Abstract

We present results on a Raman laser-system that resonantly drives a closed two-photon transition between two levels in different hyperfine ground states of 87Rb. The coupler is based on a novel optical design for producing two phase-coherent optical beams to drive a Raman transition. Operated as an outcoupler, it produces an atom laser in a single internal atomic state, with the lower divergence and increased brightness typical of a Raman outcoupler. Due to the optical nature of the outcoupling, the two-state outcoupler is an ideal candidate for transferring photon correlations onto atom-laser beams. As our laser system couples just two hyperfine ground states, it has also been used as an internal state beamsplitter, taking the next major step towards free space Ramsey interferometry with an atom laser.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Haine and J. J. Hope, "Outcoupling from a Bose-Einstein condensate with squeezed light to produce entangled-atom laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033601 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, "Generating Controllable Atom-Light Entanglement with a Raman Atom Laser System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. J. Lee, B. B. Blinov, K. Brickman, L. Deslauriers, M. J. Madsen, R. Miller, D. L. Moehring, D. Stick, and C. Monroe, "Atomic qubit manipulations with an electro-optic modulator," Opt. Lett. 28, 1582-1584 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. It should be noted that in previous work on Raman superradiance [19, 20], atoms are removed from a condensate accompanied by a change in hyperfine ground state. Although it may be tempting to refer to this as an outcoupling process, we feel that this physical mechanism cannot be associated with the term "outcoupling" in the context of atom lasers. Firstly and foremost, the process transfers atoms to an untrapped state, which is unsuitable for atom lasers and their applications. Secondly, superradiance typically operates in a short pulse regime, and cannot be operated continuously.
  19. D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, "Generating Controllable Atom-Light Entanglement with a Raman Atom Laser System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. A. Haine and J. J. Hope, "Outcoupling from a Bose-Einstein condensate with squeezed light to produce entangled-atom laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, M. R.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, B. B.

Bloch, I.

I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bourdel, T.

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouyer, P.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, M.

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brickman, K.

Busch, T.

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, G. K.

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Close, J. D.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coq, Y. L.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delannoy, G.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, L.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dennis, G. R.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deslauriers, L.

Donner, T.

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dugue, J.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, D. S.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Esslinger, T.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fauquembergue, M.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Figl, C.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerbier, F.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerin, W.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagley, E. W.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haine, S. A.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, "Generating Controllable Atom-Light Entanglement with a Raman Atom Laser System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Haine and J. J. Hope, "Outcoupling from a Bose-Einstein condensate with squeezed light to produce entangled-atom laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hansch, T. W.

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T.W.

I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Helmerson, K.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hope, J. J.

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, "Generating Controllable Atom-Light Entanglement with a Raman Atom Laser System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Haine and J. J. Hope, "Outcoupling from a Bose-Einstein condensate with squeezed light to produce entangled-atom laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, M.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, M. T.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Josse, V.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M.

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ketterle, W.

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Köhl, M.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozuma, M.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuga, T.

Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurn, D. M.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, Y.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, P. J.

Madsen, M. J.

Mandache, C.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mewes, M.-O.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R.

Moehring, D. L.

Mølmer, K.

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

Morrison, A. K.

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olsen, M. K.

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, "Generating Controllable Atom-Light Entanglement with a Raman Atom Laser System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Öttl, A.

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pritchard, D. E.

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rangwala, S. A.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, S.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riou, J.-F.

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritter, S.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robins, N. P.

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salomon, C.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santos, M. S.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schneble, D.

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sortais, Y.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stick, D.

Streed, E. W.

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Summers, P.

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thywissen, J. H.

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torii, Y.

Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, C. G.

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshikawa, Y.

Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, M. S. Santos, C. Mandache, A. Clairon, and C. Salomon, "High-accuracy measurement of the 87Rb ground-state hyperfine splitting in an atomic fountain," Europhys. Lett. 45, 558-564 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (7)

D. Schneble, G. K. Campbell, E. W. Streed, M. Boyd, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle, "Raman amplication of matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041601 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yoshikawa, T. Sugiura, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, "Observation of superradiant raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate," Phys. Rev. A 69, 041603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Bourdel, T. Donner, S. Ritter, A. Öttl, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Cavity QED detection of interfering matter waves," Phys. Rev. A 73, 043602 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Haine and J. J. Hope, "Outcoupling from a Bose-Einstein condensate with squeezed light to produce entangled-atom laser beams," Phys. Rev. A 72, 033601 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jeppesen, J. Dugue, G. R. Dennis, M. T. Johnsson, C. Figl, N. P. Robins, and J. D. Close, "Approaching the Heisenberg limit in an atom laser," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063618 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dugue, N. P. Robins, C. Figl, M. Jeppesen, P. Summers, M. T. Johnsson, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Investigation and comparison of multistate and two-state atom laser-output couplers," Phys. Rev. A 75, 053602 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Köhl, T. Busch, K. Mølmer, T. W. Hansch, and T. Esslinger, "Observing the profile of an atom laser beam," Phys. Rev. A 72, 063618 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

