Abstract

A resonant “incoherent” rectification process is presented relying on the excitation of surface plasmons on a nanostructured metal surface. Excitation of gold and silver films with 800-nm femtosecond laser pulses results in the emission of terahertz radiation with an angle-dependent efficiency and an approximately third-order power dependence. It is shown that the source of this terahertz pulse generation is the surface-plasmon-assisted multiphoton ionization and ponderomotive acceleration in the evanescent field of the surface plasmon. Simple models are used to understand the forces and dynamics near the surface.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, "An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge," Opt. Commun 256, 400-413 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond Photoconduction Hertzian Dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. M. Zheng, A. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. J. Hilton, R. D. Averitt, C. A. Meserole, G. L. Fisher, D. J. Funk, J. D. Thompson, and A. J. Taylor, "Terahertz emission via ultrashort-pulse excitation of magnetic metal films," Opt. Lett. 29, 1805-1807 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Optical rectification at metal surfaces," Opt. Lett. 29, 2674 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Study of terahertz radiation generated by optical rectification on thin gold films," Opt. Lett. 30, 1402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. L. Skriver and N. M. Rosengaard, "Surface energy and work function of elemental metals," Phys. Rev. B. 46, 7157 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A. 73, 013815 (2006).
  19. J. Kupersztych and M. Raynaud, "Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press: San Diego, 1998).
  23. R. A. Watts, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Sharp Surface-Plasmon Resonances on Deep Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3978 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Measuring Intramolecular Charge Transfer via Coherent Generation of THz Radiation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 106, 878-883 (2002).
  26. A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. E. Kaplan, "Diffraction-induced transformation of near-cycle and subcycle pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 951-956 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, P. Monchicourt, and T. Lehner, "Enhanced electronic emission by excitation of an interface resonance in metallic bilayer gratings irradiated by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 245411 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. Toth, G. Farkas, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Laser-Induced Electron-Emission from an Au Surface Irradiated by Single Picosecond Pulses at Lambda=2.94 Mu-M - the Intermediate Region between Multiphoton and Tunneling Effects," Appl. Phys. B 53, 221-225 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. Kahl and E. Voges, "Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures," Phys. Rev. B. 61, 14078 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. R. Gomer, "Field-Emission, Field-Ionization, and Field Desorption," Surf. Sci. 300, 129-152 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  38. J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  39. T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A. 73, 013815 (2006).

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Kupersztych and M. Raynaud, "Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, "An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge," Opt. Commun 256, 400-413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zheng, A. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Study of terahertz radiation generated by optical rectification on thin gold films," Opt. Lett. 30, 1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (5)

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hilton, R. D. Averitt, C. A. Meserole, G. L. Fisher, D. J. Funk, J. D. Thompson, and A. J. Taylor, "Terahertz emission via ultrashort-pulse excitation of magnetic metal films," Opt. Lett. 29, 1805-1807 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kadlec, P. Kuzel, and J.-L. Coutaz, "Optical rectification at metal surfaces," Opt. Lett. 29, 2674 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, P. Monchicourt, and T. Lehner, "Enhanced electronic emission by excitation of an interface resonance in metallic bilayer gratings irradiated by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 245411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Measuring Intramolecular Charge Transfer via Coherent Generation of THz Radiation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 106, 878-883 (2002).

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahl and E. Voges, "Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures," Phys. Rev. B. 61, 14078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. E. Kaplan, "Diffraction-induced transformation of near-cycle and subcycle pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 951-956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. A. Watts, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Sharp Surface-Plasmon Resonances on Deep Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

R. Gomer, "Field-Emission, Field-Ionization, and Field Desorption," Surf. Sci. 300, 129-152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. L. Skriver and N. M. Rosengaard, "Surface energy and work function of elemental metals," Phys. Rev. B. 46, 7157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. Toth, G. Farkas, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Laser-Induced Electron-Emission from an Au Surface Irradiated by Single Picosecond Pulses at Lambda=2.94 Mu-M - the Intermediate Region between Multiphoton and Tunneling Effects," Appl. Phys. B 53, 221-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond Photoconduction Hertzian Dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Aeschlimann, M.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, M.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond Photoconduction Hertzian Dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Bailey, R. T.

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.

S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, P. Monchicourt, and T. Lehner, "Enhanced electronic emission by excitation of an interface resonance in metallic bilayer gratings irradiated by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 245411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Measuring Intramolecular Charge Transfer via Coherent Generation of THz Radiation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 106, 878-883 (2002).

