Abstract

We fabricated an elliptical hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (EC-PBGF) by controlling lateral tension in the hollow core region during the fiber drawing process. The absolute value of group modal birefringence becomes relatively high near the bandgap boundaries. We also experimentally measured the strain and temperature sensitivities of the fabricated EC-PBGF-based Sagnac loop interferometer. The strain and temperature sensitivities were very much dependent upon the wavelength. Moreover this PBGF-based interferometer can be a good sensor of physical parameters such as strain and temperature.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, " Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.
  6. M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Poletti, N.G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and T. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9115-9124 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9115.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Commun. 255, 175-183 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

T. Y. Cho, G. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. B. Lee, and J. -M. Jeong, "Study on the fabrication process of polarization maintaining photonic crystal fibers and their optical properties," J. Opt. Soc. Korea 12, 19-24 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2005

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Poletti, N.G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and T. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9115-9124 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9115.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Commun. 255, 175-183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4490.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, " Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alam, M. S.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allan, D. C.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amezcua-Correa, R.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkin, D. M.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7329.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

Broderick, N. G. R.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broderick, N.G. R.

Broeng, J.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.

Cho, T.

Cho, T. Y.

Couny, F.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farr, L.

Gerome, F.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisin, N.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golojuch, G.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, K.

Jakobsen, C.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, J. -M.

Kang, J. U.

Kim, D.-H.

Kim, G.

Kim, G. H.

Knight, J. C.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7329.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J.C.

Koch, K. W.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshiba, M.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, " Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

Lee, K. S.

Lee, S. B.

Legre, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

Makara, M.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mangan, B. J.

Martynkien, T.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Commun. 255, 175-183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mergo, P.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olszewski, J.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poletti, F.

Richardson, D. J.

Roberts, P. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7329.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7329.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P.St. J.

Sabert, H.

Saitoh, K.

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, " Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, T. J.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. M.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Statkiewicz, G.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Commun. 255, 175-183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szpulak, M.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Commun. 255, 175-183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegmuller, M.

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, J. A.

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. P.

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7329.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojcik, J.

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

T. Nasilowski, T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Golojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, "Temperature and pressure sensitivities of the highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 325 - 331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. A. Birks, P. J. Roberts, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, and T. J. Shepherd, "Full 2-D photonic bandgaps in silica/air structures," Electron. Lett. 31, 1941-1943 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, " Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 14. 1291-1293 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Korea

Nature

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibers," Nature 424, 847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt Express

J. A. West, C. M. Smith, N. F. Borrelli, D. C. Allan, and K. W. Koch, "Surface modes in air-core photonic band-gap fibers," Opt Express 12, 1485-1496 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-8-1485.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, B. J. Mangan, H. Sabert, F. Couny, W. J. Wadsworth, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, "Realizing low loss air core photonic crystal fibers by exploiting an anti-resonant core surround," Opt Express 13, 8277-8285 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-20-8277.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Amezcua-Correa, F. Gerome, S. G. Leon-Saval, N. G. R. Broderick, T. A. Birks, and J. C. Knight "Control of surface modes in low loss hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt Express 16, 1142-1149 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-1142.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wegmuller, M. Legre, N. Gisin, T. P. Hansen, C. Jakobsen, and J. Broeng, "Experimental investigation of the polarization properties of a hollow core photonic bandgap fiber for 1550nm," Opt Express 13, 1457-1467 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1457.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, "Measurements of birefringence and its sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and elongation in photonic bandgap hollow core fiber with residual core ellipticity," Opt. Commun. 255, 175-183 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

F. Poletti, N.G. R. Broderick, D. J. Richardson, and T. Monro, "The effect of core asymmetries on the polarization properties of hollow core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 9115-9124 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-22-9115.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, H. Sabert, B. J. Mangan, D. M. Bird, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight and P. St. J. Russell, "Design of low-loss and highly birefringent hollow-core photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 14, 7329-7341 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-16-7329.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bouwmans, F. Luan, J.C. Knight, P.St. J. Russell, L. Farr, B. J. Mangan, and H. Sabert, "Properties of a hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 850nm wavelength," Opt. Express 11, 1613-1620 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-14-1613.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Ming-Jun. Li, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, W. A. Wood, A. M. Crowley, J. P. Carberry, L. A. Zenteno, and K.W. Koch, "Highly birefringent hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber," Opt. Express 30, 3888-3893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3888.

D.-H. Kim and J. U. Kang, "Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity," Opt. Express 12, 4490-4495 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4490.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Kim, T. Cho, K. Hwang, K. Lee, K. S. Lee, and S. B. Lee, "Control of hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber ellipticity by induced lateral tension," Opt. Express 17, 1268-1273 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1268.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett

M. S. Alam, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, "High group birefringence in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Lett 30, 824-826 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-8-824.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

B. J. Mangan, J. K. Lyngso, and P. J. Roberts, "Realization of low loss and polarization maintaining hollow core photonic crystal fibers", in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper JFG4, http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=QELS-2008-JFG4.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme for the fabrication technique of the EC-PBGF; the second out-jacketed cane placed at an off-center position in the furnace

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM image of the fabricated EC-PBGF

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission spectrum of the fabricated EC-PBGF.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Transmission spectrum of the EC-PBGF-based Sagnac interferometer with a length of 50 cm and (b) the calculated group modal birefringence as a function of wavelength from the transmission spectrum.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Transmission spectra of the EC-PBGF-based Sagnac interferometer with the applied strain change and (b) wavelength shift of transmission peak versus strains.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Transmission spectra of the EC-PBGF-based Sagnac interferometer with the applied temperature change and (b) wavelength shift of transmission peak as a function of applied temperature.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ N = λ 2 Δ λ · L
Δ ϕ = 2 πBL λ , Δ N = B λ B λ
K x = 1 L Δϕ x = 2 π λ 1 L ( L B x + B L x ) = 2 π λ ( B x + B L x ) ,

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