Abstract

Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and Rayleigh anomalies (RAs) are two characteristic phenomena exhibited by periodic grating structures made of plasmonic materials. For Au subwavelength hole arrays, SPPs and RAs from opposite sides of the film can interact under certain conditions to produce highly intense, narrow spectral features called RA-SPP resonances. This paper reports how RA-SPP effects can be achieved in subwavelength hole arrays of Pd, a weak plasmonic material. Well-defined resonances are observed in measured and simulated optical transmission spectra with RA-SPP peaks as narrow as 45 nm (FWHM). Dispersion diagrams compiled from angle-resolved spectra show that RA-SPP resonances in Pd hole arrays shift in wavelength but do not decrease significantly in amplitude as the excitation angle is increased, in contrast with RA-SPP peaks in Au hole arrays. The apparent generality of the RA-SPP effect enables a novel route to optimize resonances in non-traditional plasmonic media.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056 - 5070 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2107 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Multiscale Patterning of Plasmonic Metamaterials," Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 549-554 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. M. McMahon, J. Henzie, T. W. Odom, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, "Tailoring the Sensing Capabilities of Nanohole Arrays in Gold Films with Rayleigh Anomaly-Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Opt. Express 15, 18119-18129 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Sarid, "Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves on Very Thin Metal Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 - 1930 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. C. Schatz, J. M. McMahon, and S. K. Gray, "Tailoring the parameters of nanohole arrays in gold films for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6641, 664103/664101 - 664103/664108 (2007).
  15. C. Genet, M. P. v. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, and G. C. Schatz, "Surface plasmon generation and light transmission by isolated nanoholes and arrays of nanoholes in thin metal films," Opt. Express 13, 3150-3165 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. O. M. Piciu, M. W. Docter, M. C. v. d. Krogt, Y. Garini, I. T. Young, P. M. Sarro, and A. Bossche, "Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films on glass," J. Nanoeng. Nanosyst. 221, 107-114 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. C. Vehse, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, "Optical and Photoemissive Properties of Palladium in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region," Phys. Rev. B 1, 517 - 522 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

2008

H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

O. M. Piciu, M. W. Docter, M. C. v. d. Krogt, Y. Garini, I. T. Young, P. M. Sarro, and A. Bossche, "Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films on glass," J. Nanoeng. Nanosyst. 221, 107-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Multiscale Patterning of Plasmonic Metamaterials," Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 549-554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McMahon, J. Henzie, T. W. Odom, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, "Tailoring the Sensing Capabilities of Nanohole Arrays in Gold Films with Rayleigh Anomaly-Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Opt. Express 15, 18119-18129 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2107 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet, M. P. v. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

D. Sarid, "Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves on Very Thin Metal Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 - 1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056 - 5070 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. C. Vehse, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, "Optical and Photoemissive Properties of Palladium in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region," Phys. Rev. B 1, 517 - 522 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Aguirre, C.

J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, C. R.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arakawa, E. T.

R. C. Vehse, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, "Optical and Photoemissive Properties of Palladium in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region," Phys. Rev. B 1, 517 - 522 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brolo, A. G.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056 - 5070 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Docter, M. W.

O. M. Piciu, M. W. Docter, M. C. v. d. Krogt, Y. Garini, I. T. Young, P. M. Sarro, and A. Bossche, "Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films on glass," J. Nanoeng. Nanosyst. 221, 107-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, H.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2107 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet, M. P. v. Exter, and J. P. Woerdman, "Fano-type interpretation of red shifts and red tails in hole array transmission spectra," Opt. Commun. 225, 331 - 336 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, R.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

Halas, N.

J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Multiscale Patterning of Plasmonic Metamaterials," Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 549-554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McMahon, J. Henzie, T. W. Odom, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, "Tailoring the Sensing Capabilities of Nanohole Arrays in Gold Films with Rayleigh Anomaly-Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Opt. Express 15, 18119-18129 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2107 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of transition metals: Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Pd," Phys. Rev. B 9, 5056 - 5070 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals," Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kavanagh, K. L.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Multiscale Patterning of Plasmonic Metamaterials," Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 549-554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maria, J.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin-Moreno, L.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMahon, J. M.

Moran, C.

J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murray, A. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. W. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength holes in a metal film," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuzzo, R. G.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odom, T. W.

H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Multiscale Patterning of Plasmonic Metamaterials," Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 549-554 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McMahon, J. Henzie, T. W. Odom, G. C. Schatz, and S. K. Gray, "Tailoring the Sensing Capabilities of Nanohole Arrays in Gold Films with Rayleigh Anomaly-Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Opt. Express 15, 18119-18129 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2107 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piciu, O. M.

