Abstract

A special class of tunable liquid microlenses is presented here. The microlenses are generated by an electrowetting effect under an electrode-less configuration and they exhibit two different regimes that are named here as separated lens regime (SLR) and wave-like lens regime (WLR). The lens effect is induced by the pyroelectricity of polar dielectric crystals, as was proved in principle in a previous work by the same authors (S. Grilli et al., Opt. Express 16, 8084, 2008). Compared to that work, the improvements to the experimental set-up and procedure allow to reveal the two lens regimes which exhibit different optical properties. A digital holography technique is used to reconstruct the transmitted wavefront during focusing and a focal length variation in the millimetre range is observed. The tunability of such microlenses could be of great interest to the field of micro-optics thanks to the possibility to achieve focus tuning without moving parts and thus favouring the miniaturization of the optical systems.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (7)

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, "Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu and S. Chen, "Direct write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, L Miccio, and P. Ferraro, "In situ investigation of periodic poling in congruent LiNbO3 by quantitative interference microscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid microlens array using dielectrophoretic effect," Opt. Express 16, 2646-2652 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Huang, T. C. Huang, Y. T. Sun, and S. Y. Yang, "Fabrication of large area resin microlens arrays using gas-assisted ultraviolet embossing," Opt. Express 16, 3041-3048 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, "Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates," Opt. Express 16, 8084-8093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

C. C. Cheng and J. A. Yeh, "Dielectrically actuated liquid lens," Opt. Express 15, 7140-7145 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, "Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens," Lab. Chip 7, 1303-1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, N. Smith, and J. Heikenfeld, "Electrowetting Modulation of Any Flat Optical Film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Pikulin N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bauerle, "Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

J. L. Lin, G. B. Lee, Y. H. Chang, and K. Y. Lien, "Model Description of Contact Angles in Electrowetting on Dielectric Layers," Langmuir 22, 484-489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, "A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system," J. Opt. A 8, S330-S336 (2006)

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. David, J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, "Adaptive liquid mcrolenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels," Nature 442, 551-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Cheng, C. A. Chang, and J. A. Yeh, "Variable focus dielectric liquid droplet lens," Opt. Express 14, 4101-4106 (2006)
[CrossRef]

N. Smith, D. Abeysinghe, J. Heikenfeld, and J. W. Haus, Agile, "Wide-Angle Beam Steering with Electrowetting Microprisms," Opt. Express 14, 6557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, D. Fox, P. A. Anderson, B. Wu, and S. T. Wu, "Tunable-focus liquid lens controlled using a servo motor," Opt. Express 14, 8031-8036 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Bourim C. W. Moon, S. W. Lee, V. Sidorkin, and I. K. Yoo, "Pyroelectric electron emission from -Z face polar surface of lithium niobate monodomain single crystal," J. Electroceram 17, 479-485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

W. H. Hsieh and J. H. Chen, "Lens-Profile Control by Electrowetting Fabrication Technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 606-608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (1)

2000 (2)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, "Variable focal length microlenses," Opt. Commun. 17, 157-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Abeysinghe, D.

Anderson, P. A.

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chan, M. L.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. A.

Chang, Y. H.

J. L. Lin, G. B. Lee, Y. H. Chang, and K. Y. Lien, "Model Description of Contact Angles in Electrowetting on Dielectric Layers," Langmuir 22, 484-489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.

W. H. Hsieh and J. H. Chen, "Lens-Profile Control by Electrowetting Fabrication Technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 606-608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Lu and S. Chen, "Direct write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. C.

Cheng, C. M.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, W.

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, D. T.

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, "Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chronis, N.

Commander, L. G.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, "Variable focal length microlenses," Opt. Commun. 17, 157-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Day, S. E.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, "Variable focal length microlenses," Opt. Commun. 17, 157-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Nicola, S.

Dharmatilleke, S.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. David, J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, "Adaptive liquid mcrolenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels," Nature 442, 551-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. H.

Ferraro, P.

S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, "Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates," Opt. Express 16, 8084-8093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, L Miccio, and P. Ferraro, "In situ investigation of periodic poling in congruent LiNbO3 by quantitative interference microscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Finizio, A.

Fox, D.

Grilli, S.

S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, L Miccio, and P. Ferraro, "In situ investigation of periodic poling in congruent LiNbO3 by quantitative interference microscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Grilli, L. Miccio, V. Vespini, A. Finizio, S. De Nicola, and P. Ferraro, "Liquid micro-lens array activated by selective electrowetting on lithium niobate substrates," Opt. Express 16, 8084-8093 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haus, J. W.

Heikenfeld, J.

L. Hou, N. Smith, and J. Heikenfeld, "Electrowetting Modulation of Any Flat Optical Film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Smith, D. Abeysinghe, J. Heikenfeld, and J. W. Haus, Agile, "Wide-Angle Beam Steering with Electrowetting Microprisms," Opt. Express 14, 6557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hendriks, B. H. W.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable- focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, M. S.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, L.

L. Hou, N. Smith, and J. Heikenfeld, "Electrowetting Modulation of Any Flat Optical Film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W. H.

W. H. Hsieh and J. H. Chen, "Lens-Profile Control by Electrowetting Fabrication Technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 606-608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, P. H.

Huang, T. C.

Huang, T. J.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, "Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens," Lab. Chip 7, 1303-1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, G. D. M.

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, "Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, K. H.

Juluri, B. K.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, "Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens," Lab. Chip 7, 1303-1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Justis, N.

Khaw, A. H.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. R.

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. H.

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krogmann, F.

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, "A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system," J. Opt. A 8, S330-S336 (2006)

Kuiper, S.

