.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl.Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, "Layer-by-layer three-dimensional chiral photonic crystals," Opt.Lett. 32, 2547-2549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. E.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsiminis, G.

Turnbull, G.

Turnbull, G. A.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vasdekis, A.

von Freymann, G.

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, "Layer-by-layer three-dimensional chiral photonic crystals," Opt.Lett. 32, 2547-2549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

Wegener, M.

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, "Layer-by-layer three-dimensional chiral photonic crystals," Opt.Lett. 32, 2547-2549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weimann, T.

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, T.

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yokoyama, S.

S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, H. Miki, and S. Mashiko, "Two-photon-induced polymerization in a laser gain medium for optical microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3221-3223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell and U. Scherf, "Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, M.-S. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and S. Kawata, "Scaling laws of voxels in two-photon photopolymerization nanofabrication," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 1104-1106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Houbertz, G. Domann, J. Schulz, B. Olsowski, L. Fr¨ohlich, and W.-S. Kim, "Impact of photoinitiators onthe photopolymerization and the optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1105-1107 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yokoyama, T. Nakahama, H. Miki, and S. Mashiko, "Two-photon-induced polymerization in a laser gain medium for optical microstructure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3221-3223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Mukherjee, "Two-photon pumped upconverted lasing in dye doped polymer waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 3423-3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, "Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf.Sci.

R. Houbertz, "Laser interaction in sol-gel based materials-3-D lithography for photonic applications," Appl. Surf.Sci. 247, 504-512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl.Phys. Lett.

H.-B. Sun, K. Takada, and S. Kawata, "Elastic force analysis of functional polymer submicron oscillators," Appl.Phys. Lett. 79, 3173-3175 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quant. Electron.

C. G¨artner, C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm and U. Lemmer, "Numerical Device Simulation of Double-Heterostructure Organic Laser Diodes Including Current-Induced Absorption Processes," IEEE J. Quant. Electron. 43, 1006-1017 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Punke, S. Mozer, M. Stroisch, M. P. Heinrich, U. Lemmer, P. Henzi, and D. G. Rabus, "Coupling of OrganicSemiconductor Amplified Spontaneous Emission Into Polymeric Single-Mode Waveguides Patterned by Deep-UV Irradiation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 61-63 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, M. Stroisch, M. Punke, U. Lemmer, J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Laser Diode-Pumped Organic Semiconductor Lasers Utilizing Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Resonators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 741-743 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. G. Kozlov, V. Bulovic, P. E. Burrows, M. Baldo, V. B. Khalfin, G. Parthasarathy, S. R. Forrest, Y. You, and M. E. Thompson, "Study of lasing action based on F¨orster energy transfer in optically pumped organic semiconductor thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 84, 4096-4108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt.Lett.

M. Thiel, G. von Freymann, and M. Wegener, "Layer-by-layer three-dimensional chiral photonic crystals," Opt.Lett. 32, 2547-2549 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

A. Ovsianikov, A. Doraiswamy, R. Narayan, and B. N. Chichkov, "Two-photon polymerization for fabrication ofbiomedical devices," Proc. SPIE 6465, 64650O (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Schmidt, L. Kuna, V. Satzinger, R. Houbertz, G. Jakopic, and G. Leising, "Application of two-photon 3Dlithography for the fabrication of embedded ORMOCER waveguides," Proc. SPIE 6476, 64760P (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Balslev, B. Bilenberg, D. Nilsson, A. M. Jorgensen, A. Kristensen, O. Geschke, J. P. Kutter, K. B. Mogensen,and D. Snakenborg, "Fully integrated optical systems for lab-on-a-chip applications," Proc. SPIE 5730, 211-217(2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Punke, T. Woggon, M. Stroisch, B. Ebenhoch, U. Geyer, C. Karnutsch, M. Gerken, U. Lemmer, M. Bruendel,J. Wang, and T. Weimann, "Organic semiconductor lasers as integrated light sources for optical sensor systems," Proc. SPIE 6659, 665909 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, M. S. ler, and A. Kristensen, "Combined nano-imprint and photolithography (CNP) of integrated polymer optics," Proc. SPIE 6462, 64620O (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Klein, A. Barsella, V. Stortz, A. Fort, and K. D. Dorkenoo, "Colloid-based photonic crystal for organic lasers and two-photon induced polymerization for tunable DFB lasers," in Conf. on Lasers & Electro-Optics (CLEO), vol. 1-3, pp. 311-313 (Optical Society of America, 2005).

micro resist technology GmbH. http://www.microresist.de.

Nanoscribe GbR. http://www.nanoscribe.de.

Z. Bayindir, Y. Sun, M. J. Naughton, C. N. LaFratta, T. Baldacchini, J. T. Fourkas, J. Stewart, B. E. A. Saleh,and M. C. Teich, "Polymer microcantilevers fabricated via multiphoton absorption polymerization," Appl. Phys.Lett. 86, 064105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the experimental setup TPA induced polymerization. The average pulse energy is measured online using a beam sampler (BS) and a photodiode. The desired exposure dosage is controlled with a gradient neutral density filter (GF) combined with a mechanical shutter.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Resulting layer structure after the vapor deposition of the active material. The Alq3:DCM (n = 1.76) layer on the Ormocomp (n = 1.5) forms a slab waveguide. The depicted tilt angle is exaggerated for clarification. Inset: By letting the voxels overlap each other the grating periodicity g can be smaller than the voxel diameter d.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Determination of the position of the interface between the glass cover slip and the Ormocomp layer. The focal volume of the laser beam was moved vertically along the z-axis. When the focal volume entered the Ormocomp layer fluorescence light emitted by the Ormocomp was observed. At the glass/Ormocomp interface the fluorescence signal disappears.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Atomic force microscope measurement of the resonator structure. The period of the surface grating is 400 nm. The grating depth is about 40 nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Experimental setup for the optical characterization of the fabricated DFB laser sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Emission spectra of the DFB laser taken at excitation energies above and beneath the lasing threshold

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Characteristic threshold behavior of the DFB laser. The threshold energy density is about 175 μJ/cm2.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Polarization dependent intensity of the DFB laser sample showing a high degree of polarization.

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