Beaurepaire, E.

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beddard, G. S.

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J. Y.

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, D.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Camacho-Bragado, A.

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. J.

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, "An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge," Opt. Commun 256, 400-413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond Photoconduction Hertzian Dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Coutaz, J.-L.

Cowin, J. P.

T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cruickshank, F. R.

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Darrow, J. T.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dechant, A.

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douketis, C.

V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Elechiguerra, J. L.

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A. 73, 013815 (2006).

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsayedali, H. E.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ersfeld, B.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, G.

C. Toth, G. Farkas, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Laser-Induced Electron-Emission from an Au Surface Irradiated by Single Picosecond Pulses at Lambda=2.94 Mu-M - the Intermediate Region between Multiphoton and Tunneling Effects," Appl. Phys. B 53, 221-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fattinger, C.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, G. L.

Funk, D. J.

Gao, Y.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Gutierrez, D.

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gilton, T. L.

T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Giraud, G.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, R.

R. Gomer, "Field-Emission, Field-Ionization, and Field Desorption," Surf. Sci. 300, 129-152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Groot, M. L.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gurtler, A.

A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hamza, A. V.

T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Harrel, S. M.

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, L. M.

X. M. Zheng, A. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hilton, D. J.

Hu, B. B.

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hunt, N. T.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvine, S. E.

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A. 73, 013815 (2006).

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Issac, R. C.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jamison, S.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, P. U.

A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Y.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. R.

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kadlec, F.

Kahl, M.

M. Kahl and E. Voges, "Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures," Phys. Rev. B. 61, 14078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, A. E.

A. E. Kaplan, "Diffraction-induced transformation of near-cycle and subcycle pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 951-956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keiding, S.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kubiak, G. D.

T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kupersztych, J.

J. Kupersztych and M. Raynaud, "Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzel, P.

Lambry, J. C.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Larios-Lopez, L.

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Larkin, J.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lehner, T.

S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, P. Monchicourt, and T. Lehner, "Enhanced electronic emission by excitation of an interface resonance in metallic bilayer gratings irradiated by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 245411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X. F.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mantell, D. A.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. L.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, B. M. W.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meserole, C. A.

Miller, R. J. D.

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, P. Monchicourt, and T. Lehner, "Enhanced electronic emission by excitation of an interface resonance in metallic bilayer gratings irradiated by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 245411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moskovits, M.

V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phelps, A. D. R.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Preist, T. W.

R. A. Watts, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Sharp Surface-Plasmon Resonances on Deep Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pugh, D.

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Raynaud, M.

J. Kupersztych and M. Raynaud, "Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, G. D.

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rice, A.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robb, G. R. M.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosengaard, N. M.

H. L. Skriver and N. M. Rosengaard, "Surface energy and work function of elemental metals," Phys. Rev. B. 46, 7157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

R. A. Watts, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Sharp Surface-Plasmon Resonances on Deep Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sandison, H.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlichting, I.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Measuring Intramolecular Charge Transfer via Coherent Generation of THz Radiation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 106, 878-883 (2002).

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sherwood, J. N.

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sinyukov, A.

X. M. Zheng, A. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Skriver, H. L.

H. L. Skriver and N. M. Rosengaard, "Surface energy and work function of elemental metals," Phys. Rev. B. 46, 7157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. R.

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond Photoconduction Hertzian Dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Stuckless, J. T.

V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Thompson, J. D.

Toth, C.

C. Toth, G. Farkas, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Laser-Induced Electron-Emission from an Au Surface Irradiated by Single Picosecond Pulses at Lambda=2.94 Mu-M - the Intermediate Region between Multiphoton and Tunneling Effects," Appl. Phys. B 53, 221-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Turner, G. M.

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Measuring Intramolecular Charge Transfer via Coherent Generation of THz Radiation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 106, 878-883 (2002).

Turton, D. A.

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Mourik, F.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vanexter, M.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vieux, G.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

C. Toth, G. Farkas, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Laser-Induced Electron-Emission from an Au Surface Irradiated by Single Picosecond Pulses at Lambda=2.94 Mu-M - the Intermediate Region between Multiphoton and Tunneling Effects," Appl. Phys. B 53, 221-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

M. Kahl and E. Voges, "Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures," Phys. Rev. B. 61, 14078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vos, M. H.

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watts, R. A.

R. A. Watts, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Sharp Surface-Plasmon Resonances on Deep Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, G. H.