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable- focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lao, Y.

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

LeDuc, P. R.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, G. B.

J. L. Lin, G. B. Lee, Y. H. Chang, and K. Y. Lien, "Model Description of Contact Angles in Electrowetting on Dielectric Layers," Langmuir 22, 484-489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

Lee, Y. M.

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lien, K. Y.

J. L. Lin, G. B. Lee, Y. H. Chang, and K. Y. Lien, "Model Description of Contact Angles in Electrowetting on Dielectric Layers," Langmuir 22, 484-489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. L.

J. L. Lin, G. B. Lee, Y. H. Chang, and K. Y. Lien, "Model Description of Contact Angles in Electrowetting on Dielectric Layers," Langmuir 22, 484-489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. L.

Lo, Y. H.

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu and S. Chen, "Direct write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mao, X.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, "Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens," Lab. Chip 7, 1303-1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L

S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, L Miccio, and P. Ferraro, "In situ investigation of periodic poling in congruent LiNbO3 by quantitative interference microscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miccio, L.

Milne, G.

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, "Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moench, W.

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A 6, 330-337 (2004).

Monch, W.

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, "A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system," J. Opt. A 8, S330-S336 (2006)

Moran, P. M.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paturzo, M.

S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, L Miccio, and P. Ferraro, "In situ investigation of periodic poling in congruent LiNbO3 by quantitative interference microscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

Rodriguez, I.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D. R.

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, "Variable focal length microlenses," Opt. Commun. 17, 157-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N.

L. Hou, N. Smith, and J. Heikenfeld, "Electrowetting Modulation of Any Flat Optical Film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Smith, D. Abeysinghe, J. Heikenfeld, and J. W. Haus, Agile, "Wide-Angle Beam Steering with Electrowetting Microprisms," Opt. Express 14, 6557 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, C. C.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. T.

Tan, K. W.

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vespini, V.

Waldeisen, J. R.

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, "Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens," Lab. Chip 7, 1303-1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

Wu, S. T.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. Y.

Yeh, J. A.

Zappe, H.

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, "A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system," J. Opt. A 8, S330-S336 (2006)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A 6, 330-337 (2004).

Zhang, D. Y.

Zhou, K.

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

A. Pikulin N. Bityurin, G. Langer, D. Brodoceanu, and D. Bauerle, "Hexagonal structures on metal-coated two-dimensional microlens arrays," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91,191106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Sun, K. Zhou, Y. Lao, W. Cheng, and J. Heikenfeld, "Scalable Fabrication of Electrowetting Pixel Arrays with Self-Assembled Oil Dosing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 011106 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, "Variable- focus liquid lens for miniature cameras," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1128-1130 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Milne, G. D. M. Jeffries, and D. T. Chiu, "Tunable generation of Bessel beams with a fluidic axicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Huang, C. M. Cheng, L. Wang, B. Wang, C. C. Su, M. S. Ho, P. R. LeDuc, and Q. Lin, "Thermally tunable polymer microlenses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,251904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu and S. Chen, "Direct write of microlens array using digital projection photopolymerization," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 041109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Choi, H. R. Kim, K. H. Lee, Y. M. Lee, and J. H. Kim, "A liquid crystalline polymer microlens array with tunable focal intensity by the polarization control of a liquid crystal layer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 221113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Moran, S. Dharmatilleke, A. H. Khaw, K. W. Tan, M. L. Chan, and I. Rodriguez, "Fluidic lenses with variable focal length," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 041120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Hou, N. Smith, and J. Heikenfeld, "Electrowetting Modulation of Any Flat Optical Film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 251114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, "First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an external field for efficient blue second-harmonic generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435-436 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, "Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting," Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 159-163 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. H. Hsieh and J. H. Chen, "Lens-Profile Control by Electrowetting Fabrication Technique," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 606-608 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Electroceram (1)

E. M. Bourim C. W. Moon, S. W. Lee, V. Sidorkin, and I. K. Yoo, "Pyroelectric electron emission from -Z face polar surface of lithium niobate monodomain single crystal," J. Electroceram 17, 479-485 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (2)

F. Krogmann, W. Monch, and H. Zappe, "A MEMS-based variable micro-lens system," J. Opt. A 8, S330-S336 (2006)

W. Moench and H. Zappe, "Fabrication and testing of micro-lens arrays by all-liquid techniques," J. Opt. A 6, 330-337 (2004).

Lab. Chip (1)

X. Mao, J. R. Waldeisen, B. K. Juluri, and T. J. Huang, "Hydrodynamically tunable optofluidic cylindrical microlens," Lab. Chip 7, 1303-1308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (1)

J. L. Lin, G. B. Lee, Y. H. Chang, and K. Y. Lien, "Model Description of Contact Angles in Electrowetting on Dielectric Layers," Langmuir 22, 484-489 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. Grilli, M. Paturzo, L Miccio, and P. Ferraro, "In situ investigation of periodic poling in congruent LiNbO3 by quantitative interference microscopy," Meas. Sci. Technol. 19, 074008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Dong, A. K. Agarwal, D. J. David, J. Beebe, and H. Jiang, "Adaptive liquid mcrolenses activated by stimuli-responsive hydrogels," Nature 442, 551-554 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

L. G. Commander, S. E. Day, and D. R. Selviah, "Variable focal length microlenses," Opt. Commun. 17, 157-170 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (9)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (1)

P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, and G. Coppola, "Digital holography: recent advancements and prospective improvements for applications in microscopy," in Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications, vol. 2 of Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications series B. Javidi ed., (Springer, 2005), pp. 47-84.

Supplementary Material (5)

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» Media 5: MOV (1599 KB)     

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