Abstract

Time-resolved transmissivity and reflectivity of exfoliated graphene and thin graphite films on a 295 K SiO2/Si substrate are measured at 1300 nm following excitation by 150 fs, 800 nm pump pulses. From the extracted transient optical conductivity we identify a fast recovery time constant which increases from ~200 to 300 fs and a longer one which increases from 2.5 to 5 ps as the number of atomic layers increases from 1 to ~260. We attribute the temporal recovery to carrier cooling and recombination with the layer dependence related to substrate coupling. Results are compared with related measurements for epitaxial, multilayer graphene.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2008 (5)

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rana, "Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal'ko, "Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric susbstrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, "The rise of graphene," Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, "From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the K point," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene," Nature 438, 201-204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

1990 (1)

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

G. W. Semenoff, "Condensed-matter simulation of a 3-dimensional anomaly," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2449-2452 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

P. R. Wallace, "The band theory of graphite," Phys. Rev. 71, 622-634 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Abergel, D. S. L.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal'ko, "Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric susbstrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, H.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boebinger, G. S.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, N.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cançado, L. G.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casiraghi, C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandrasekhar, M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. C.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, E. H.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Z. T.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J. M.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Heer, W. A.

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Divin, C.

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Downer, M. C.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dresselhaus, G.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dresselhaus, M. S.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubonos, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fal'ko, V. I.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal'ko, "Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric susbstrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, R.

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Firsov, A. A.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

First, P. N.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frischkorn, C.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, "The rise of graphene," Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigorieva, I. V.

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haas, J.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hass, J.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, E. W.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorio, A.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kampfrath, T.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsidis, C. C.

Kim, P.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene," Nature 438, 201-204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kütt, W.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, T. B.

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. B.

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lui, C. H.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maan, J. C.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magaud, L.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchenkov, A. N.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, G.

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayou, D.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer, J. C.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millán-Otoya, J. E.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Misewich, J. A.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naud, C.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neto, A. H. C.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, "The rise of graphene," Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogbazghi, A. Y.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Partoens, B.

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, "From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the K point," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peeters, F. M.

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, "From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the K point," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perfetti, L.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pimenta, M. A.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piscanec, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potemski, M.

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Rana, "Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reitze, D. H.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Riffe, D. M.

A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, "Femtosecond pump-probe study of silicon carrier dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roth, S.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, A.

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal'ko, "Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric susbstrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sabbah, A. J.

A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, "Femtosecond pump-probe study of silicon carrier dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sadowski, M. L.

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Saito, R.

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardaci, V.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schapper, F.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, K.

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Semenoff, G. W.

G. W. Semenoff, "Condensed-matter simulation of a 3-dimensional anomaly," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2449-2452 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, N.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shivaraman, S.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siapkas, D. I.

Song, Z. M.

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, M. G.

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sprinkle, M.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stormer, H. L.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene," Nature 438, 201-204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, D.

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.-W.

Y. B. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene," Nature 438, 201-204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Varchon, F.

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, P. R.

P. R. Wallace, "The band theory of graphite," Phys. Rev. 71, 622-634 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, M.

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X. S.

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.-K.

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitler, U.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. B.

Y. B. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene," Nature 438, 201-204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. Blake, E. W. Hill, A. H. C. Neto, K. S. Novoselov, D. Jiang, R. Yang, T. J. Booth, and A. K. Geim, "Making graphene visible," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. S. L. Abergel, A. Russell, and V. I. Fal'ko, "Visibility of graphene flakes on a dielectric susbstrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 063125 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Measurement of ultrafast carrier dynamics in epitaxial graphene," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 042116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

F. Rana, "Graphene terahertz plasmon oscillators," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 91-99 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, T. B. Li, A. Y. Ogbazghi, R. Feng, Z. T. Dai, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electronic gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 19912-19916 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, "The rise of graphene," Nat. Mater. 6, 183-191 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

Y. B. Zhang, Y.-W. Tan, H. L. Stormer, and P. Kim, "Experimental observation of the quantum Hall effect and Berry’s phase in graphene," Nature 438, 201-204 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. A. Pimenta, G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, and R. Saito, "Studying disorder in graphite-based systems by Raman spectroscopy," Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 91276-1291 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. (1)