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiggins, S. M.

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Winnewisser, C.

A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, K.

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, "An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge," Opt. Commun 256, 400-413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yacaman, M. J.

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzka, J.

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. M.

X. M. Zheng, A. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

C. Toth, G. Farkas, and K. L. Vodopyanov, "Laser-Induced Electron-Emission from an Au Surface Irradiated by Single Picosecond Pulses at Lambda=2.94 Mu-M - the Intermediate Region between Multiphoton and Tunneling Effects," Appl. Phys. B 53, 221-225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Ponderomotive electron acceleration using surface plasmon waves excited with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 264102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of ultrashort electron pulses.," Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 2130 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Rice, Y. Jin, X. F. Ma, X. C. Zhang, D. Bliss, J. Larkin, and M. Alexander, "Terahertz Optical Rectification from (110) Zincblende Crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1324-1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, "Picosecond Photoconduction Hertzian Dipoles," Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 284-286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zheng, A. Sinyukov, and L. M. Hayden, "Broadband and gap-free response of a terahertz system based on a poled polymer emitter-sensor pair," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 081115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. C. Zhang, B. B. Hu, J. T. Darrow, and D. H. Auston, "Generation of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses from Semiconductor Surfaces," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1011-1013 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Beaurepaire, G. M. Turner, S. M. Harrel, M. C. Beard, J. Y. Bigot, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Coherent terahertz emission from ferromagnetic films excited by femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3465-3467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Carey, R. T. Bailey, D. Pugh, J. N. Sherwood, F. R. Cruickshank, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz pulse generation in an organic crystal by optical rectification and resonant excitation of molecular charge transfer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4335 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

J. L. Elechiguerra, L. Larios-Lopez, C. Liu, D. Garcia-Gutierrez, A. Camacho-Bragado, and M. J. Yacaman, "Corrosion at the nanoscale: The case of silver nanowires and nanoparticles," Chem. Mater. 17, 6042-6052 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Exploring dynamics in the far-infrared with terahertz spectroscopy," Chem. Rev. 104, 1759-1779 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. L. Gilton, J. P. Cowin, G. D. Kubiak, and A. V. Hamza, "Intense Surface Photoemission - Space-Charge Effects and Self-Acceleration," J. Appl. Phys. 68, 4802-4810 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Aeschlimann, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, H. E. Elsayedali, R. J. D. Miller, J. Cao, Y. Gao, and D. A. Mantell, "Observation of Surface-Enhanced Multiphoton Photoemission from Metal-Surfaces in the Short-Pulse Limit," J. Chem. Phys. 102, 8606-8613 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

A. Gurtler, C. Winnewisser, H. Helm, and P. U. Jepsen, "Terahertz pulse propagation in the near field and far field," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 17, 74-83 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, "Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 7, 2006-2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B.. (1)

A. E. Kaplan, "Diffraction-induced transformation of near-cycle and subcycle pulses," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 15, 951-956 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A. (1)

M. C. Beard, G. M. Turner, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, "Measuring Intramolecular Charge Transfer via Coherent Generation of THz Radiation," J. Phys. Chem. A. 106, 878-883 (2002).

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. (2)

J. Zawadzka, D. A. Jaroszynski, J. J. Carey, and K. Wynne, "Evanescent-wave acceleration of femtosecond electron bunches," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 324-328 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Jaroszynski, B. Ersfeld, G. Giraud, S. Jamison, D. R. Jones, R. C. Issac, B. M. W. McNeil, A. D. R. Phelps, G. R. M. Robb, H. Sandison, G. Vieux, S. M. Wiggins, and K. Wynne, "The Strathclyde terahertz to optical pulse source (TOPS)," Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A. 445, 317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun (1)

K. Wynne and J. J. Carey, "An integrated description of terahertz generation through optical rectification, charge transfer, and current surge," Opt. Commun 256, 400-413 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A. (1)

S. E. Irvine and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Surface-plasmon-based electron acceleration," Phys. Rev. A. 73, 013815 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B. (4)