O. M. Piciu, M. W. Docter, M. C. v. d. Krogt, Y. Garini, I. T. Young, P. M. Sarro, and A. Bossche, "Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films on glass," J. Nanoeng. Nanosyst. 221, 107-114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarid, D.

D. Sarid, "Long-Range Surface-Plasma Waves on Very Thin Metal Films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1927 - 1930 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

Sinton, D.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steele, J.

J. Steele, C. Moran, C. Aguirre, A. Lee, and N. Halas, "Metallodielectric gratings with subwavelength slots: Optical properties," Phys. Rev. B 68, 205103 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M. E.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thio, T.

L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Theory of Extraordinary Optical Transmission through Subwavelength Hole Arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1114 - 1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, L. B.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vehse, R. C.

R. C. Vehse, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, "Optical and Photoemissive Properties of Palladium in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region," Phys. Rev. B 1, 517 - 522 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. W.

R. C. Vehse, E. T. Arakawa, and M. W. Williams, "Optical and Photoemissive Properties of Palladium in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region," Phys. Rev. B 1, 517 - 522 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
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J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
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O. M. Piciu, M. W. Docter, M. C. v. d. Krogt, Y. Garini, I. T. Young, P. M. Sarro, and A. Bossche, "Fabrication and optical characterization of nano-hole arrays in gold and gold/palladium films on glass," J. Nanoeng. Nanosyst. 221, 107-114 (2007).
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Acc. Chem. Res.

R. Gordon, D. Sinton, K. L. Kavanagh, and A. G. Brolo, "A new generation of sensors based on extraordinary optical transmission," Acc. Chem. Res. 41, 1049-1057 (2008).
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Chem. Rev.

M. E. Stewart, C. R. Anderton, L. B. Thompson, J. Maria, S. K. Gray, J. A. Rogers, and R. G. Nuzzo, "Nanostructured Plasmonic Sensors," Chem. Rev. 108, 494-521 (2008).
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H. Gao, J. Henzie, and T. W. Odom, "Direct Evidence for Surface Plasmon-Mediated Enhanced Light Transmission through Metallic Nanohole Arrays," Nano. Lett. 6, 2104-2107 (2006).
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Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Multiscale Patterning of Plasmonic Metamaterials," Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 549-554 (2007).
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Nat. Photonics

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
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Nature

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, "Three Dimensional Optical Metamaterial Exhibiting Negative Refractive Index," Nature 455, 376 (2008).
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Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. B

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H. Gao, J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, "Screening plasmonic materials using pyramidal gratings," Proc. Natl. Acad. Scie. 105, 20146-20151 (2008).
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G. C. Schatz, J. M. McMahon, and S. K. Gray, "Tailoring the parameters of nanohole arrays in gold films for sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 6641, 664103/664101 - 664103/664108 (2007).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Zero-order transmission spectra of Pd subwavelength hole arrays under normal incidence excitation. (a) Measured and (b) FDTD calculated spectra are in excellent agreement, and the position of the SPP minima are in good agreement with Eq. (1) (solid and dashed lines).Transmission through a 55-nm solid Pd film is included as a reference. RA-SPP resonances are indicated by oe-17-04-2334-i001. Inset of (a) is an SEM image of 400-nm pitch Pd hole arrays.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated electromagnetic field distributions (∣Ez 2) at a RA-SPP minimum (λ = 628 nm). (a) SPPs are visible on both sides of the Pd hole array film, where nsub (glass) = 1.52, and nsup (oil) = 1.70. (b) RA at z = 200 nm above the film, where SPPs have significantly decayed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Dispersion diagrams of (a) Pd and (b) Au subwavelength hole arrays. Measured spectra agreed with predicted SPP-BW modes (thin lines) at the metal-sup (thin, solid lines) and the metal-sub (thin, dashed lines). Calculated RA bands (thick lines) are also displayed. Inset in (a) is a zoom-in view of the RA-SPP band in Pd hole arrays when nsup = 1.70. Note that nsup = 1.70 results from Eqs. (1) and (2) with (i, j) = (-1,0) for both the RA and SPP. Hence, because the RA and SPP bands completely overlap, we have called this feature a RA-SPP band.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Angle-resolved transmission spectra of (a) Pd and (b) Au subwavelength hole arrays with nsup = 1.70. The RA-SPP resonance (oe-17-04-2334-i004) in Pd shifted with θ but did not change much in amplitude and peak width, whereas the intensity of the RA-SPP peak in Au hole arrays dramatically decreased with increasing θ.

Equations (2)

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Re [ ω c ε m ε d ε m + ε d ] = k 0 sin θ + i G x + j G y
ω c ε d = k 0 sin θ + i G x + j G y

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