P. R. Wallace, "The band theory of graphite," Phys. Rev. 71, 622-634 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. Hass, R. Feng, J. E. Millán-Otoya, X. Li, M. Sprinkle, P. N. First, W. A. de Heer, E. H. Conrad, and C. Berger, "Structural properties of the multilayer graphene/4H-SiC(0001 ) system as determined by surface x-ray diffraction," Phys. Rev. B 75, 214109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Sabbah and D. M. Riffe, "Femtosecond pump-probe study of silicon carrier dynamics," Phys. Rev. B 66, 165217 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Seibert, G. C. Cho, W. Kütt, H. Kurz, D. H. Reitze, J. I. Dadap, H. Ahn, and M. C. Downer, "Femtosecond carrier dynamics in graphite," Phys. Rev. B,  42, 2842-2851 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

T. Kampfrath, L. Perfetti, F. Schapper, C. Frischkorn, and M. Wolf, "Strongly coupled optical phonons in the ultrafast dynamics of the electronic energy and current relaxation in graphite," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 187403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, "Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Sadowski, G. Martinez, M. Potemski, C. Berger, and W. A. de Heer, "Landau level spectroscopy of ultrathin graphite layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266405 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, N. Sharma, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Why multilayer graphene on 4H-SiC(0001 ) behaves like a single sheet of graphene," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 125504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Sun, Z.-K. Wu, C. Divin, X. B. Li, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, P. N. First, and T. B. Norris, "Ultrafast relaxation of excited Dirac fermions in epitaxial graphene using optical differential transmission spectroscopy," Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 157402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, "Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Semenoff, "Condensed-matter simulation of a 3-dimensional anomaly," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2449-2452 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, "From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the K point," Phys. Rev. B 74, 075404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

C. Berger, Z. M. Song, X. B. Li, X. S. Wu, N. Brown, C. Naud, D. Mayou, T. B. Li, J. Haas, A. N. Marchenkov, E. H. Conrad, P. N. First, and W. A. de Heer, "Electronic confinement and coherence in patterned expitaxial graphene," Science 312, 1191-1196 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, "Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films," Science 306, 666-669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, Z. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Morozov, H. L. Stormer, U. Zeitler, J. C. Maan, G. S. Boebinger, P.  Kim, and A. K. Geim, "Room temperature quantum hall effect in graphene," Science 315, 1379 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, X. S. Wu, P. N. First, E. H. Conrad, X. B. Li, T. B. Li, M. Sprinkle, J. Hass, M. L. Sadowski, M. Potemski, and G. Martinez, "Epitaxial graphene," Solid State Commun. 143, 92-100 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. Borghesi and G. Guizzetti, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Vol. 2 (Academic Press, 1991), pp. 449-460.

J. Norley, "The role of natural graphite in electronics cooling," (Electronics Cooling Magazine, 2001). http://www.electronics-cooling.com/articles/2001/2001_august_techbrief.php

J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer 9th Ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2002).

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. V. S. Chandrasekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, "Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene," arXiv:cond-mat/0805.4647v3 (2008).

J. Hass, F. Varchon, J. E. Millán-Otoya, M. Sprinkle, W. A. de Heer, C. Berger, P. N. First, L. Magaud, and E. H. Conrad, "Rotational stacking and its electronic effects on graphene films grown on 4H-SiC(0001 )," arXiv:cond-mat/0706.2134 (2007).

P. Darancet, N. Wipf, C. Berger, W. A. de Heer, and D. Mayou, "Quenching of quantum Hall effect and the role of undoped planes in multilayered epitaxial graphene," arXiv:cond-mat/0711.0940 (2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Time-dependent differential reflectivity ΔR/R and transmissivity ΔT/T of graphene/ graphite samples with number of carbon layers indicated.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Extracted time-resolved Δσ R R and Δσ I I for the top layer of graphene/ graphite samples with number of carbon layers indicated.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Extracted fast and slow time constants from time-resolved Δσ R R for our graphene/ graphite samples as a function of the number of layers.

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