H. L. Skriver and N. M. Rosengaard, "Surface energy and work function of elemental metals," Phys. Rev. B. 46, 7157 (1992).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, C. Douketis, J. T. Stuckless, and M. Moskovits, "Light-induced kinetic effects in solids," Phys. Rev. B. 53, 11388-11402 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahl and E. Voges, "Analysis of plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic silver structures," Phys. Rev. B. 61, 14078 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Bastiani-Ceccotti, P. Monchicourt, and T. Lehner, "Enhanced electronic emission by excitation of an interface resonance in metallic bilayer gratings irradiated by short laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B. 68, 245411 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. E. Irvine, A. Dechant, and A. Y. Elezzabi, "Generation of 0.4-keV femtosecond electron pulses using impulsively excited surface plasmons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184801 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. H. Welsh, N. T. Hunt, and K. Wynne, "Terahertz-pulse emission through laser excitation of surface plasmons in a metal grating," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 026803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kupersztych and M. Raynaud, "Anomalous multiphoton photoelectric effect in ultrashort time scales," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Watts, T. W. Preist, and J. R. Sambles, "Sharp Surface-Plasmon Resonances on Deep Diffraction Gratings," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3978 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

M. L. Groot, M. H. Vos, I. Schlichting, F. van Mourik, M. Joffre, J. C. Lambry, and J. L. Martin, "Coherent infrared emission from myoglobin crystals: An electric field measurement," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 1323-1328 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

D. A. Turton, G. H. Welsh, J. J. Carey, G. D. Reid, G. S. Beddard, and K. Wynne, "Alternating high-voltage biasing for terahertz large-area photoconductive emitters," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 083111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Welsh, D. A. Turton, D. R. Jones, D. A. Jaroszynski, and K. Wynne, "200 ns pulse high-voltage supply for terahertz field emission," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 043103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Sci. (1)

R. Gomer, "Field-Emission, Field-Ionization, and Field Desorption," Surf. Sci. 300, 129-152 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988), Vol. 111, pp. 1-133.
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press: San Diego, 1998).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University Press US, 1997), p. 768.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(color online) Profile obtained by AFM of a shallow grating. i = 340 nm, ii = 160 nm, iii = 500 nm, and iv = 40 nm. The depth-to-pitch ratio is exaggerated, and the scan thickness is due to the image scans stacked across the surface.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(color online) Schematic diagram of experimental setup. BS, Beam Splitter; OC, Optical Chopper; G Grating on rotation mount; DC, 1-mm thick ZnTe Detection Crystal with black card to block pump light; WP Wave Plate; WPrism, Wollaston Prism. (Inset, center top) A schematic diagram of the correct reflection being selected by an aperture from the probe beam reflection.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(color online) (Left) Terahertz pulses emitted after excitation of the metal-coated grating shown Fig. 1 at an incident angle of 40° and an 800-nm laser fluence of 3.0 mJ/cm2. Shown are measured terahertz pulses produced in the grating structure covered with 40-nm of gold and 45-nm of silver (multiplied by 10 times) and a comparison with a terahertz pulse produced in a 0.5-mm pathlength ZnTe crystal. The amplitudes of the three pulses are in arbitrary units but comparable. (inset) Normalized absolute value of the Fourier transform of the time domain traces. (Right) 800-nm pump laser-power dependence of the terahertz pulse fluence. At the top are the data obtained in a 0.5-mm length <110>-cut ZnTe crystal (squares) fit to a power law. Lower down are terahertz fluence data obtained using the shallow grating shown in Fig. 1 covered with 40-nm of gold (circles) or 45-nm of silver (triangles). The inset shows the measured terahertz fluence at an incidence angle of 40° for various depths of gold on the grating structure (the dashed line is a guide to the eye).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(color online) (Left) The circles (triangles) show the normalized terahertz-pulse fluence vs. angle of incidence for the gold coated grating for p-polarized (s-polarized) excitation. (Right) Absorption spectrum obtained for a 50 nm gold coating on a 500 nm period grating substrate. Vertically offset by 100% for clarity. Also shown (dash) is the theoretical fit from (2) for a 500 nm period grating.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Left) Transmission, reflection, and absorption spectrum for a 50-nm gold coating on fused silica glass. (Right) Transmission, reflection, and absorption spectrum for a 50-nm gold coating on a 500-nm period grating substrate. Measured at an angle of incidence of 38°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(color online) Absorption at 800 nm as a function of angle of incidence for a 50-nm gold coating on a 500-nm period grating substrate. Shown are the absorption as measured with a white-light source and a spectrometer (squares) and that measured using an 800-nm femtosecond laser source (discs). Also shown (triangles) is the dependence when the incident intensity scaling of cos3.5 included.

Equations (1)

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sin ( θ ) + Λ = Re ( n SP )

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