Y. Le Coq, J. H. Thywissen, S. A. Rangwala, F. Gerbier, S. Richard, G. Delannoy, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Atom Laser Divergence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 170403 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Riou, W. Guerin, Y. L. Coq, M. Fauquembergue, V. Josse, P. Bouyer, and A. Aspect, "Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 070404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Robins, C. Figl, S. A. Haine, A. K. Morrison, M. Jeppesen, J. J. Hope, and J. D. Close, "Achieving Peak Brightness in an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 140403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Bloch, T.W. Hänsch, and T. Esslinger, "Atom Laser with a cw Output Coupler," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3008-3011 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Correlations and Counting Statistics of an Atom Laser," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-O. Mewes, M. R. Andrews, D. M. Kurn, D. S. Durfee, C. G. Townsend, and W. Ketterle, "Output Coupler for Bose-Einstein Condensed Atoms," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 582-585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Haine, M. K. Olsen, and J. J. Hope, "Generating Controllable Atom-Light Entanglement with a Raman Atom Laser System," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133601 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kasevich and S. Chu, "Atomic interferometry using stimulated Raman transitions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 181-184 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, "Hybrid apparatus for Bose-Einstein condensation and cavity quantum electrodynamics: Single atom detection in quantum degenerate gases," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 063118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. W. Hagley, L. Deng, M. Kozuma, J. Wen, K. Helmerson, S. L. Rolston, and W. D. Phillips, "A Well-Collimated Quasi-Continuous Atom Laser," Science 283, 1706-1709 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

It should be noted that in previous work on Raman superradiance [19, 20], atoms are removed from a condensate accompanied by a change in hyperfine ground state. Although it may be tempting to refer to this as an outcoupling process, we feel that this physical mechanism cannot be associated with the term "outcoupling" in the context of atom lasers. Firstly and foremost, the process transfers atoms to an untrapped state, which is unsuitable for atom lasers and their applications. Secondly, superradiance typically operates in a short pulse regime, and cannot be operated continuously.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Typical atom laser absorption image, (b) energy level scheme for outcoupling (not to scale), and (c) Raman beam geometry. Only the F′ = 1 manifold of the 52 P 3/2 excited state of 87Rb is shown. δ is the two-photon detuning. The bias field, B0, is directed along the long axis of the condensate (y in (c)), and defines the quantization axis. We direct the modulated Raman beam along this direction, with circular polarization to drive absorption of a σ+ photon from the ω +2 sideband. The unmodulated Raman beam propagates upwards and is linearly polarized along B0 to drive emission of a π photon. The two-photon transition gives the outcoupled atoms a net momentum kick of √2h̄k producing a beam in the continuous regime.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical setup for the production of two Raman laser beams, separated in frequency by ~ 6.8 GHz. ECDL: external cavity diode laser, OI: optical isolator, λ/2: half-wave plate, λ/4: quarter-wave plate, PBS: polarizing beamsplitter cube, AOM: acousto-optic modulator used for intensity control and fast shuttering, M: mirror, FC: fiber coupler, and EOM: electro-optic modulator driven by a ~ 3.4 GHz sine wave. A phasor diagram of the frequency components in each of the two Raman beams is included after each fiber coupler. Note that higher order sidebands are present in the modulated beam, but only first order are displayed in the diagram. A potential optical squeezer is included on one Raman beam to emphasise the possibility of using the setup to transfer squeezed photon statistics to the atom laser.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Resonance curves for the (a) weak- and (b) strong-coupling regimes, showing the lineshape of the resonance and the effect of the AC Stark shift. In (a), we use a 100 ms outcoupling pulse and plot the number of atoms remaining in the condensate as a function of two-photon detuning. The solid line is a fit to the experimental data using a Thomas-Fermi approximation, and integrating over a resonant slice of the wavefunction. In (b), the relative number of atoms transferred to the F = 2 ground state is plotted as a function of two-photon detuning. A Lorentzian envelope is fitted to the data (solid line) to determine the centre of the resonance. In both data sets, zero detuning corresponds to the centre of the Raman resonance for weak coupling, and error bars represent one standard deviation in the total atom number.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Calibration of the two-photon Rabi frequency. The circles represent the relative number of atoms in the ∣2,0〉 state as a function of total power in the Raman beams. (b)Rabi oscillations between the ∣1,-1〉 and ∣2,0〉 hyperfine ground states of 87Rb. The relative number of atoms in the F = 2 ground state is plotted as a function of pulse time, with a oscillation frequency of ~ 10 kHz. Incomplete and decaying oscillations are observed due to an imperfect and decreasing overlap of the wavefunctions for the two coupled states in time. In both data sets, the error bars represent one standard deviation in total atom number and the solid line is a simulation of the GPE for our experimental parameters, which allows calibration of the Rabi frequency in (a).

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